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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The ABCs of Trait Anger, Psychological Distress, and Disease Severity in HIV.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Trait anger consists of affective, behavioral, and cognitive (ABC) dimensions and may increase vulnerability for interpersonal conflict, diminished social support, and greater psychological distress. The concurrent influence of anger and psychosocial dysfunction on Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) disease severity is unknown.
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Cigarette Smoking and Depressive Symptoms Among Hispanic/Latino Adults: Results From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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In the present study, we investigated associations among cigarette smoking, smoking cessation treatment, and depressive symptoms in Hispanic/Latino adults.
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Challenges in Preventing Heart Disease in Hispanics: Early Lessons Learned from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Prog Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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The challenge of preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in US Hispanics depends upon being able to understand and communicate about the diversity within this population in terms of environmental exposures, health behaviors, socio-cultural experiences and genetic background to CVD risk factor profiles and disease burdens. Recent publications from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) launched by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have begun to accomplish this task. In this article we review some of the HCHS/SOL findings concerning cardiometabolic and other CVD risk factors and relate them to the need for increased access to health care and attention to lifestyle variables including nutrition. A major challenge that needs to be accomplished is to alert our lawmakers, public health officials, health care providers and the Hispanic population at large about how to lighten the CVD risk factor and disease burdens now carried by our Hispanic population.
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Associations of structural and functional social support with diabetes prevalence in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos: Results from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Little research has examined associations of social support with diabetes (or other physical health outcomes) in Hispanics, who are at elevated risk. We examined associations between social support and diabetes prevalence in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. Participants were 5,181 adults, 18-74 years old, representing diverse Hispanic backgrounds, who underwent baseline exam with fasting blood draw, oral glucose tolerance test, medication review, sociodemographic assessment, and sociocultural exam with functional and structural social support measures. In adjusted analyses, one standard deviation higher structural and functional social support related to 16 and 15 % lower odds, respectively, of having diabetes. Structural and functional support were related to both previously diagnosed diabetes (OR = .84 and .88, respectively) and newly recognized diabetes prevalence (OR = .84 and .83, respectively). Higher functional and structural social support are associated with lower diabetes prevalence in Hispanics/Latinos.
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Glycemic control among U.S. Hispanics/Latinos with diabetes from the HCHS/SOL Sociocultural Ancillary Study: Do structural and functional social support play a role?
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Social support is one potential source of health-related resiliency in Hispanics with diabetes. This study examined relationships of structural (i.e., social integration) and functional (i.e., perceived) social support with glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin; HbA1c) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study. This study included 766 men and women representing multiple Hispanic ethnic backgrounds, aged 18-74 years, with diagnosed diabetes who completed fasting blood draw, medication review, and measures of sociodemographic factors, medical history, structural support (Cohen Social Network Index), and functional support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-12). After adjusting for sociodemographic covariates and medication, a one standard deviation increase in functional support was related to an 0.18 % higher HbA1c (p = 0.04). A similar trend was observed for structural support; however, this effect was non-significant in adjusted models. Greater functional support was associated with poorer glycemic control in Hispanics.
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Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Hispanics/Latinos of diverse background: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Approximately one-third of the adult U.S. population has the metabolic syndrome. Its prevalence is the highest among Hispanic adults, but variation by Hispanic/Latino background is unknown. Our objective was to quantify the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among men and women 18-74 years of age of diverse Hispanic/Latino background.
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Prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics/Latinos from diverse backgrounds: the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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We examine differences in prevalence of diabetes and rates of awareness and control among adults from diverse Hispanic/Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).
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Body mass index, sex, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among Hispanic/Latino adults: Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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All major Hispanic/Latino groups in the United States have a high prevalence of obesity, which is often severe. Little is known about cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among those at very high levels of body mass index (BMI).
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Depressive symptoms and carotid intima-media thickness in South American Hispanics: results from the PREVENCION study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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This study aimed to: (1) examine the relationship between depressive symptoms and subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT); and, (2) Determine the moderating effect of gender in this relationship among South American Hispanics. We studied 496 adults enrolled in the population-based PREVENCION study. Carotid IMT was measured with high-resolution ultrasonography. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Mean carotid IMT was 0.66 mm. (SD = 0.17) and mean depression score was 5.6 (SD = 3.5). Depressive symptoms were not associated with carotid IMT (? = 0.04, p = 0.222) in multivariate analyses. A significant moderating effect of gender was found (? for interaction = 0.10, p = 0.030), resulting from a significant association between depressive symptoms and carotid IMT in men but not women. Depressive symptoms were associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in South American Hispanic men but not women after controlling for demographic characteristics and traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
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Associations of chronic stress burden, perceived stress, and traumatic stress with cardiovascular disease prevalence and risk factors in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The current study examined multiple stress indicators (chronic, perceived, traumatic) in relation to prevalent coronary heart disease, stroke, and major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e., diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and current smoking) in the multisite Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study (2010-2011).
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Assessing Usual Care in Clinical Trials.
West J Nurs Res
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Researchers designing clinical trials often specify usual care received by participants as the control condition expecting that all participants receive usual care regardless of group assignment. The assumption is that the groups in the study are affected similarly. We describe the assessment of usual care within the 16 studies in Multisite Adherence Collaboration in HIV (MACH 14), a multisite collaboration on adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Only five of the studies in MACH 14 assessed usual care. Assessment protocols varied as did the timing and frequency of assessments. All usual care assessments addressed patient education focused on HIV, HIV medications, and medication adherence. Our findings support earlier work that calls for systematic assessments of usual care within the study design, inclusion of descriptions of usual care in reports of the study, and the influence of usual care on the experimental condition in clinical trials.
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Prevalence of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control in the Hispanic community health study/study of Latinos.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The prevention and control of hypertension is an essential component for reducing the burden of cardiovascular diseases. Here we describe the prevalence of hypertension in diverse Hispanic/Latino background groups and describe the proportion who are aware of their diagnosis, receiving treatment, and having their hypertension under control.
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Relationship of change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors to change in coronary artery calcification among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Data describing relationships between change in risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC) are lacking and could inform optimal cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to examine how change in traditional cardiometabolic risk factors related to change in CAC among individuals with detectable subclinical atherosclerosis.
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Metabolic Syndrome As an Underlying Disease Entity and Its Relationship to Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Abstract Background: The question of whether the metabolic syndrome truly reflects a single disease entity with a common underlying pathology remains unclear. In this study, we assess whether metabolic syndrome represents an underlying disease construct in a large population-based sample of Andean Hispanic adults and examine its relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: The study sample was comprised of 2513 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to identify a metabolic syndrome latent factor using waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and glucose levels as indicators. The relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results: Results supported the proposed structure of the metabolic syndrome latent factor evidenced by adequate fit indexes. HDL-C did not significantly load on the metabolic syndrome latent factor (standardized factor loading=0.01, P=0.88). The metabolic syndrome latent factor was significantly associated with cIMT in women (B=0.007, P<0.001) and men (B=0.008, P<0.001) after controlling for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and smoking. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome components, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, TGs, and glucose levels, but not HDL-C, share a common underlying pathophysiology that may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics. Its longitudinal association with cardiovascular disease should be the focus of future research.
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Cardiometabolic risk in adolescents: associations with physical activity, fitness, and sleep.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Physical activity and fitness are independently associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, and short sleep duration is an emerging marker of obesity. Few have examined interrelations among these factors in a comprehensive risk model.
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Oxytocin, Social Support, and Sleep Quality in Low-Income Minority Women Living With HIV.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent in women with HIV, and few studies examine potential protective factors that may reduce risk for sleep disturbances in this high-risk population. This study predicted that HIV-specific social support from various sources (i.e., friends, family members, and spouses), as well as oxytocin (OT), would explain sleep quality in 71 low-income minority women living with HIV. Social support from family members was associated with better sleep quality in women. For women with high OT, support from friends was associated with better sleep quality, whereas for women with low OT, support from friends was associated with poorer sleep quality. Women with low OT may not effectively interpret and utilize available support resources, which may be associated with sleep disturbances.
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Alexithymia is linked to neurocognitive, psychological, neuroendocrine, and immune dysfunction in persons living with HIV.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The neuropathological changes resulting from Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection may manifest in alexithymia (AL), a multidimensional trait characterized by impairments in the cognitive assimilation of feelings and emotions. A sample of 93 HIV survivors scoring high, i.e., ?74 on the 26-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-26), were compared to 79 low AL (TAS-26?54) survivors on measures of neurocognitive, psychological, neuroendocrine and immune function. Neurocognitive function was evinced by a standardized test of psychomotor speed, cognitive flexibility and task switching ability, HIV Dementia and general cognitive status. Patients were also screened for levels of depression, anxiety and psychological stress. A 24-h urinary norepinephrine (NE) and cortisol (CORT) collection was taken; blood was drawn for T lymphocyte subset counts (CD4+CD3+) and HIV-1 viral load. Alexithymic patients exhibited higher levels of executive dysfunction, psychological distress, norepinephrine-to-cortisol (NE/CORT) ratio and viral load. Linear regression models accounting for sociodemographic and disease-related variables revealed two AL subscales, difficulties identifying and describing feelings, predicted and explained a significant proportion of variance in the outcome measures. Specifically, poorer executive task-switching/cognitive flexibility was associated with greater difficulty describing feelings; dysregulated autonomic response (high NE/CORT ratio) and depressive symptoms were predicted by difficulty identifying feelings; higher levels of anxiety and psychological stress were both predicted by greater difficulty describing and identifying feelings. Overall, the psychoneuroimmunological profile of alexithymia in HIV positive persons at mid-stage of infection suggests a greater vulnerability for disease progression.
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Womens exhaustion and coronary artery atherosclerosis progression: The Stockholm Female Coronary Angiography Study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Vital exhaustion (VE) has been associated with incident and recurrent cardiac events. The present study investigated the impact of VE on coronary atherosclerosis progression for 3 years. We further aimed to detect the relative importance of the VE subcomponents, fatigue, and depressed mood.
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Self-reported sleep disturbance is associated with lower CD4 count and 24-h urinary dopamine levels in ethnic minority women living with HIV.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Sleep disturbance is associated with dopamine dysregulation, which can negatively impact immune status. Individuals living with HIV experience more sleep difficulties, and poor sleep may compound immune decrements associated with HIV infection. Little research has examined associations between sleep, dopamine, and immune status (CD4 count) in individuals with HIV. As ethnic minority women living with HIV (WLWH) are at heightened risk for HIV disease progression, we related sleep reports to both CD4 count and dopamine levels in a cohort of ethnic minority WLWH.
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MACH14: a multi-site collaboration on ART adherence among 14 institutions.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The integration of original data from multiple antiretroviral (ARV) adherence studies offers a promising, but little used method to generate evidence to advance the field. This paper provides an overview of the design and implementation of MACH14, a collaborative, multi-site study in which a large data system has been created for integrated analyses by pooling original data from 16 longitudinal ARV adherence studies. Studies selected met specific criteria including similar research design and data domains such as adherence measured with medication event monitoring system, psychosocial factors related to adherence behavior, and virologic and clinical outcomes. The data system created contains individual data (collected between 1997 and 2009) from 2,860 HIV patients. Collaboration helped resolve the challenges inherent in pooling data across multiple studies, yet produced a data system with strong statistical power and potentially greater capacity to address key scientific questions than possible with single-sample studies or even meta-analytic designs.
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Cognitive vulnerability for depression in HIV.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Biased inhibitory processing, frequency and valence of automatic thoughts, and inability to use positive schemas to regulate negative mood are cognitive factors linked to depression. These processes may underlie the established link between adaptive cognitive coping strategies (acceptance and positive reframing) and depression in persons with HIV. How individual differences in HIV-related neurocognitive deficits moderate such effects is unknown. In a secondary analysis, we tested the direct effects of coping on depressed affect as mediated by the frequency and valence of automatic thoughts and how this model was moderated by neurocognitive function in a cohort of HIV+ men and women.
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Leptin and its association with somatic depressive symptoms in patients with the metabolic syndrome.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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This study aimed to determine the association between circulating leptin levels and total depressive symptoms as well as depressive symptom dimensions (cognitive and somatic) after controlling for important confounding factors.
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Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay methods for the measurement of plasma oxytocin.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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There is increased interest in measuring peripheral oxytocin levels to better understand the role of this peptide in mammalian behavior, physiology, and disease. The purpose of this study was to compare methods for plasma oxytocin measurement using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA), to evaluate the need for sample extraction, and to assess the immunospecificity of the assays.
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Identifying how and for whom cognitive-behavioral stress management improves emotional well-being among recent prostate cancer survivors.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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The outcomes of a 10-week cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) group intervention were evaluated in prostate cancer survivors. A model was tested in which CBSM-related improvements in emotional well-being were attained through changes in mens perceptions of their condition, as conceptualized by information processing explanations of self-regulation theory. The model also tested whether life stress and treatment-related side effects moderated intervention effects.
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View of God as benevolent and forgiving or punishing and judgmental predicts HIV disease progression.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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This study assessed the predictive relationship between View of God beliefs and change in CD4-cell and Viral Load (VL) in HIV positive people over an extended period. A diverse sample of HIVseropositive participants (N = 101) undergoing comprehensive psychological assessment and blood draws over the course of 4 years completed the View of God Inventory with subscales measuring Positive View (benevolent/forgiving) and Negative View of God (harsh/judgmental/punishing). Adjusting for initial disease status, age, gender, ethnicity, education, and antiretroviral medication (at every 6-month visit), a Positive View of God predicted significantly slower disease-progression (better preservation of CD4-cells, better control of VL), whereas a Negative View of God predicted faster disease-progression over 4 years. Effect sizes were greater than those previously demonstrated for psychosocial variables known to predict HIV-disease-progression, such as depression and coping. Results remained significant even after adjusting for church attendance and psychosocial variables (health behaviors, mood, and coping). These results provide good initial evidence that spiritual beliefs may predict health outcomes.
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Stress buffering effects of oxytocin on HIV status in low-income ethnic minority women.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Elevated perceptions of psychosocial stress and stressful life events are linked to faster disease progression in individuals living with HIV and these associations may be stronger for women from ethnic minority populations. Levels of neurohormones such as oxytocin (OT), cortisol, and norepinephrine (NE) have been shown to influence the effects of psychosocial stress in different populations. Understanding how intrinsic neuroendocrine substances moderate the effects of stressors in minority women living with HIV (WLWH) may pave the way for interventions to improve disease management.
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Longitudinal effects of social support and adaptive coping on the emotional well-being of survivors of localized prostate cancer.
J Support Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post-treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques.
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Waist circumference moderates the association between marital stress and C-reactive protein in middle-aged healthy women.
Ann Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2010
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The relationships among stress, obesity, and inflammation in women remain unclear. This study examined the relationships among marital stress, waist circumference, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 201 healthy women from the Stockholm Female Coronary Risk Study. We tested whether marital stress was associated with CRP and whether this association was moderated by waist circumference. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that after adjusting for age, occupation status, fasting glucose, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, blood pressure, smoking, and menopausal status, marital stress was not directly associated with CRP. However, waist circumference significantly moderated the association between marital stress and CRP (p?=?0.012) such that marital stress was significantly associated with higher CRP among women with larger waist circumferences but not in those with smaller waists. More obese women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of marital stress by manifesting higher inflammation.
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Oxytocin attenuates atherosclerosis and adipose tissue inflammation in socially isolated ApoE-/- mice.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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To determine the effect of exogenous oxytocin (OT) administration on inflammation and atherosclerosis in socially isolated apoE(-/-) mice. Hyperlipidemic animals housed in isolated or stressful social environments display more extensive atherosclerosis than those in an affiliative social environment. The neurohypophyseal peptide OT may be involved in both affiliative social behavior and cardiovascular homeostasis, suggesting a role in mediating the benefits of positive social interactions on atherosclerosis.
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Design and implementation of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a comprehensive multicenter community based cohort study of Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.
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Stress and body mass index each contributes independently to tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in prepubescent Latino children.
J Pediatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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This investigation extended prior work by determining if stress and body mass index (BMI) contributed independently to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels among prepubescent Latino children and if sex and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) modified these relationships. Data were collected in South Florida from 112 nondiabetic school-aged Hispanic children, of whom 43.8% were obese (BMI >/= 95th percentile) and 51.8% presented with a family history of T2DM. Stressful life events were assessed via parental report using a life events scale. Plasma TNF-alpha levels were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relative contributions of stress and BMI with TNF-alpha levels and the potential interaction effects of sex and family history of T2DM were analyzed with multiple linear regression analyses. Stress and BMI each accounted for a significant proportion of the unique variance associated with TNF-alpha. The association between stress and TNF-alpha was not modified by sex or family history of T2DM. These findings implicate BMI and stress as independent determinants of TNF-alpha (an inflammatory cytokine and adipocytokine) among Latino children. Future investigations should examine the potential roles of exercise, nutritional status, age, and growth hormone in explicating the relationship between TNF-alpha production and psychosocial distress and risk for infection among obese children.
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Central obesity and insulin resistance in the cardiometabolic syndrome: pathways to preclinical cardiovascular structure and function.
J Cardiometab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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The cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) has been an organizing conceptual framework for subclinical cardiovascular pathophysiology. Using cross-sectional data from 338 healthy men and women aged 18 to 55 years, the study examined the role of central adiposity and insulin sensitivity and assessed potential relationships with other metabolic indices (insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, fibrinolysis, lipidemia, endothelial function, and inflammation) and measures of cardiac structure and function (cardiac mass, compliance and contractility, myocardial oxygen demand, and blood pressure). Structural equation modeling analyses, which controlled for sex, age, and race, demonstrated good fit to the data. The derived relationships provided a physiologically consistent model of CMS, with an initiating role for central adiposity and insulin resistance. The model accounted for 30% and 82% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure and myocardial oxygen demand, respectively. The findings suggest predominant pathways through which subclinical metabolic processes may exert pathogenic impact on the heart and vasculature.
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Emotional support and gender in people living with HIV: effects on psychological well-being.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Current research indicates that emotional support is strongly associated with physical and psychological adjustment in persons living with HIV/AIDS. While gender- differences in health and health behaviors of HIV positive patients are well studied, less is known about how men and women living with HIV/AIDS may differentially perceive and integrate support into their lives, and how it subsequently affects their psychological well-being. This cross-sectional study examines how emotional support received from partners and family/friends and gender explains psychological well-being (i.e., stress, depression, anxiety) in a sample of 409 partnered European HIV positive individuals. We hypothesized that gender would modify the associations between support and psychological well-being such that men would benefit more from partner support whereas women would benefit more from family/friend support. Results revealed that regardless of the source of support, mens well-being was more positively influenced by support than was womens well-being. Womens difficulties in receiving emotional support may have deleterious effects on their psychological well-being.
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Disclosing HIV serostatus to family members: Effects on psychological and physiological health in minority women living with HIV.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can have psychological and physiological health benefits. Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may enhance these benefits.
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Dimensions of social support and depression in patients at increased psychosocial risk recovering from myocardial infarction.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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There is considerable evidence that depression and low social support are associated with increased morbidity and mortality for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the measurement of social support and its relation to depression.
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Illness perceptions and emotional well-being in men treated for localized prostate cancer.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Emotional adjustment to cancer survivorship may be influenced by how patients interpret treatment side effects and other cancer-related experiences. The current study examined cognitive representations of illness, as conceptualized by the Self-Regulatory Model (SRM), in men treated for localized prostate cancer (PC). More severe PC perceptions were hypothesized to predict poorer emotional well being, particularly among men experiencing greater post-treatment sexual dysfunction or general life stress.
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The rebirth of neuroscience in psychosomatic medicine, Part I: historical context, methods, and relevant basic science.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Neuroscience was an integral part of psychosomatic medicine at its inception in the early 20th century. Since the mid-20th century, however, psychosomatic research has largely ignored the brain. The field of neuroscience has burgeoned in recent years largely because a variety of powerful new methods have become available. Many of these methods allow for the noninvasive study of the living human brain and thus are potentially available for integration into psychosomatic medicine research at this time. In this first paper we examine various methods available for human neuroscientific investigation and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses. We next review some basic functional neuroanatomy involving structures that are increasingly being identified as relevant for psychosomatic processes. We then discuss, and provide examples of, how the brain influences end organs through "information transfer systems," including the autonomic, neuroendocrine, and immune systems. The evidence currently available suggests that neuroscience holds great promise for advancing the goal of understanding the mechanisms by which psychosocial variables influence physical disease outcomes. An increased focus on such mechanistic research in psychosomatic medicine is needed to further its acceptance into the field of medicine.
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The rebirth of neuroscience in psychosomatic medicine, Part II: clinical applications and implications for research.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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During the second half of the last century, biopsychosocial research in psychosomatic medicine largely ignored the brain. Neuroscience has started to make a comeback in psychosomatic medicine research and promises to advance the field in important ways. In this paper we briefly review select brain imaging research findings in psychosomatic medicine in four key areas: cardiovascular regulation, visceral pain in the context of functional gastrointestinal disorders, acute and chronic somatic pain and placebo. In each area, there is a growing literature that is beginning to define a network of brain areas that participate in the functions in question. Evidence to date suggests that cortical and subcortical areas that are involved in emotion and emotion regulation play an important role in each domain. Neuroscientific research is therefore validating findings from previous psychosomatic research and has the potential to extend knowledge by delineating the biological mechanisms that link mind and body more completely and with greater specificity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work for how research in psychosomatic medicine is conducted, the ways in which neuroscientific advances can lead to new clinical applications in psychosomatic contexts, the implications of this work for the field of medicine more generally, and the priorities for research in the next 5 to 10 years.
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The impact of cognitive behavioral group training on event-free survival in patients with myocardial infarction: the ENRICHD experience.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Although the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) treatment was designed to include individual therapy and cognitive behavioral group training for patients with depression and/or low perceived social support, only 31% of treated participants received group training. Secondary analyses classified intervention participants into two subgroups, (1) individual therapy only or (2) group training (i.e., coping skills training) plus individual therapy, to determine whether medical outcomes differed in participants who received the combination of group training and individual therapy compared to participants who received individual therapy only or usual care.
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Mens serostatus disclosure to parents: associations among social support, ethnicity, and disease status in men living with HIV.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Directly disclosing a positive HIV serostatus to family members can affect psychological and disease status. Perceptions that one is in a supportive family environment may moderate these effects; however, ethnic differences may exist in the support processes of families coping with HIV.
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Stress reduction prolongs life in women with coronary disease: the Stockholm Womens Intervention Trial for Coronary Heart Disease (SWITCHD).
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Psychosocial stress may increase risk and worsen prognosis of coronary heart disease in women. Interventions that counteract womens psychosocial stress have not previously been presented. This study implemented a stress reduction program for women and investigated its ability to improve survival in women coronary patients.
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Gender-specific effects of an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention on posttraumatic, depressive, and HIV-disease-related outcomes: a randomized, controlled trial.
J Consult Clin Psychol
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Trauma histories and symptoms of PTSD occur at very high rates in people with HIV and are associated with poor disease management and accelerated disease progression. The authors of this study examined the efficacy of a brief written trauma disclosure intervention on posttraumatic stress, depression, HIV-related physical symptoms, and biological markers of HIV disease progression.
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Prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular diseases among Hispanic/Latino individuals of diverse backgrounds in the United States.
JAMA
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Major cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are leading causes of mortality among US Hispanic and Latino individuals. Comprehensive data are limited regarding the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population and relations of these traits to socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation.
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Oxytocin administration attenuates atherosclerosis and inflammation in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
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Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohypophyseal peptide traditionally associated with female reproductive functioning, and more recently with prosocial behavior. OT and its receptor are also expressed in the heart and vascular tissue and play a role in cardiovascular homeostasis. In vitro, it has been demonstrated that OT decreases NADPH-dependent superoxide production and pro-inflammatory cytokine release from vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, suggesting that OT may attenuate pathophysiological processes involved with atherosclerotic lesion formation. The present study sought to determine the effect of chronic exogenous OT administration on inflammation and atherosclerosis in an animal model of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis, the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit. Twenty-two, 3-month-old WHHLs were surgically implanted with osmotic mini-pumps containing OT (n=11) or vehicle (n=11), and then were individually housed for the entire study. Blood and 24-h urine samples were taken at baseline and after 8 (midpoint) and 16 (endpoint) weeks of treatment. At endpoint, the aortas and visceral fat samples were dissected and stored for analyses. There were no group differences in body weight, serum lipids, plasma/urinary measures of oxidative stress, plasma cortisol or urinary catecholamines over the 16-week treatment. OT-treated animals exhibited significantly lower plasma C-reactive protein levels at midpoint and endpoint and developed significantly less atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta relative to vehicle control animals at endpoint (p<0.05). Cytokine gene expression from visceral adipose tissue samples suggested that there was a decrease in adipose tissue inflammation in the OT-treated group compared to the vehicle control group, however these differences were not statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic peripheral OT administration can inhibit inflammation and atherosclerotic lesion development.
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The influence of social environment on endocrine, cardiovascular and tissue responses in the rabbit.
Int J Psychophysiol
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Previous work from our lab demonstrated that social environment influences the progression of atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic rabbits. The purpose of the current study was to examine behavioral and physiological responses associated with these distinct chronic social conditions. Normolipidemic rabbits were exposed to one of three social environments for 4 hours/day over 20 weeks: 1) an Unstable Group in which animals were paired weekly with a different unfamiliar rabbit, 2) a Stable Group in which rabbits were paired with the same littermate for the entire study, and 3) an Individually Caged Group in which animals were socially isolated. It was found that the Unstable Group, characterized by increased agonistic behavior and relatively less affiliative behavior, exhibited physiological responses indicative of chronic stress (increased urinary norepinephrine, plasma cortisol, splenic weight, and decreased visceral fat and body weight compared to the other groups). These animals also had increased acute plasma oxytocin responses relative to the other groups 10 minutes into the social pairing. In contrast, the Stable Group exhibited more affiliative behavior and less stressful physiological and tissue responses. The Individually Caged Group had elevated urinary norepinephrine relative to the Stable Group, and they exhibited higher heart rates at the end of the study compared to the other groups, suggesting that this social environment is also associated with chronic sympathetic arousal. It was concluded that distinct social contexts lead to different patterns of behavioral and physiological responses, and these responses are relevant to the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
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Ethnicity Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Benefit Finding in HIV+ Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM).
Int J Behav Med
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BACKGROUND: Numerous studies conducted within the USA demonstrate higher levels of benefit finding in ethnic minority individuals compared to nonminority individuals living with chronic disease. PURPOSE: As benefit finding may be a salient buffer for the effects of stress, the current study examined the association between perceived stress and benefit finding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)+ men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the southeast USA and investigated whether ethnicity was a moderator of this relationship. We hypothesized that benefit finding would be greater in ethnic minority MSM than in white MSM and that ethnic minority MSM with high levels of stress would experience greater benefit finding than their white MSM counterparts. METHOD: The current study utilized baseline (T1) and 3-month follow-up (T2) data drawn from a previous trial of a psychosocial intervention in HIV+ MSM. Participants were 130 HIV+ MSM; 52 % were white and 48 % belonged to minority ethnic groups (African-American, Caribbean-American, Hispanic). RESULTS: Analyses revealed that benefit finding was greater in ethnic minority MSM at baseline; however, this difference became nonsignificant when age, education level, highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence, and CD4 count were added to the model. Moderated regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between T1 perceived stress and ethnicity in predicting T2 benefit finding, such that higher levels of T1 perceived stress predicted lower levels of T2 benefit finding in ethnic minority MSM only. This association was independent of intervention group assignment. CONCLUSION: The current studys results highlight potential differences in the relationship between stress and benefit finding processes in white and ethnic minority HIV+ MSM.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.