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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Can early therapy reduce inflammation?
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Serious non-AIDS events or noninfectious complications of HIV infection far outnumber AIDS events in the current combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) era and are attributed to chronic inflammation. Thus, a better understanding of why inflammation persists on ART will assist in developing better therapeutic strategies, including optimal timing of ART initiation.
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Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits.
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Type I interferon responses in rhesus macaques prevent SIV infection and slow disease progression.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Inflammation in HIV infection is predictive of non-AIDS morbidity and death, higher set point plasma virus load and virus acquisition; thus, therapeutic agents are in development to reduce its causes and consequences. However, inflammation may simultaneously confer both detrimental and beneficial effects. This dichotomy is particularly applicable to type I interferons (IFN-I) which, while contributing to innate control of infection, also provide target cells for the virus during acute infection, impair CD4 T-cell recovery, and are associated with disease progression. Here we manipulated IFN-I signalling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission and acute infection with two complementary in vivo interventions. We show that blockade of the IFN-I receptor caused reduced antiviral gene expression, increased SIV reservoir size and accelerated CD4 T-cell depletion with progression to AIDS despite decreased T-cell activation. In contrast, IFN-?2a administration initially upregulated expression of antiviral genes and prevented systemic infection. However, continued IFN-?2a treatment induced IFN-I desensitization and decreased antiviral gene expression, enabling infection with increased SIV reservoir size and accelerated CD4 T-cell loss. Thus, the timing of IFN-induced innate responses in acute SIV infection profoundly affects overall disease course and outweighs the detrimental consequences of increased immune activation. Yet, the clinical consequences of manipulation of IFN signalling are difficult to predict in vivo and therapeutic interventions in human studies should be approached with caution.
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Pathogenic features associated with increased virulence upon Simian immunodeficiency virus cross-species transmission from natural hosts.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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While simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) are generally nonpathogenic in their natural hosts, dramatic increases in pathogenicity may occur upon cross-species transmission to new hosts. Deciphering the drivers of these increases in virulence is of major interest for understanding the emergence of new human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). We transmitted SIVsab from the sabaeus species of African green monkeys (AGMs) to pigtailed macaques (PTMs). High acute viral replication occurred in all SIVsab-infected PTMs, yet the outcome of chronic infection was highly variable, ranging from rapid progression to controlled infection, which was independent of the dynamics of acute viral replication, CD4(+) T cell depletion, or preinfection levels of microbial translocation. Infection of seven PTMs with plasma collected at necropsy from a rapid-progressor PTM was consistently highly pathogenic, with high acute and chronic viral replication, massive depletion of memory CD4(+) T cells, and disease progression in all PTMs. The plasma inoculum used for the serial passage did not contain adventitious bacterial or viral contaminants. Single-genome amplification showed that this inoculum was significantly more homogenous than the inoculum directly derived from AGMs, pointing to a strain selection in PTMs. In spite of similar peak plasma viral loads between the monkeys in the two passages, immune activation/inflammation levels dramatically increased in PTMs infected with the passaged virus. These results suggest that strain selection and a massive cytokine storm are major factors behind increased pathogenicity of SIV upon serial passage and adaptation of SIVs to new hosts following cross-species transmission.
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Oral serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin improves duodenal immune reconstitution and absorption function in patients with HIV enteropathy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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To examine the impact of serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin, an oral medical food known to neutralize bacterial antigen and reduce intestinal inflammation, on restoration of mucosal immunity and gastrointestinal function in individuals with HIV enteropathy.
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Safety and tolerability of a live oral Salmonella typhimurium vaccine candidate in SIV-infected nonhuman primates.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars are a common cause of acute food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide and can cause invasive systemic disease in young infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised hosts, accompanied by high case fatality. Vaccination against invasive NTS disease is warranted where the disease incidence and mortality are high and multidrug resistance is prevalent, as in sub-Saharan Africa. Live-attenuated vaccines that mimic natural infection constitute one strategy to elicit protection. However, they must particularly be shown to be adequately attenuated for consideration of immunocompromised subjects. Accordingly, we examined the safety and tolerability of an oral live attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine candidate, CVD 1921, in an established chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model. We evaluated clinical parameters, histopathology, and measured differences in mucosal permeability to wild-type and vaccine strains. Compared to the wild-type S. typhimurium strain I77 in both SIV-infected and SIV-uninfected nonhuman primate hosts, this live-attenuated vaccine shows reduced shedding and systemic spread, exhibits limited pathological disease manifestations in the digestive tract, and induces low levels of cellular infiltration in tissues. Furthermore, wild-type S. typhimurium induces increased intestinal epithelial damage and permeability, with infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in both SIV-infected and SIV-uninfected nonhuman primates compared to the vaccine strain. Based on shedding, systemic spread, and histopathology, the live-attenuated S. typhimurium strain CVD 1921 appears to be safe and well-tolerated in the nonhuman primate model, including chronically SIV-infected rhesus macaques.
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Suppressed Th17 levels correlate with elevated PIAS3, SHP2, and SOCS3 expression in CD4 T cells during acute simian immunodeficiency virus infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in mucosal immune homeostasis and maintaining the integrity of the mucosal epithelial barrier. Loss of Th17 cells has been extensively documented during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. The lack of effective repopulation of Th17 cells has been associated with chronic immune activation mediated by the translocation of microbial products. Using ex vivo analysis of purified peripheral blood CD4 T cells from SIV-infected rhesus macaques, we show that the suppression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) expression correlated with upregulated expression of negative regulatory genes PIAS3, SHP2, and SOCS3 in CD4 T cells. Suppressed Th17 expression was accompanied by elevated levels of soluble CD14 (sCD14) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in the plasma during early stages of infection. Plasma viral loads rather than sCD14 or LBP levels correlated with acute immune activation. Additionally, we observed a significant increase in the expression of CD14 on peripheral blood monocytes that correlated with IL-23 expression and markers of microbial translocation. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the early events associated with acute SIV pathogenesis and suggest additional mechanisms playing a role in suppression of Th17 cells.
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Neither microbial translocation nor TLR responsiveness are likely explanations for preexisting immune activation in women who subsequently acquired HIV in CAPRISA 004.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Innate immune activation was a strong predictor of HIV acquisition in women at risk for HIV in CAPRISA 004. Identifying the cause(s) of activation could enable targeted prevention interventions. In this study, plasma concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, soluble CD14, and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein did not differ between subjects who did or did not subsequently acquire HIV nor were these levels correlated with plasma cytokines or natural killer cell activation. There was no difference between HIV acquirers and non-acquirers in the chemokine and cytokine responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with TLR2, 4, or 7/8 agonists. Further studies are required.
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Study design issues in evaluating immune biomarkers.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The dramatic increase in the number and type of immune biomarkers that can be measured, particularly those assessing immune activation, has led to numerous investigations in HIV-infected individuals to explore pathogenesis and to assess therapeutic interventions that aim to attenuate immune activation. An overview is provided on study designs and related statistical and operational issues relevant to these investigations.
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Cytopenia and leukocyte recovery shape cytokine fluctuations after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is associated with profound changes in levels of various cytokines. Emphasis has been placed on conditioning-associated mucosal damage and neutropenia and associated bacterial translocation as the initiating conditions predisposing to acute graft-versus-host disease. The post-transplant period is, however, also associated with increases in certain homeostatic cytokines. It is unclear how much the homeostatic drive to lymphocyte recovery and the production of cytokines from the engrafting donor immune system determine cytokine fluctuations in the peri- and immediate post-transplant period. The aim of this study was to examine the contributions of the conditioning regimen, donor engraftment, infections, and graft-versus-host disease to fluctuations in cytokines involved in homeostasis and inflammation.
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Host response to translocated microbial products predicts outcomes of patients with HBV or HCV infection.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Chronic infection with hepatitis B or C virus (HBV or HCV) is a leading cause of cirrhosis by unknown mechanisms of pathogenesis. Translocation of gut microbial products into the systemic circulation might increase because of increased intestinal permeability, bacterial overgrowth, or impaired clearance of microbial products by Kupffer cells. We investigated whether the extent and progression of liver disease in patients with chronic HBV or HCV infection are associated with microbial translocation and subsequent activation of monocytes.
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Comparative transcriptomics of extreme phenotypes of human HIV-1 infection and SIV infection in sooty mangabey and rhesus macaque.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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High levels of HIV-1 replication during the chronic phase of infection usually correlate with rapid progression to severe immunodeficiency. However, a minority of highly viremic individuals remains asymptomatic and maintains high CD4? T cell counts. This tolerant profile is poorly understood and reminiscent of the widely studied nonprogressive disease model of SIV infection in natural hosts. Here, we identify transcriptome differences between rapid progressors (RPs) and viremic nonprogressors (VNPs) and highlight several genes relevant for the understanding of HIV-1-induced immunosuppression. RPs were characterized by a specific transcriptome profile of CD4? and CD8? T cells similar to that observed in pathogenic SIV-infected rhesus macaques. In contrast, VNPs exhibited lower expression of interferon-stimulated genes and shared a common gene regulation profile with nonpathogenic SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. A short list of genes associated with VNP, including CASP1, CD38, LAG3, TNFSF13B, SOCS1, and EEF1D, showed significant correlation with time to disease progression when evaluated in an independent set of CD4? T cell expression data. This work characterizes 2 minimally studied clinical patterns of progression to AIDS, whose analysis may inform our understanding of HIV pathogenesis.
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Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with intestinal permeability and microbial translocation that contributes to systemic immune activation, which is an independent predictor of HIV disease progression. The association of microbial translocation with clinical outcome remains unknown.
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Th17 cells, Jobs syndrome and HIV: opportunities for bacterial and fungal infections.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Patients with hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) share with HIV patients a predisposition to infections, including candidiasis in autosomal dominant HIES (AD-HIES) and molluscum contagiosum and other viral infections in other disorders of elevated IgE with infectious predilections. This review highlights the underlying pathogenesis of these diseases and their relevance to HIV infection.
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Hypomorphic Rag mutations can cause destructive midline granulomatous disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Destructive midline granulomatous disease characterized by necrotizing granulomas of the head and neck is most commonly caused by Wegener granulomatosis, natural killer/T-cell lymphomas, cocaine abuse, or infections. An adolescent patient with myasthenia gravis treated with thymectomy subsequently developed extensive granulomatous destruction of midface structures, palate, nasal septum, airways, and epiglottis. His lymphocyte numbers, total immunoglobulin G level, and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire appeared normal. Sequencing of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag1) showed compound heterozygous Rag1 mutations; a novel deletion with no recombinase activity and a missense mutation resulting in 50% Rag activity. His thymus was dysplastic and, although not depleted of T cells, showed a notable absence of autoimmune regulator (AIRE) and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. This distinct Rag-deficient phenotype characterized by immune dysregulation with granulomatous hyperinflammation and autoimmunity, with relatively normal T and B lymphocyte numbers and a diverse TCR repertoire expands the spectrum of presentation in Rag deficiency. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00128973.
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Loss of a tyrosine-dependent trafficking motif in the simian immunodeficiency virus envelope cytoplasmic tail spares mucosal CD4 cells but does not prevent disease progression.
J. Virol.
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A hallmark of pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is the rapid and near-complete depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T lymphocytes from the gastrointestinal tract. Loss of these cells and disruption of epithelial barrier function are associated with microbial translocation, which has been proposed to drive chronic systemic immune activation and disease progression. Here, we evaluate in rhesus macaques a novel attenuated variant of pathogenic SIVmac239, termed ?GY, which contains a deletion of a Tyr and a proximal Gly from a highly conserved YxxØ trafficking motif in the envelope cytoplasmic tail. Compared to SIVmac239, ?GY established a comparable acute peak of viremia but only transiently infected lamina propria and caused little or no acute depletion of mucosal CD4(+) T cells and no detectable microbial translocation. Nonetheless, these animals developed T-cell activation and declining peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells and ultimately progressed with clinical or pathological features of AIDS. ?GY-infected animals also showed no infection of macrophages or central nervous system tissues even in late-stage disease. Although the ?GY mutation persisted, novel mutations evolved, including the formation of new YxxØ motifs in two of four animals. These findings indicate that disruption of this trafficking motif by the ?GY mutation leads to a striking alteration in anatomic distribution of virus with sparing of lamina propria and a lack of microbial translocation. Because these animals exhibited wild-type levels of acute viremia and immune activation, our findings indicate that these pathological events are dissociable and that immune activation unrelated to gut damage can be sufficient for the development of AIDS.
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Characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis in a large cohort of patients with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
Gastroenterology
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Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), the most common ciliopathy of childhood, is characterized by congenital hepatic fibrosis and progressive cystic degeneration of kidneys. We aimed to describe congenital hepatic fibrosis in patients with ARPKD, confirmed by detection of mutations in PKHD1.
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CD4 T follicular helper cell dynamics during SIV infection.
J. Clin. Invest.
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CD4 T follicular helper (TFH) cells interact with and stimulate the generation of antigen-specific B cells. TFH cell interaction with B cells correlates with production of SIV-specific immunoglobulins. However, the fate of TFH cells and their participation in SIV-induced antibody production is not well understood. We investigated the phenotype, function, location, and molecular signature of TFH cells in rhesus macaques. Similar to their human counterparts, TFH cells in rhesus macaques represented a heterogeneous population with respect to cytokine function. In a highly differentiated subpopulation of TFH cells, characterized by CD150lo expression, production of Th1 cytokines was compromised while IL-4 production was augmented, and cells exhibited decreased survival, cycling, and trafficking capacity. TFH cells exhibited a distinct gene profile that was markedly altered by SIV infection. TFH cells were infected by SIV; yet, in some animals, these cells actually accumulated during chronic SIV infection. Generalized immune activation and increased IL-6 production helped drive TFH differentiation during SIV infection. Accumulation of TFH cells was associated with increased frequency of activated germinal center B cells and SIV-specific antibodies. Therefore, chronic SIV does not disturb the ability of TFH cells to help B cell maturation and production of SIV-specific immunoglobulins.
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Microbial translocation in HIV infection: causes, consequences and treatment opportunities.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
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Systemic immune activation is increased in HIV-infected individuals, even in the setting of virus suppression with antiretroviral therapy. Although numerous factors may contribute, microbial products have recently emerged as potential drivers of this immune activation. In this Review, we describe the intestinal damage that occurs in HIV infection, the evidence for translocation of microbial products into the systemic circulation and the pathways by which these products activate the immune system. We also discuss novel therapies that disrupt the translocation of microbial products and the downstream effects of microbial translocation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.