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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii as the major cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care unit patients at an infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious healthcare-associated infection that affects up to 30?% of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide. The bacterial aetiology and corresponding antimicrobial susceptibility of VAP is highly variable, and can differ between countries, national provinces and even between different wards in the same hospital. We aimed to understand and document changes in the causative agents of VAP and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles retrospectively over an 11 year period in a major infectious disease hospital in southern Vietnam. Our analysis outlined a significant shift from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Acinetobacter spp. as the most prevalent bacteria isolated from quantitative tracheal aspirates in patients with VAP in this setting. Antimicrobial resistance was common across all bacterial species and we found a marked proportional annual increase in carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. over a 3 year period from 2008 (annual trend; odds ratio 1.656, P?=?0.010). We further investigated the possible emergence of a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clone by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis, finding a blaOXA-23-positive strain that was associated with an upsurge in the isolation of this pathogen. We additionally identified a single blaNDM-1-positive A. baumannii isolate. This work highlights the emergence of a carbapenem-resistant clone of A. baumannii and a worrying trend of antimicrobial resistance in the ICU of the Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
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Identification of possible virulence marker from Campylobacter jejuni isolates.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A novel protein translocation system, the type-6 secretion system (T6SS), may play a role in virulence of Campylobacter jejuni. We investigated 181 C. jejuni isolates from humans, chickens, and environmental sources in Vietnam, Thailand, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom for T6SS. The marker was most prevalent in human and chicken isolates from Vietnam.
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Tracking the establishment of local endemic populations of an emergent enteric pathogen.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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Shigella sonnei is a human-adapted pathogen that is emerging globally as the dominant agent of bacterial dysentery. To investigate local establishment, we sequenced the genomes of 263 Vietnamese S. sonnei isolated over 15 y. Our data show that S. sonnei was introduced into Vietnam in the 1980s and has undergone localized clonal expansion, punctuated by genomic fixation events through periodic selective sweeps. We uncover geographical spread, spatially restricted frontier populations, and convergent evolution through local gene pool sampling. This work provides a unique, high-resolution insight into the microevolution of a pioneering human pathogen during its establishment in a new host population.
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Identification of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi genotypes by use of rapid multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is highly clonal and genetically conserved, making isolate subtyping difficult. We describe a standardized multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) genotyping scheme targeting 11 key phylogenetic markers of the S. Typhi genome. The MLPA method demonstrated 90% concordance with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, the gold standard for S. Typhi genotyping, and had the ability to identify isolates of the H58 haplotype, which is associated with resistance to multiple antimicrobials. Additionally, the assay permitted the detection of fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations in the DNA gyrase-encoding gene gyrA and the topoisomerase gene parC with a sensitivity of 100%. The MLPA methodology is simple and reliable, providing phylogenetically and phenotypically relevant genotyping information. This MLPA scheme offers a more-sensitive and interpretable alternative to the nonphylogenetic subgrouping methodologies that are currently used in reference and research laboratories in areas where typhoid is endemic.
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Endemic norovirus infections in children, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 2009-2010.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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We performed a case-control investigation to identify risk factors for norovirus infections among children in Vietnam. Of samples from 1,419 children who had diarrhea and 609 who were asymptomatic, 20.6% and 2.8%, respectively, were norovirus positive. Risk factors included residential crowding and symptomatic contacts, indicating person-to-person transmission of norovirus.
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Feed intake and brain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cholecystokinin (CCK) gene expression in juvenile cobia fed plant-based protein diets with different lysine to arginine ratios.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Cobia (Rachycentron canadum, Actinopterygii, Perciformes;10.5±0.1g) were fed to satiation with three plant-based protein test diets with different lysine (L) to arginine (A) ratios (LL/A, 0.8; BL/A, 1.1; and HL/A, 1.8), using a commercial diet as control for six weeks. The test diets contained 730 g kg(-1) plant ingredients with 505-529 g protein, 90.2-93.9 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter; control diet contained 550 g protein and 95 g lipid kg(-1) dry matter. Periprandial expression of brain NPY and CCK (npy and cck) was measured twice (weeks 1 and 6). At week one, npy levels were higher in pre-feeding than postfeeding cobia for all diets, except LL/A. At week six, npy levels in pre-feeding were higher than in postfeeding cobia for all diets. cck in pre-feeding cobia did not differ from that in postfeeding for all diets, at either time point. Cobia fed LL/A had lower feed intake (FI) than cobia fed BL/A and control diet, but no clear correlations between dietary L/A ratio and FI, growth and expression of npy and cck were detected. The data suggest that NPY serves as an orexigenic factor, but further studies are necessary to describe links between dietary L/A and regulation of appetite and FI in cobia.
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The dynamics of GII.4 Norovirus in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of epidemic gastroenteritis in industrialized countries, yet the epidemiological significance of NoV in industrializing countries remains poorly understood. The spatiotemporal distribution of NoV genotypes identified in 2054 enrolled children was investigated between May 2009 and December 2010, in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. A total of 315 NoV extracted from stool samples were genotyped and GPS mapped to their source. Genogroup II NoV, particularly GII.4, were predominant, and the GII.4 strains could be subgrouped into GII.4-2006b (Minerva) and GII.4-2010 (New Orleans) variants. There was no spatiotemporal structure among the endemic GII strains; yet a significant spatiotemporal signal corresponding with the novel introduction of GII.4-2010 variant was detected. These data show that NoV GII.4 variants are highly endemic in HCMC and describe a scenario of rapid NoV strain replacement occurring in HCMC in early 2010.
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Synthesis and characterization of the N-doped TiO2 photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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To extend the light absorption of TiO2-based photocatalysts towards the visible-light range and to eliminate the rapid recombination of excited electrons/holes during photoreaction, a new type of photocatalyst (N-doped TiO2) powder was prepared through a simple sol-gel process. The crystal phase composition, structure, and light absorption of the new photocatalyst were comprehensively examined via X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, and atomic-absorption spectroscopy. The photo-oxidation efficiency of the photocatalyst was also evaluated in the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) and of phenol in aqueous solutions under visible-light irradiation from a neon lamp (lambda > 400 nm). The results of the analyses that were performed in this study indicated that the N-doped TiO2 could eliminate the electron/holes recombination and could increase the light absorption in the visible range. The results of the analysis of the UV-Vis diffuse reflection and optical-absorption spectra indicated that a new energy level below 3.2 eV generated in the N-doped TiO2 promoted the optical absorption in the visible-light region and made visible-light excitation possible (E < 3.2 eV). The experiment demonstrated that the photo-oxidation efficiency of MB when N-doped TiO2 powder was used was significantly higher than that when the conventional TiO2 powders were used. The development of such photocatalyst may be considered a breakthrough in the large-scale utilization of solar energy to address the current and future environmental needs.
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The emergence of rotavirus G12 and the prevalence of enteric viruses in hospitalized pediatric diarrheal patients in southern Vietnam.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the majority of infections are of viral etiology. We aimed to compare the etiological prevalence of the major enteric viruses in an urban and a rural setting in southern Vietnam. We simultaneously screened fecal specimens from 362 children in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Thap province that were hospitalized with acute diarrhea over a 1-month-long period for four viral gastrointestinal pathogens. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen identified, but there was a differential prevalence of rotavirus and norovirus between the urban and rural locations. Furthermore, rotavirus genotyping and phylogenetic analysis again differentiated the genotypes by the sampling location. Our data show a disproportional distribution of enteric viral pathogens in urban and rural locations, and we provide evidence of continual importation of new rotavirus strains into southern Vietnam and report the emergence of rotavirus genotype G12.
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A multi-center randomized trial to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin for the treatment of shigellosis in Vietnamese children.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The bacterial genus Shigella is the leading cause of dysentery. There have been significant increases in the proportion of Shigella isolated that demonstrate resistance to nalidixic acid. While nalidixic acid is no longer considered as a therapeutic agent for shigellosis, the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin is the current recommendation of the World Health Organization. Resistance to nalidixic acid is a marker of reduced susceptibility to older generation fluoroquinolones, such as ciprofloxacin. We aimed to assess the efficacy of gatifloxacin versus ciprofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated shigellosis in children.
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Temporal fluctuation of multidrug resistant salmonella typhi haplotypes in the mekong river delta region of Vietnam.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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typhoid fever remains a public health problem in Vietnam, with a significant burden in the Mekong River delta region. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), which is frequently multidrug resistant with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolone-based drugs, the first choice for the treatment of typhoid fever. We used a GoldenGate (Illumina) assay to type 1,500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyse the genetic variation of S. Typhi isolated from 267 typhoid fever patients in the Mekong delta region participating in a randomized trial conducted between 2004 and 2005.
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Suitable disk antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints defining Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that have reduced susceptibility to ofloxacin (MIC ? 0.25 ?g/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC ? 0.125 ?g/ml) have been associated with a delayed response or clinical failure following treatment with these antimicrobials. These isolates are not detected as resistant using current disk susceptibility breakpoints. We examined 816 isolates of S. Typhi from seven Asian countries. Screening for nalidixic acid resistance (MIC ? 16 ?g/ml) identified isolates with an ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 97.3% (253/260) and specificity of 99.3% (552/556). For isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml, the sensitivity was 92.9% (248/267) and specificity was 98.4% (540/549). A zone of inhibition of ?28 mm around a 5-?g ofloxacin disc detected strains with an ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 94.6% (246/260) and specificity of 94.2% (524/556). A zone of inhibition of ?30 mm detected isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml with a sensitivity of 94.0% (251/267) and specificity of 94.2% (517/549). An ofloxacin MIC of ?0.25 ?g/ml and a ciprofloxacin MIC of ?0.125 ?g/ml detected 74.5% (341/460) of isolates with an identified quinolone resistance-inducing mutation and 81.5% (331/406) of the most common mutant (carrying a serine-to-phenylalanine mutation at codon 83 in the gyrA gene). Screening for nalidixic acid resistance or ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin disk inhibition zone are suitable for detecting S. Typhi isolates with reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility.
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Effect of Ca2+ binding properties of troponin C on rate of skeletal muscle force redevelopment.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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To investigate effects of altering troponin (Tn)C Ca(2+) binding properties on rate of skeletal muscle contraction, we generated three mutant TnCs with increased or decreased Ca(2+) sensitivities. Ca(2+) binding properties of the regulatory domain of TnC within the Tn complex were characterized by following the fluorescence of an IAANS probe attached onto the endogenous Cys(99) residue of TnC. Compared with IAANS-labeled wild-type Tn complex, V43QTnC, T70DTnC, and I60QTnC exhibited ?1.9-fold higher, ?5.0-fold lower, and ?52-fold lower Ca(2+) sensitivity, respectively, and ?3.6-fold slower, ?5.7-fold faster, and ?21-fold faster Ca(2+) dissociation rate (k(off)), respectively. On the basis of K(d) and k(off), these results suggest that the Ca(2+) association rate to the Tn complex decreased ?2-fold for I60QTnC and V43QTnC. Constructs were reconstituted into single-skinned rabbit psoas fibers to assess Ca(2+) dependence of force development and rate of force redevelopment (k(tr)) at 15°C, resulting in sensitization of both force and k(tr) to Ca(2+) for V43QTnC, whereas T70DTnC and I60QTnC desensitized force and k(tr) to Ca(2+), I60QTnC causing a greater desensitization. In addition, T70DTnC and I60QTnC depressed both maximal force (F(max)) and maximal k(tr). Although V43QTnC and I60QTnC had drastically different effects on Ca(2+) binding properties of TnC, they both exhibited decreases in cooperativity of force production and elevated k(tr) at force levels <30%F(max) vs. wild-type TnC. However, at matched force levels >30%F(max) k(tr) was similar for all TnC constructs. These results suggest that the TnC mutants primarily affected k(tr) through modulating the level of thin filament activation and not by altering intrinsic cross-bridge cycling properties. To corroborate this, NEM-S1, a non-force-generating cross-bridge analog that activates the thin filament, fully recovered maximal k(tr) for I60QTnC at low Ca(2+) concentration. Thus TnC mutants with altered Ca(2+) binding properties can control the rate of contraction by modulating thin filament activation without directly affecting intrinsic cross-bridge cycling rates.
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Deoxyschisandrin inhibits H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in intestinal epithelial cells through nuclear factor-kappaB.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Oxidative stress is a pathogenesis for a typical inflammatory intestinal disease known as ulcerative colitis (UC) characterized by erosion and mucosal ulceration. For the treatment of UC, many kinds of traditional Asian medical plants have been used. Schisandra chinensis fruits (SC) are known to possess anti-ulcer, anti-hepatotoxic and anti-neurotoxic activity. However, its mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of deoxyschisandrin, a lignan compound comprised of SC fruits, on H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in human intestinal epithelial cells (HCT116). In flow cytometry assay using Annexin V and propidium iodide, deoxyschisandrin inhibited H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death. To further evaluate the apoptotic signaling by H2O2, we detected caspase-3 activation using cleavage of pro-caspase-3. Deoxyschisandrin inhibited H2O2-induced caspase-3 activation by blocking cleavage of pro-caspase-3. Furthermore, it has been reported that oxidative stress by H2O2 induces an activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). In our results, H2O2 stimulated the degradation of IkappaBalpha, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, in a concentration-dependent manner. On the contrary, deoxyschisandrin inhibited H2O2-stimulated degradation of IkappaBalpha and activation of NF-kappaB by blocking translocation of NF-kappaB to the nucleus. Therefore, we suggest that deoxyschisandrin inhibits H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death.
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The sudden dominance of blaCTX-M harbouring plasmids in Shigella spp. Circulating in Southern Vietnam.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Plasmid mediated antimicrobial resistance in the Enterobacteriaceae is a global problem. The rise of CTX-M class extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) has been well documented in industrialized countries. Vietnam is representative of a typical transitional middle income country where the spectrum of infectious diseases combined with the spread of drug resistance is shifting and bringing new healthcare challenges.
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A randomised trial evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of the novel single oral dose typhoid vaccine M01ZH09 in healthy Vietnamese children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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The emergence of drug resistant typhoid fever is a major public health problem, especially in Asia. An oral single dose typhoid vaccine would have major advantages. M01ZH09 is a live oral single dose candidate typhoid vaccine containing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Ty2 aroC(-)ssaV(-)) ZH9 with two independently attenuating deletions. Studies in healthy adults demonstrated immunogenicity and an acceptable safety profile.
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High prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance determinants in commensal members of the Enterobacteriaceae in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Antimicrobial-resistant pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae are a well-defined global problem. We hypothesized that one of the main reservoirs of dissemination of antimicrobial resistance genes in Vietnam is non-pathogenic intestinal flora, and sought to isolate antimicrobial-resistant organisms from hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals in Ho Chi Minh City. The results identified substantial faecal carriage of gentamicin-, ceftazidime- and nalidixic acid-resistant members of the Enterobacteriaceae in both hospitalized patients and non-hospitalized healthy individuals. A high prevalence of quinolone resistance determinants was identified, particularly the qnrS gene, in both community- and hospital-associated strains. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that a combination of quinolone resistance determinants can confer resistance to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin, even in the apparent absence of additional chromosomal resistance mutations in wild-type strains and laboratory strains with transferred plasmids. These data suggest that intestinal commensal organisms are a significant reservoir for the dissemination of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Ho Chi Minh City.
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A changing picture of shigellosis in southern Vietnam: shifting species dominance, antimicrobial susceptibility and clinical presentation.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Shigellosis remains considerable public health problem in some developing countries. The nature of Shigellae suggests that they are highly adaptable when placed under selective pressure in a human population. This is demonstrated by variation and fluctuations in serotypes and antimicrobial resistance profile of organisms circulating in differing setting in endemic locations. Antimicrobial resistance in the genus Shigella is a constant threat, with reports of organisms in Asia being resistant to multiple antimicrobials and new generation therapies.
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Striated muscle regulation of isometric tension by multiple equilibria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Cooperative activation of striated muscle by calcium is based on the movement of tropomyosin described by the steric blocking theory of muscle contraction. Presently, the Hill model stands alone in reproducing both myosin binding data and a sigmoidal-shaped curve characteristic of calcium activation (Hill TL (1983) Two elementary models for the regulation of skeletal muscle contraction by calcium. Biophys J 44: 383-396.). However, the free myosin is assumed to be fixed by the muscle lattice and the cooperative mechanism is based on calcium-dependent interactions between nearest neighbor tropomyosin subunits, which has yet to be validated. As a result, no comprehensive model has been shown capable of fitting actual tension data from striated muscle. We show how variable free myosin is a selective advantage for activating the muscle and describe a mechanism by which a conformational change in tropomyosin propagates free myosin given constant total myosin. This mechanism requires actin, tropomyosin, and filamentous myosin but is independent of troponin. Hence, it will work equally well with striated, smooth and non-muscle contractile systems. Results of simulations with and without data are consistent with a strand of tropomyosin composed of approximately 20 subunits being moved by the concerted action of 3-5 myosin heads, which compares favorably with the predicted length of tropomyosin in the overlap region of thick and thin filaments. We demonstrate that our model fits both equilibrium myosin binding data and steady-state calcium-dependent tension data and show how both the steepness of the response and the sensitivity to calcium can be regulated by the actin-troponin interaction. The model simulates non-cooperative calcium binding both in the presence and absence of strong binding myosin as has been observed. Thus, a comprehensive model based on three well-described interactions with actin, namely, actin-troponin, actin-tropomyosin, and actin-myosin can explain the cooperative calcium activation of striated muscle.
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Microbiologic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium tetani isolated from wounds of patients with clinically diagnosed tetanus.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Clostridium tetani is the etiologic agent of the muscle-spasming disease tetanus. Despite an effective vaccine, tetanus is an ongoing problem in some developing countries. Diagnosis by bacterial culture is not done because it is generally unnecessary and the entry of route of the bacteria can be inapparent. We attempted to isolate and evaluate C. tetani from the wounds of 84 patients with tetanus. We effectively isolated C. tetani from 45 patients. All strains tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for the gene encoding tetanus neurotoxin. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by disc diffusion and E-test. All C. tetani isolates were susceptible to penicillin and metronidazole but resistant to co-trimoxazole. Despite treatment with high doses of penicillin, C. tetani was isolated after 16 days of intravenous penicillin in two cases. These data show that the intravenous route for penicillin may be inadequate for clearing the infection and emphasizes wound debridement in the treatment of tetanus.
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The validation and utility of a quantitative one-step multiplex RT real-time PCR targeting rotavirus A and norovirus.
J. Virol. Methods
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Rotavirus (RoV) and Norovirus (NoV) are the main causes of viral gastroenteritis. Currently, there is no validated multiplex real-time PCR that can detect and quantify RoV and NoV simultaneously. The aim of the study was to develop, validate, and internally control a multiplex one-step RT real-time PCR to detect and quantify RoV and NoV in stool samples. PCR sensitivity was assessed by comparing amplification against the current gold standard, enzyme immunoassay (EIA), on stool samples from 94 individuals with diarrhea and 94 individuals without diarrhea. PCR detected 10% more RoV positive samples than EIA in stools samples from patients with diarrhea. PCR detected 23% more NoV genogroup II positive samples from individuals with diarrhea and 9% more from individuals without diarrhea than EIA, respectively. Genotyping of the PCR positive/EIA negative samples suggested the higher rate of PCR positivity, in comparison to EIA, was due to increased sensitivity, rather than nonspecific hybridization. Quantitation demonstrated that the viral loads of RoV and NoV in the stools of diarrheal patients were an order of magnitude greater than in individuals without diarrhea. This internally controlled real-time PCR method is robust, exhibits a high degree of reproducibility, and may have a greater utility and sensitivity than commercial EIA kits.
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Second-chance signal transduction explains cooperative flagellar switching.
PLoS ONE
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The reversal of flagellar motion (switching) results from the interaction between a switch complex of the flagellar rotor and a torque-generating stationary unit, or stator (motor unit). To explain the steeply cooperative ligand-induced switching, present models propose allosteric interactions between subunits of the rotor, but do not address the possibility of a reaction that stimulates a bidirectional motor unit to reverse direction of torque. During flagellar motion, the binding of a ligand-bound switch complex at the dwell site could excite a motor unit. The probability that another switch complex of the rotor, moving according to steady-state rotation, will reach the same dwell site before that motor unit returns to ground state will be determined by the independent decay rate of the excited-state motor unit. Here, we derive an analytical expression for the energy coupling between a switch complex and a motor unit of the stator complex of a flagellum, and demonstrate that this model accounts for the cooperative switching response without the need for allosteric interactions. The analytical result can be reproduced by simulation when (1) the motion of the rotor delivers a subsequent ligand-bound switch to the excited motor unit, thereby providing the excited motor unit with a second chance to remain excited, and (2) the outputs from multiple independent motor units are constrained to a single all-or-none event. In this proposed model, a motor unit and switch complex represent the components of a mathematically defined signal transduction mechanism in which energy coupling is driven by steady-state and is regulated by stochastic ligand binding. Mathematical derivation of the model shows the analytical function to be a general form of the Hill equation (Hill AV (1910) The possible effects of the aggregation of the molecules of haemoglobin on its dissociation curves. J Physiol 40: iv-vii).
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Aetiologies of central nervous system infection in Viet Nam: a prospective provincial hospital-based descriptive surveillance study.
PLoS ONE
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Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.