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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Background.?Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Identifying factors associated with mortality informs strategies to improve outcomes. Methods.?Five hundred one patients with HIV-associated CM were followed prospectively for 10 weeks during trials in Thailand, Uganda, Malawi, and South Africa. South African patients (n = 266) were followed for 1 year. Similar inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied at all sites. Logistic regression identified baseline variables independently associated with mortality. Results.?Mortality was 17% at 2 weeks and 34% at 10 weeks. Altered mental status (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-5.9), high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden (OR, 1.4 per log10 colony-forming units/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), older age (>50 years; OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4-11.1), high peripheral white blood cell count (>10 × 10(9) cells/L; OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.5-30.2), fluconazole-based induction treatment, and slow clearance of CSF infection were independently associated with 2-week mortality. Low body weight, anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL), and low CSF opening pressure were independently associated with mortality at 10 weeks in addition to altered mental status, high fungal burden, high peripheral white cell count, and older age. In those followed for 1 year, overall mortality was 41%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with 2-week CSF fungal burden (P = .007), but not with time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions.?CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes.
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Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The epidemiology and pathogenesis of, and risk factors for, cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are reviewed with an emphasis on how new insights inform a rational management approach and prevention strategies.
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Evaluation of a novel point-of-care cryptococcal antigen test on serum, plasma, and urine from patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Many deaths from cryptococcal meningitis (CM) may be preventable through early diagnosis and treatment. An inexpensive point-of-care (POC) assay for use with urine or a drop of blood would facilitate early diagnosis of cryptococcal infection in resource-limited settings. We compared cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) concentrations in plasma, serum, and urine from patients with CM, using an antigen-capture assay for glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and a novel POC dipstick test.
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Short course amphotericin B with high dose fluconazole for HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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To define more rapidly effective initial antifungal regimens sustainable in resource-constrained settings.
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Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Progress in therapy for cryptococcal meningitis has been slow because of the lack of a suitable marker of treatment response. Previously, we demonstrated the statistical power of a novel endpoint, the rate of clearance of infection, based on serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid, to differentiate the fungicidal activity of alternative antifungal drug regimens. We hypothesized that the rate of clearance of infection should also be a clinically meaningful endpoint.
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Severe Guillain-Barré syndrome following primary infection with varicella zoster virus in an adult.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection may trigger Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but this is rare and almost always in the context of reactivation disease from latent VZV, shingles. We report here a case of severe GBS following primary VZV infection in an adult. A 40-year-old man of Indian origin developed features of GBS including quadriplegia, bulbar paralysis, and bilateral facial nerve palsies 14 days after primary VZV infection contracted from a known case in a family member. Nerve conduction studies confirmed acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Anti-ganglioside antibodies were negative. The mechanism of Schwann cell attack following VZV infection is poorly understood but this case suggests that primary VZV infection may be a sufficient stimulus to drive antibody generation and precipitate severe clinical symptomatology. The morbidity associated with the complications of VZV infection in adulthood could be avoided if patients who are seronegative for VZV (frequently from the Asian subcontinent) are offered prophylaxis after an exposure in adulthood.
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Cryptococcal antigen screening and preemptive therapy in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: a proposed algorithm for clinical implementation.
J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
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HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is estimated to cause over half a million deaths annually in Africa. Many of these deaths are preventable. Screening patients for subclinical cryptococcal infection at the time of entry into antiretroviral therapy programs using cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) immunoassays is highly effective in identifying patients at risk of developing CM, allowing these patients to then be targeted with "preemptive" therapy to prevent the development of severe disease. Such CRAG screening programs are currently being implemented in a number of countries; however, a strong evidence base and clear guidance on how to manage patients with subclinical cryptococcal infection identified by screening are lacking. We review the available evidence and propose a treatment algorithm for the management of patients with asymptomatic cryptococcal antigenemia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.