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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Deviance residuals-based sparse PLS and sparse kernel PLS regression for censored data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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A vast literature from the past decade is devoted to relating gene profiles and subject survival or time to cancer recurrence. Biomarker discovery from high-dimensional data, such as transcriptomic or single nucleotide polymorphism profiles, is a major challenge in the search for more precise diagnoses. The proportional hazard regression model suggested by Cox (1972), to study the relationship between the time to event and a set of covariates in the presence of censoring is the most commonly used model for the analysis of survival data. However, like multivariate regression, it supposes that more observations than variables, complete data, and not strongly correlated variables are available. In practice, when dealing with high-dimensional data, these constraints are crippling. Collinearity gives rise to issues of over-fitting and model misidentification. Variable selection can improve the estimation accuracy by effectively identifying the subset of relevant predictors and enhance the model interpretability with parsimonious representation. To deal with both collinearity and variable selection issues, many methods based on least absolute shrinkage and selection operator penalized Cox proportional hazards have been proposed since the reference paper of Tibshirani. Regularization could also be performed using dimension reduction as is the case with partial least squares (PLS) regression. We propose two original algorithms named sPLSDR and its non-linear kernel counterpart DKsPLSDR, by using sparse PLS regression (sPLS) based on deviance residuals. We compared their predicting performance with state-of-the-art algorithms on both simulated and real reference benchmark datasets.
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Breslow Thickness, Clark Index and Ulceration Are Associated with Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Melanoma Patients: A Cohort Analysis of 612 Patients.
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most sensitive procedure for assessing nodal status in patients with primary melanoma. Objective: To evaluate the predictive ability of usual primary melanoma prognosis factors of detecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in patients with melanoma. Patients and Methods: A cohort of 612 consecutive patients presenting with primary skin melanoma who underwent a SLNB was evaluated. Assessment of the determinants of SLN metastasis was based on general linear model analysis. The model performance was studied using the concordance statistic and the net reclassification index. The calibration was estimated using the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Results: The discrimination ability did not differ significantly between Breslow thickness (0.57), Clark index (0.61), ulceration (0.57) and histological subtype (0.55). Clark index, ulceration and Breslow thickness were all significant and independent determinants of SLN metastasis. The predictive ability of the final model was 0.657. Conclusion: Breslow thickness, Clark index and ulceration are independent predictors of a SLN metastasis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Loss of hepatitis B surface antigen in a real-life clinical cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance is the main indicator of viral cure in patients infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). We sought to identify the parameters associated with HBsAg loss in a well-characterized real-life clinical cohort of chronically HBV-infected patients.
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Incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies: a systematic review.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence and prevalence of inflammatory myopathies (IMs), their epidemiological tendencies over time and their possible key determinants.
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Adherence and Patients' Attitudes to Oral Anticancer Drugs: A Prospective Series of 201 Patients Focusing on Targeted Therapies.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Objectives: Patient adherence is a challenge in oncology and hematology practice. Hormone therapy data in breast cancer suggest insufficient adherence and poor persistence. Limited data are available for targeted therapies (TT) including tyrosine kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Methods: We performed a prospective survey using a 15-item questionnaire in patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies receiving oral anticancer therapy. Treatment duration, setting (adjuvant vs. metastatic), cancer type, age, and comedication were recorded. Results: 201 patients (median age 65.5 years) participated, 102 with TT and 99 with hormone therapy or chemotherapy (HC). The median time of drug intake was 11.0 months. Written information was more frequently given to TT patients (68.6 vs. 23.2%, p < 0.0001). TT and HC patients showed equal adherence to therapy (72.5 vs. 69.6%, p = n.s.) despite TT patients experiencing more side effects (p < 0.0001) and taking more concomitant oral medication (p = 0.0042). Forgotten doses were the leading cause of nonadherence in HC patients (83%, as compared to 54% in the TT group), whereas dose reduction by the patient was higher in the TT group (32 vs. 17%). Conclusions: Despite advances in providing information to patients leading to better adherence among TT patients, efforts towards better patient education are warranted including dedicated staff for monitoring outpatient anticancer oral therapy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Synergy of entry inhibitors with direct-acting antivirals uncovers novel combinations for prevention and treatment of hepatitis C.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Although direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) have markedly improved the outcome of treatment in chronic HCV infection, there continues to be an unmet medical need for improved therapies in difficult-to-treat patients as well as liver graft infection. Viral entry is a promising target for antiviral therapy.
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High frequency of intracranial arterial stenosis and cannabis use in ischaemic stroke in the young.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Leading aetiologies of ischaemic stroke in young adults are cervico-cerebral arterial dissections and cardio-embolism, but the causes remain undetermined in a considerable proportion of cases. In a few reports, intracranial arterial stenosis has been suggested to be a potential cause of ischaemic stroke in young adults. The aim of our work was to evaluate the frequency, characteristics and risk factors of intracranial arterial stenosis in a prospective series of young ischaemic stroke patients.
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Plasma fibrinogen level on admission to the intensive care unit is a powerful predictor of postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Evidence regarding the behavior of fibrinogen levels and the relation between fibrinogen levels and postoperative bleeding is limited in cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). To evaluate perioperative fibrinogen levels as a predictor of postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.
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The prothrombotic paradox of severe obesity after cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Obesity is suggested to reduce postoperative bleeding in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) but perioperative hemostasis variations have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of severe obesity (body mass index [BMI] ?35kg/m(2)) on chest tube output (CTO) and hemostasis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.
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Diagnostic markers of postoperative morbidity after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for obesity.
Langenbecks Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The main objective of this study was to detect subacute complications that can arise from laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and take a rational approach to manage these complications.
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Outbreak of contact sensitization to methylisothiazolinone: an analysis of French data from the REVIDAL-GERDA network.
Contact Derm.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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The preservative methylisothiazolinone (MI) is used in combination with methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), but the MCI/MI mixture has been identified as highly allergenic. MI is considered to be less allergenic, and since the mid-2000s has been widely used alone, but is now clearly identified as a contact allergen. The French Vigilance Network for Dermatology and Allergy of the Study and Research Group on Contact Dermatitis (REVIDAL-GERDA) added MI to its baseline patch testing series in 2010.
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123I-BZA2 as a Melanin-Targeted Radiotracer for the Identification of Melanoma Metastases: Results and Perspectives of a Multicenter Phase III Clinical Trial.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Our group has developed a new radiopharmaceutical, (123)I - N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-2-iodobenzamide ((123)I-BZA2), a benzamide derivative able to bind to melanin pigment in melanoma cells. In a prospective and multicentric phase III clinical study, the value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and (123)I-BZA2 scintigraphy was compared for melanoma staging.
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Double-positive CD4/CD8 mycosis fungoides: a rarely reported immunohistochemical profile.
J. Cutan. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Mycosis fungoides (MF) represents the most common epidermotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), and tumor cells typically express a mature T-helper memory phenotype. A minority of MF patients display an unusual phenotype, which may be either CD4(-)/CD8(+) or double negative. Herein, we report a case of biopsy-proven MF in a 31-year-old woman who presented with infiltrated plaques involving photoprotected areas of the skin. Immunohistochemical study combined with confocal microscopy revealed co-expression of CD4 and CD8 in a subset of atypical T lymphocytes. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a CD4/CD8 dual-positive MF.
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Early detection of gut ischemia-reperfusion injury during aortic abdominal aneurysmectomy: a pilot, observational study.
J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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D-lactate is the enantiomer of L-lactate, which is measured routinely in clinical practice to assess cell hypoxia. D-lactate has been proposed as a specific marker of gut ischemia-reperfusion (IR), particularly during surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The aim of this study was to compare the use of D-lactate measurement and colonic tonometry (taken as a reference method) for gut IR detection during elective infrarenal aortic aneurysm (IrAA) surgery.
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RhoB Promotes Cancer Initiation by Protecting Keratinocytes from UVB-Induced Apoptosis but Limits Tumor Aggressiveness.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The role of UVB-induced apoptosis in the formation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is recognized. We previously identified the small RhoB (Ras homolog gene family, member B) GTPase, an early response gene to cellular stress, as a critical protein controlling apoptosis of human keratinocytes after UVB exposure. Here we generated SKH1 (hairless immunocompetent mouse) mice invalidated for RhoB to evaluate its role in UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in vivo. We show that rhob-/- mice have a lower risk of developing UVB-induced keratotic tumors and actinic keratosis that is associated with a higher sensitivity of UVB-exposed keratinocytes to apoptosis. We extend this observation to primary cultures of normal human keratinocytes in which RhoB was downregulated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and further show that the hypersensitivity to apoptosis depends on B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) downregulation. In rhob-/- mice, the UVB-induced tumors were preferentially undifferentiated and highly proliferative. Finally, we show in humans an almost constant loss of RhoB expression in undifferentiated SCCs. These undifferentiated and RhoB-deficient tumors have elevated phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX) and 53BP1, two markers of DNA double-strand breaks. Together, our results indicate that UVB-induced RhoB expression participates in in vivo SCC initiation by increasing keratinocyte survival. Conversely, RhoB may limit tumor aggressiveness as loss of RhoB expression in tumor cells is associated with tumor progression.
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Prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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To develop a model for predicting premature delivery before 37 weeks gestation based on maternal factors, obstetric history and biomarkers in the first trimester of pregnancy.
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Exclusive Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin as Bridging Anticoagulant After Mechanical Valve Replacement.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Unfractionated heparin has been the standard anticoagulant used immediately after mechanical heart valve replacement (MHVR). The purpose of this study was to assess a postoperative anticoagulation protocol with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) immediately after MHVR without the use of unfractionated heparin or anti-factor Xa monitoring.
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Management of autoimmune bullous diseases in France: a nationwide network of 30 centers.
Dermatol Clin
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Limited data are available on the epidemiology of autoimmune bullous diseases in France and in Western Europe. Bullous pemphigoid represents the most common autoimmune bullous disease. The management of autoimmune bullous diseases in France is under the guidance of dermatologists. In 1985, a research group focused on autoimmune bullous diseases was created in France. In 2004, the French Ministry of Health established and funded a nationwide network including 2 references centers, 7 competence centers, and 30 corresponding centers, with the aim of improving quality of care and research for autoimmune bullous diseases.
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Late-onset neonatal infections: incidences and pathogens in the era of antenatal antibiotics.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Widespread use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection (EONI); however, little is known about the effects of increased maternal exposure to antibiotics on late-onset neonatal infection (LONI). This study aims to evaluate LONI epidemiology in our region after the application of French recommendations and to determine whether LONI-causing organisms and their antibiotic susceptibility are influenced by peripartum antibiotic exposure. We performed a prospective epidemiologic study of 139 confirmed and possible cases of bacterial LONI in patients treated with antibiotics for at least 5 days of the 22,458 infants born in our region in the year 2007. The overall incidence of LONI caused by all pathogens, Group B streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were 6.19, 0.36 and 2.72, respectively, per 1,000 live births. Our findings revealed three major types of LONI: E. coli-induced urinary tract infection (UTI) among term infants, coagulase negative Staphylococcus septicemia affecting preterm infants, and GBS infections with severe clinical presentation. Univariable analysis revealed that maternal antibiotic exposure was significantly associated with the risk of amoxicillin-resistant E. coli infection (p = 0.01). Postnatal antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of E. coli LONI (p = 0.048). This link persisted upon multivariable analysis; however, no additional risk factors were identified for LONI caused by antibiotic-resistant E. coli.
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A SUMOylation-defective MITF germline mutation predisposes to melanoma and renal carcinoma.
Corine Bertolotto, Fabienne Lesueur, Sandy Giuliano, Thomas Strub, Mahaut de Lichy, Karine Bille, Philippe Dessen, Benoit d'Hayer, Hamida Mohamdi, Audrey Remenieras, Eve Maubec, Arnaud de la Fouchardiere, Vincent Molinie, Pierre Vabres, Stéphane Dalle, Nicolas Poulalhon, Tanguy Martin-Denavit, Luc Thomas, Pascale Andry-Benzaquen, Nicolas Dupin, Françoise Boitier, Annick Rossi, Jean-Luc Perrot, Bruno Labeille, Caroline Robert, Bernard Escudier, Olivier Caron, Laurence Brugières, Simon Saule, Betty Gardie, Sophie Gad, Stéphane Richard, Jérôme Couturier, Bin Tean Teh, Paola Ghiorzo, Lorenza Pastorino, Susana Puig, Celia Badenas, Hakan Olsson, Christian Ingvar, Etienne Rouleau, Rosette Lidereau, Philippe Bahadoran, Philippe Vielh, Eve Corda, Hélène Blanché, Diana Zelenika, Pilar Galán, , François Aubin, Bertrand Bachollet, Céline Becuwe, Pascaline Berthet, Yves Jean Bignon, Valérie Bonadona, Jean-Louis Bonafe, Marie-Noëlle Bonnet-Dupeyron, Frédéric Cambazard, Jacqueline Chevrant-Breton, Isabelle Coupier, Sophie Dalac, Liliane Demange, Michel D'Incan, Catherine Dugast, Laurence Faivre, Lynda Vincent-Fétita, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Brigitte Gilbert, Florent Grange, Jean-Jacques Grob, Philippe Humbert, Nicolas Janin, Pascal Joly, Delphine Kerob, Christine Lasset, Dominique Leroux, Julien Levang, Jean-Marc Limacher, Cristina Livideanu, Michel Longy, Alain Lortholary, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Sandrine Mansard, Ludovic Mansuy, Karine Marrou, Christine Mateus, Christine Maugard, Nicolas Meyer, Catherine Noguès, Pierre Souteyrand, Laurence Venat-Bouvet, Hélène Zattara, Valérie Chaudru, Gilbert M Lenoir, Mark Lathrop, Irwin Davidson, Marie-Françoise Avril, Florence Demenais, Robert Ballotti, Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (?KXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.
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Cardiovascular mortality in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is mainly related to impaired P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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We sought to determine whether low platelet response to the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist clopidogrel as assessed by vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry test (VASP-FCT) differentially affects outcomes in patients with or without chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Histologic characteristics of non-microsatellite-instable colon adenomas correlate with distinct molecular patterns.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Colon carcinogenesis encompasses the stepwise accumulation of genomic aberrations correlated with the transition of aberrant crypt-adenoma-carcinoma. Recent data have revealed that, in addition to the microsatellite-instable phenotype, the chromosome instability pathway, representing four fifth of the colon carcinoma, could be involved in heterogeneous molecular alterations. Our project was aimed at determining the existence of distinct molecular subtypes in 159 non-microsatellite-instable colon polyps and their correlation with histology and dysplasia, using allelotyping, MGMT promoter gene methylation status, and K-RAS mutation analyses. Allelic imbalance, MGMT methylation, and K-RAS mutations arise in 62%, 39%, and 32% of polyps, respectively. Only 14% of polyps had no alterations. A 2-way hierarchical clustering analysis of the allelic imbalances identified subgroups of polyps according to their allelic imbalance frequency and distribution. Not only tubulovillous adenoma but also high-grade adenomas were correlated with high global allelic imbalance frequency (P = .005 and P = .003), with allelic imbalance at microsatellites targeting chromosomes 1, 6, and 9. In conclusion, the data presented in this study show that a large heterogeneity exists in the molecular patterns of alterations in precancerous colon lesions, favoring different modes of tumor initiation. Therefore, molecular alterations correlated with tubulovillous-type and high-grade dysplasia could represent targets identifying predictive factors of progression.
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[Non-surgical treatment of skin carcinomas and their precursors].
Presse Med
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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The skin carcinomas are the most common skin cancers and adult cancers. Risk factors for skin cancer are known. Surgery is the treatment of choice for skin carcinomas. There are several alternative therapies for the treatment of skin cancer and precancerous lesions: radiotherapy, cryosurgery, curettage, electrocautery, photodynamic therapy, topical imiquimod, and topical 5-fluorouracil. The management of skin cancer and precancerous lesions has been the subject of recommendations for good practice in diagnosis and therapy.
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Allelotyping identification of genomic alterations in rectal chromosomally unstable tumors without preoperative treatment.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Numerous studies reported genomic alterations in colorectal human tumors but few focused on rectal tumors with the specification of preoperative-treated or untreated tumors. The goals of this study were to list chromosome allelic imbalances and correlate their frequency with tumor progression and to identify potential molecular markers of progression in rectal chromosomally unstable tumors without preoperative treatment.
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Prognostic survival factors in elderly renal failure patients treated with peritoneal dialysis: a nine-year retrospective study.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Few studies specifically investigating elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been conducted and great uncertainty remains on the factors involved in the vital prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe our population of patients aged 75 years or older at the time PD was initiated and to study their survival in terms of the relevant nephro-geriatric criteria inventoried at the beginning of treatment.
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Pruritus in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: frequent, often severe and difficult to treat.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Pruritus has a well-known association with Hodgkins disease and other nodal lymphomas; indeed it often reveals the disease. Pruritus is also an important symptom of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Lymphoma-associated itch is thus both frequent and severe, but its pathophysiology remains unclear. Few studies have evaluated the efficacy of therapeutic agents in the management of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-related pruritus. The main objective of treatment remains disease control. Pruritus management is generally based on the physicians experience. Treatment is very difficult, especially in Sézary syndrome. We present here management strategies for cutaneous lymphoma-associated pruritus.
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mu-Opioid receptor is induced by IL-13 within lymph nodes from patients with Sézary syndrome.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Endogenous opioid peptides mainly produced by neurons are also released by immune cells. They bind to mu- (mu-opioid receptor, MOR), delta-, and kappa-opioid receptors. On the basis of studies on mice showing that MOR is the main mediator of the deleterious effects of opioids on immunity, we wondered whether MOR, absent under normal conditions, is expressed in some pathological situations such as lymphomas. mRNA expression for all three opioid receptors was examined in lymph node biopsy samples from patients with non-Hodgkins B-cell and T-cell lymphomas. We found that MOR and one of its ligands (enkephalin) are simultaneously expressed almost exclusively in lymph nodes from patients with Sézary cutaneous T cell lymphoma. As MOR was undetectable in circulating malignant T lymphocytes and in normal immune cells, we hypothesized that tumor-released cytokines might induce MOR expression in non-neoplastic lymph node cells. The correlation between mRNA levels of MOR and interleukin-13 (IL-13) within lymph nodes from Sézary patients led us to investigate the ability of IL-13 to upregulate MOR expression in normal immune cell subsets. We found that IL-13 upregulates MOR in activated Langerhans cells. Thus, our data suggest that, under pathological conditions, IL-13 overexpression might allow immune-derived endogenous opioids to down-modulate immune response.
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Impact of P2Y12 inhibition by clopidogrel on cardiovascular mortality in unselected patients treated by percutaneous coronary angioplasty: a prospective registry.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The aim of this study was to determine whether low platelet response to the P2Y(12) receptor antagonist clopidogrel as assessed by Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein flow cytometry test (VASP- FCT) predicts cardiovascular events in a high-risk population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Prognostic value of renal vein and inferior vena cava involvement in renal cell carcinoma.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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The prognostic significance of venous tumor thrombus extension in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a matter of many controversies in the current literature.
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Cutaneous T cell lymphoma complicating severe atopic dermatitis. Is making a diagnosis the main challenge?
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The association between severe long-term atopic dermatitis (AD) and the risk of skin lymphoma is still a matter of debate, since epidemiological studies have shown contradictory results. We report 2 cases of patients with a documented history of severe longstanding atopic disease, who had never been treated with topical or systemic calcineurin inhibitors, and who developed a cytotoxic cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). For these 2 patients, clinical manifestations preceded the diagnosis of CTCL. The diagnosis was based on histological findings and molecular analysis of the T cell receptor (TCR) clonality. These cases illustrate the difficulty in diagnosing CTCL in patients with severe AD and extensive inflammatory skin lesions. The transition between severe AD and CTCL is progressive; histological findings and molecular evidence of TCR clonality are detected after the clinical changes. These 2 cases lend further support to the hypothesis of an association between severe long-term AD and CTCL.
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Exceptional bone metastasis of basal cell carcinoma in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.
Dermatology (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide, is a malignant skin neoplasm. It is locally invasive, with an exceptional incidence of reported metastasis. It can also be part of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity, which is principally characterized by cutaneous BCC, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification.
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Lower circulating Sta-Liatest D-Di levels in patients with aortic intramural hematoma compared with classical aortic dissection.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To compare the diagnostic value of circulating Sta-Liatest D-Di levels in classic acute aortic dissection (AAD) and in aortic intramural hematoma (AIH), a variant of AAD without a patent false lumen.
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Reverse-engineering the genetic circuitry of a cancer cell with predicted intervention in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Cellular behavior is sustained by genetic programs that are progressively disrupted in pathological conditions--notably, cancer. High-throughput gene expression profiling has been used to infer statistical models describing these cellular programs, and development is now needed to guide orientated modulation of these systems. Here we develop a regression-based model to reverse-engineer a temporal genetic program, based on relevant patterns of gene expression after cell stimulation. This method integrates the temporal dimension of biological rewiring of genetic programs and enables the prediction of the effect of targeted gene disruption at the system level. We tested the performance accuracy of this model on synthetic data before reverse-engineering the response of primary cancer cells to a proliferative (protumorigenic) stimulation in a multistate leukemia biological model (i.e., chronic lymphocytic leukemia). To validate the ability of our method to predict the effects of gene modulation on the global program, we performed an intervention experiment on a targeted gene. Comparison of the predicted and observed gene expression changes demonstrates the possibility of predicting the effects of a perturbation in a gene regulatory network, a first step toward an orientated intervention in a cancer cell genetic program.
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High endothelial venules (HEVs) in human melanoma lesions: Major gateways for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Oncoimmunology
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The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a strong prognostic parameter for local dissemination and overall survival in melanoma. Lymphocyte migration from blood into peripheral tissues is mainly regulated by vascular endothelium. However, the blood vessels and mechanisms governing the recruitment of TILs in melanoma tumors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high endothelial venules (HEVs), specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte extravasation into lymphoid tissues, are frequently found in melanoma tumors and are associated with high levels of lymphocyte infiltration. The analysis of 225 primary melanomas revealed that lymphocytes specifically infiltrated HEV-rich areas of melanoma tumors and that the density of MECA-79+ HEVs was variable among patients and strongly correlated with CD3+, CD8+ and CD20+ TIL densities. Inflammatory (CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) and lymphoid (CCL21, CCL19 and CXCL13) chemokines as well as TH1 and naïve T-cell genes were overexpressed in melanoma samples with high densities of tumor HEVs. Mature dendritic cells (mDCs) were frequently found around tumor HEVs and densities of HEVs and DC-LAMP+ mDCs within tumor stroma were strongly correlated. DCs which maintain HEVs in lymph nodes, may thus also contribute to the regulation of HEVs in melanomas. Finally, we found significantly higher densities of tumor HEVs in melanomas with tumor regression, low Clark level of invasion and thin Breslow thickness (all p < 0.001). The strong association between tumor HEVs, TILs, mDCs and clinical parameters of melanoma, supports a critical role for HEVs in limiting malignant melanoma development through both naïve and effector T-lymphocyte recruitment and activation.
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Impact of 3D conformal radiotherapy on lung function of patients with lung cancer: a prospective study.
Respiration
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The development of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-RT) has enabled the restriction of the dose to normal lung, limiting radiation-induced lung injury.
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Can exhaled NO fraction predict radiotherapy-induced lung toxicity in lung cancer patients?
Radiat Oncol
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A large increase in nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) after radiotherapy (RT) for lung cancer may predict RT-induced lung toxicity.
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Photoletter to the editor: Blue nevus with satellitosis mimicking melanoma. Contribution of dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy.
J Dermatol Case Rep
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Blue nevus is an acquired benign melanocytic nevus that can undergo malignant transformation. We report a 70-year-old man who presented with a recently enlarged long-term blue nodule on his scalp. He reported onset of new satellitosis around the lesion. Although clinically thought to be a malignant melanoma, histopathological, dermoscopic and reflectance confocal-microscopy examinations did not confirm this diagnosis.
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Microarray analyses of inflammation response of human dermal fibroblasts to different strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.
PLoS ONE
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In Lyme borreliosis, the skin is the key site of bacterial inoculation by the infected tick, and of cutaneous manifestations, erythema migrans and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans. We explored the role of fibroblasts, the resident cells of the dermis, in the development of the disease. Using microarray experiments, we compared the inflammation of fibroblasts induced by three strains of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto isolated from different environments and stages of Lyme disease: N40 (tick), Pbre (erythema migrans) and 1408 (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans). The three strains exhibited a similar profile of inflammation with strong induction of chemokines (CXCL1 and IL-8) and IL-6 cytokine mainly involved in the chemoattraction of immune cells. Molecules such as TNF-alpha and NF-?B factors, metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -3 and -12) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2), also described in inflammatory and cellular events, were up-regulated. In addition, we showed that tick salivary gland extracts induce a cytotoxic effect on fibroblasts and that OspC, essential in the transmission of Borrelia to the vertebrate host, was not responsible for the secretion of inflammatory molecules by fibroblasts. Tick saliva components could facilitate the early transmission of the disease to the site of injury creating a feeding pit. Later in the development of the disease, Borrelia would intensively multiply in the skin and further disseminate to distant organs.
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Vasostatin-I, a chromogranin A-derived peptide, in non-selected critically ill patients: distribution, kinetics, and prognostic significance.
Intensive Care Med
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Chromogranin A (CGA) is released in the plasma during life-threatening illnesses. Its N-terminal 1-76 peptide, vasostatin-I (VS-I), has never been assessed in critically ill patients. Our aim was to examine whether the admission VS-I concentration has prognostic significance without having to specify a primary diagnosis.
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Melanoma chemotherapy leads to the selection of ABCB5-expressing cells.
PLoS ONE
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Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer. Recently, phenotypically distinct subpopulations of tumor cells were identified. Among them, ABCB5-expressing cells were proposed to display an enhanced tumorigenicity with stem cell-like properties. In addition, ABCB5(+) cells are thought to participate to chemoresistance through a potential efflux function of ABCB5. Nevertheless, the fate of these cells upon drugs that are used in melanoma chemotherapy remains to be clarified. Here we explored the effect of anti-melanoma treatments on the ABCB5-expressing cells. Using a melanoma xenograft model (WM266-4), we observed in vivo that ABCB5-expressing cells are enriched after a temozolomide treatment that induces a significant tumor regression. These results were further confirmed in a preliminary study conducted on clinical samples from patients that received dacarbazine. In vitro, we showed that ABCB5-expressing cells selectively survive when exposed to dacarbazine, the reference treatment of metastatic melanoma, but also to vemurafenib, a new inhibitor of the mutated kinase V600E BRAF and other various chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results show that anti-melanoma chemotherapy might participate to the chemoresistance acquisition by selecting tumor cell subpopulations expressing ABCB5. This is of particular importance in understanding the relapses observed after anti-melanoma treatments and reinforces the interest of ABCB5 and ABCB5-expressing cells as potential therapeutic targets in melanoma.
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In vivo quantification of epidermis pigmentation and dermis papilla density with reflectance confocal microscopy: variations with age and skin phototype.
Exp. Dermatol.
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Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) may help to quantify variations of skin pigmentation induced by different stimuli such as UV radiation or therapeutic intervention. The objective of our work was to identify RCM parameters able to quantify in vivo dermis papilla density and epidermis pigmentation potentially applicable in clinical studies. The study included 111 healthy female volunteers with phototypes I-VI. Photo-exposed and photo-protected anatomical sites were imaged. The effect of age was also assessed. Four epidermis components were specifically investigated: stratum corneum, stratum spinosum, basal epidermal layer and dermo-epidermal junction. Laser power, diameter of corneocytes and upper spinous keratinocytes, brightness of upper spinous and interpapillary spinous keratinocytes, number of dermal papillae and papillary contrast were systematically assessed. Papillary contrast measured at the dermo-epidermal junction appeared to be a reliable marker of epidermis pigmentation and showed a strong correlation with skin pigmentation assessed clinically using the Fitzpatricks classification. Brightness of upper spinous and interpapillary spinous keratinocytes was not influenced by the skin phototype. The number of dermal papillae was significantly lower in subjects with phototypes I-II as compared with darker skin subjects. A dramatic reduction in the number of dermal papillae was noticed with age, particularly in subjects with fair skin. The method presented here provides a new in vivo investigation tool for quantification of dermis papilla density and epidermal pigmentation. Papillary contrast measured at the dermo-epidermal junction may be selected as a marker of skin pigmentation for evaluation in clinical studies.
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Extensive study of human insulin immunoassays: promises and pitfalls for insulin analogue detection and quantification.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
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Abstract Background: Over the last few decades, new synthetic insulin analogues have been developed. Their measurement is of prime importance in the investigation of hypoglycaemia, but their quantification is hampered by variable cross-reactivity with many insulin assays. For clinical analysis, it has now become essential to know the potential cross-reactivity of analogues of interest. Methods: In this work, we performed an extensive study of insulin analogue cross-reactivity using numerous human insulin immunoassays. We investigated the cross-reactivity of five analogues (lispro, aspart, glulisine, glargine, detemir) and two glargine metabolites (M1 and M2) with 16 commercial human insulin immunoassays as a function of concentration. Results: The cross-reactivity values for insulin analogues or glargine metabolites ranged from 0% to 264%. Four assays were more specific to human insulin, resulting in negligible cross-reactivity with the analogues. However, none of the 16 assays was completely free of cross-reactivity with analogues or metabolites. The results show that analogue cross-reactivity, which varies to a large degree, is far from negligible, and should not be overlooked in clinical investigations. Conclusions: This study has established the cross-reactivity of five insulin analogues and two glargine metabolites using 16 immunoassays to facilitate the choice of the immunoassay(s) and to provide sensitive and specific analyses in clinical routine or investigation.
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Ipilimumab in Melanoma Patients with Brain Metastasis: A Retro-spective Multicentre Evaluation of Thirty-eight Patients.
Acta Derm. Venereol.
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Treatment with ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that antagonizes cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), results in improved survival of patients with stage IIIc-IV melanoma. However, there is a lack of data on the efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with brain metastases. To evaluate the efficacy of ipilimumab for the treatment of brain metastasis in melanoma, a multicentre, retrospective analysis of 38 patients with brain metastases in melanoma, treated with ipilimumab in the context of the French Expanded Access Program, was performed. Three patients had a 3 partial response, 5 stable disease, 15 disease progression and 15 patients died during the induction phase due to disease progression. Median overall survival was 101 days (range 54-154). The brain metastases control rate was 16% (6/38). Ipilimumab may be effective in a few patients with central nervous system metastasis. However, patients with brain metastases and a low life expectancy may not benefit sufficiently from treatment with ipilimumab.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.