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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Macrophage trafficking as key mediator of adenine-induced kidney injury.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Macrophages play a special role in the onset of several diseases, including acute and chronic kidney injuries. In this sense, tubule interstitial nephritis (TIN) represents an underestimated insult, which can be triggered by different stimuli and, in the absence of a proper regulation, can lead to fibrosis deposition. Based on this perception, we evaluated the participation of macrophage recruitment in the development of TIN. Initially, we provided adenine-enriched food to WT and searched for macrophage presence and action in the kidney. Also, a group of animals were depleted of macrophages with the clodronate liposome while receiving adenine-enriched diet. We collected blood and renal tissue from these animals and renal function, inflammation, and fibrosis were evaluated. We observed higher expression of chemokines in the kidneys of adenine-fed mice and a substantial protection when macrophages were depleted. Then, we specifically investigated the role of some key chemokines, CCR5 and CCL3, in this TIN experimental model. Interestingly, CCR5 KO and CCL3 KO animals showed less renal dysfunction and a decreased proinflammatory profile. Furthermore, in those animals, there was less profibrotic signaling. In conclusion, we can suggest that macrophage infiltration is important for the onset of renal injury in the adenine-induced TIN.
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Association of the NOS3 intron-4 VNTR polymorphism with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The nitric oxide system has been linked to the pathogenesis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors performed a case-control study to investigate the association between SAH and common genetic variants within the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3).
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Morphological and functional aspects of acute kidney injury after fetal programing in the offspring of diabetic rats.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effects of folic acid (FA)-induced renal failure in young offspring of diabetic mothers. Methods: The offspring of streptozotocin-induced diabetic dams were divided into four groups: CC (controls receiving vehicle); DC (diabetics receiving vehicle); CA (controls receiving FA solution, 250?mg/kg) and DA (diabetics receiving FA solution, 250?mg/kg). Renal function tests and morphometry results were analyzed. Results: An increase in creatinine and urea levels was observed in CA and DA groups at two and five months. FA administration caused a significant reduction in the number of glomeruli in the offspring of diabetic dams. The diabetes group treated with FA had fewer glomeruli compared to controls at two and five months. FA caused an increase in the area of the urinary space both in controls and offspring of diabetic dams at two and five months. The number of glomeruli and area of the urinary space at two months were negatively correlated. Conclusions: Fetal programing promotes remarkable changes in kidney morphology and function in offspring. We suggest that the morphological changes in the kidneys are more pronounced when fetal programing is associated with newly acquired diseases, e.g. renal failure induced by FA.
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Balance between the two kinin receptors in the progression of experimental focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis in mice.
Dis Model Mech
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is one of the most important renal diseases related to end-stage renal failure. Bradykinin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of renal inflammation, whereas the role of its receptor 2 (B2RBK; also known as BDKRB2) in FSGS has not been studied. FSGS was induced in wild-type and B2RBK-knockout mice by a single intravenous injection of Adriamycin (ADM). In order to further modulate the kinin receptors, the animals were also treated with the B2RBK antagonist HOE-140 and the B1RBK antagonist DALBK. Here, we show that the blockage of B2RBK with HOE-140 protects mice from the development of FSGS, including podocyte foot process effacement and the re-establishment of slit-diaphragm-related proteins. However, B2RBK-knockout mice were not protected from FSGS. These opposite results were due to B1RBK expression. B1RBK was upregulated after the injection of ADM and this upregulation was exacerbated in B2RBK-knockout animals. Furthermore, treatment with HOE-140 downregulated the B1RBK receptor. The blockage of B1RBK in B2RBK-knockout animals promoted FSGS regression, with a less-inflammatory phenotype. These results indicate a deleterious role of both kinin receptors in an FSGS model and suggest a possible cross-talk between them in the progression of disease.
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Transient impairment of the axolemma following regional anaesthesia by lidocaine in humans.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The local anaesthetic lidocaine is known to block voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs), although at high concentration it was also reported to block other ion channel currents as well as to alter lipid membranes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the clinical regional anaesthetic action of lidocaine could be accounted for solely by the block of VGSCs or whether other mechanisms are also relevant. We tested the recovery of motor axon conduction and multiple measures of excitability by 'threshold-tracking' after ultrasound-guided distal median nerve regional anaesthesia in 13 healthy volunteers. Lidocaine caused rapid complete motor axon conduction block localized at the wrist. Within 3 h, the force of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and median motor nerve conduction studies returned to normal. In contrast, the excitability of the motor axons at the wrist remained markedly impaired as indicated by a 7-fold shift of the stimulus-response curves to higher currents with partial recovery by 6 h and full recovery by 24 h. The strength-duration properties were abnormal with markedly increased rheobase and reduced strength-duration time constant. The changes in threshold during electrotonus, especially during depolarization, were markedly reduced. The recovery cycle showed increased refractoriness and reduced superexcitability. The excitability changes were only partly similar to those previously observed after poisoning with the VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin. Assuming an unaltered ion-channel gating, modelling indicated that, apart from up to a 4-fold reduction in the number of functioning VGSCs, lidocaine also caused a decrease of passive membrane resistance and an increase of capacitance. Our data suggest that the lidocaine effects, even at clinical 'sub-blocking' concentrations, could reflect, at least in part, a reversible structural impairment of the axolemma.
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Obesity in kidney disease: A heavyweight opponent.
World J Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Obesity is an important worldwide challenge that must be faced in most developed and developing countries because of unhealthy nutritional habits. The consequences of obesity and being overweight are observed in different organs, but the kidney is one of the most affected. Excess adipose tissue causes hemodynamic alterations in the kidney that can result in renal disease. However, obesity is also commonly associated with other comorbidities such as chronic inflammation, hypertension and diabetes. This association of several aggravating factors is still a matter of concern in clinical and basic research because the pathophysiologic mechanisms surrounding chronic kidney disease development in obese patients remain unclear. This review will discuss the consequences of obesity in the context of renal injury.
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High-dose erythropoietin for tissue protection.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The discovery of potential anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has led to clinical trials investigating the use of high-dose, short-term rHuEPO therapy for tissue protection in conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Experimental studies have been favourable, but the clinical efficacy has yet to be validated.
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Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillated water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment.
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Immunoregulatory effects of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in the nasal polyp microenvironment.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Nasal polyposis is a severe, chronic inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses and is frequently associated with asthma and aspirin sensitivity. Mesenchymal stem cells exhibit a potent immunosuppressive effect in several inflammatory conditions, and their role in nasal polyposis remains little explored. Hence, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells could modulate cell phenotype in the nasal polyp milieu. After coculture with mesenchymal stem cells, the frequency of these inflammatory cells was found to decrease. Furthermore, mesenchymal stem cells promoted strong inhibition of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation, increased the frequency of CD4+CD25+Foxp3 T cells, and changed the global cytokine profile from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response. We believe that mesenchymal stem cells may be a very useful adjunct for investigation of the inflammatory process in nasal polyposis, contributing to better understanding of the inflammatory course of this condition.
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MyD88 signaling is directly involved in the development of murine placental malaria.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Malaria is a widespread infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium. During pregnancy, malaria infection leads to a range of complications that can affect both the mother and fetus, including stillbirth, infant mortality, and low birth weight. In this study, we utilized a mouse model of placental malaria (PM) infection to determine the importance of the protein MyD88 in the host immune response to Plasmodium during pregnancy. Initially, we demonstrated that Plasmodium berghei NK65GFP adhered to placental tissue via chondroitin sulfate A and induced PM in mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background. To evaluate the involvement of MyD88 in the pathology of PM, we performed a histopathological analysis of placentas obtained from MyD88(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice following infection on the 19th gestational day. Our data demonstrated that the detrimental placental alterations observed in the infected mice were correlated with the expression of MyD88. Moreover, in the absence of this protein, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) was significantly reduced in the infected mice. More importantly, in contrast to fetuses from infected WT mice, which exhibited a reduction in body weight, the fetuses from infected MyD88(-/-) mice did not display significant weight loss compared to their noninfected littermates. In addition, we observed a decrement of maternal care associated with malaria infection, which was attenuated in the MyD88-deficient mice. Collectively, the results of this study illustrate the pivotal importance of the MyD88 signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of placental malaria, thus presenting new possibilities for targeting MyD88 in therapeutic interventions.
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Evaluation of endothelial function by peripheral arterial tonometry and relation with the nitric oxide pathway.
Nitric Oxide
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction is an important component in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial function may be evaluated by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) which measures the vasodilator function in the microvasculature of the fingertip during reactive hyperaemia. The reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) is decreased in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors and thus far several studies have shown that PAT-RHI may provide reliable prediction of outcome. The technique is operator independent and easy to perform. Abnormalities measured by PAT follow the same trend as those measured by flow-mediated dilation in the brachial artery, but the two methods are not interchangeable. We have reviewed the recent literature in an effort to evaluate peripheral arterial tonometry as a method to assess the function of the endothelium and additionally suggest directions for future research. Special attention will be directed to the nitric oxide dependency of the reactive hyperaemia index obtained by peripheral arterial tonometry.
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Intestinal barrier: A gentlemen's agreement between microbiota and immunity.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Our body is colonized by more than a hundred trillion commensals, represented by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This complex interaction has shown that the microbiome system contributes to the host's adaptation to its environment, providing genes and functionality that give flexibility of diet and modulate the immune system in order not to reject these symbionts. In the intestine, specifically, the microbiota helps developing organ structures, participates of the metabolism of nutrients and induces immunity. Certain components of the microbiota have been shown to trigger inflammatory responses, whereas others, anti-inflammatory responses. The diversity and the composition of the microbiota, thus, play a key role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and explain partially the link between intestinal microbiota changes and gut-related disorders in humans. Tight junction proteins are key molecules for determination of the paracellular permeability. In the context of intestinal inflammatory diseases, the intestinal barrier is compromised, and decreased expression and differential distribution of tight junction proteins is observed. It is still unclear what is the nature of the luminal or mucosal factors that affect the tight junction proteins function, but the modulation of the immune cells found in the intestinal lamina propria is hypothesized as having a role in this modulation. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of the interaction of the gut microbiota with the immune system in the development and maintenance of the intestinal barrier.
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Recombinant erythropoietin in humans has a prolonged effect on circulating erythropoietin isoform distribution.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The membrane-assisted isoform immunoassay (MAIIA) quantitates erythropoietin (EPO) isoforms as percentages of migrated isoforms (PMI). We evaluated the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) on the distribution of EPO isoforms in plasma in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, cross-over study. 16 healthy subjects received either low-dose Epoetin beta (5000 IU on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13); high-dose Epoetin beta (30.000 IU on days 1, 2 and 3 and placebo on days 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13); or placebo on all days. PMI on days 4, 11 and 25 was determined by interaction of N-acetyl glucosamine with the glycosylation dependent desorption of EPO isoforms. At day 25, plasma-EPO in both rhEPO groups had returned to values not different from the placebo group. PMI with placebo, reflecting the endogenous EPO isoforms, averaged 82.5 (10.3) % (mean (SD)). High-dose Epoetin beta decreased PMI on days 4 and 11 to 31.0 (4.2)% (p<0.00001) and 45.2 (7.3)% (p<0.00001). Low-dose Epoetin beta decreased PMI on days 4 and 11 to 46.0 (12.8)% (p<0.00001) and 46.1 (10.4)% (p<0.00001). In both rhEPO groups, PMI on day 25 was still decreased (high-dose Epoetin beta: 72.9 (19.4)% (p?=?0.029); low-dose Epoetin beta: 73.1 (17.8)% (p?=?0.039)). In conclusion, Epoetin beta leaves a footprint in the plasma-EPO isoform pattern. MAIIA can detect changes in EPO isoform distribution up til at least three weeks after administration of Epoetin beta even though the total EPO concentration has returned to normal.
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Lipidomic assessment of plasma and placenta of women with early-onset preeclampsia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Adipose tissue is responsible for triggering chronic systemic inflammatory response and these changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.
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Long-Term Aerobic Exercise Protects against Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity by Modulating the Expression of IL-6 and HO-1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Nephrotoxicity is substantial side effect for 30% of patients undergoing cancer therapy with cisplatin and may force them to change or even abandon the treatment. Studies regarding aerobic exercise have shown its efficacy for the treatment of many types of diseases and its capacity to reduce tumors. However, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the role of physical exercise in AKI induced by cisplatin. We submitted C57Bl6 male mice to seven weeks of chronic exercise on a training treadmill and treated them with single i.p. injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg) in the last week. Exercise efficacy was confirmed by an increased capillary-to-fiber ratio in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised groups (EX and CIS-EX). The group submitted to exercise before cisplatin administration (CIS-EX) exhibited less weight loss and decreased serum urea levels compared to the cisplatin group (CIS). Exercise also showed a protective role against cisplatin-induced cell death in the kidney. The CIS-EX group showed a lower inflammatory response, with less TNF and IL-10 expression in the kidney and serum. In the same group, we observed an increase of IL-6 and HO-1 expression in the kidney. Taken together, our results indicate that chronic aerobic exercise is able to attenuate AKI by inducing IL-6 and HO-1 production, which results in lower inflammatory and apoptotic profiles in the kidney.
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Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) induce immune modulatory profile in monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells have prominent immune modulatory properties, which may have clinical applications; however their major source, bone marrow, is of limited availability. On the other hand, mesenchymal stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are readily accessible, but their immune regulatory properties have not been completely investigated. This study was designed, therefore, to evaluate the SHEDs influence on DCs differentiation, maturation, ability to activate T cells and to expand CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells.
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Lung remodeling in a mouse model of asthma involves a balance between TGF-?1 and BMP-7.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A key event in chronic allergic asthma is the TGF-?-induced activation of fibroblasts into ?-SMA-positive myofibroblasts which synthesize type-I collagen. In the present study we investigated the effect of the anti-fibrotic molecule BMP-7 in asthma. Balb/c mice were immunized i.p. with ovalbumin in alum and challenged every 2 days with ovalbumin aerosol (two or six challenges for acute and chronic protocols, respectively). The lung was evaluated for: ?-SMA and type-I collagen by immunohistochemistry; BMP-7 and TGF- ?1 gene expression by qRT-PCR; type-I collagen and Smads 2 and 3 by immunoblotting; mucus by PSA staining. Type-I collagen around bronchi, ?-SMA, mucus secretion, TGF- ?1 and BMP-7 gene expression were all increased in asthma. The TGF- ?1/BMP-7 ratio was higher in the chronic group and correlated with higher levels of collagen. Fibroblasts isolated from asthmatic and healthy lungs produced type-I collagen upon stimulation with TGF- ?1 via phosphorylation of Smad-2, Smad-3. Pre-treatment of the fibroblasts with BMP-7 reduced collagen production and Smads phosphorylation. Intranasal treatment of asthmatic mice with recombinant BMP-7 during the immunization protocol reduced lung inflammation and type I collagen deposition. These results suggest a protective role for BMP-7 in lung allergic inflammation, opposing the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF- ?1.
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Cytoprotective role of heme oxygenase-1 and heme degradation derived end products in liver injury.
World J Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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The activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) appears to be an endogenous defensive mechanism used by cells to reduce inflammation and tissue damage in a number of injury models. HO-1, a stress-responsive enzyme that catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide (CO), biliverdin and iron, has previously been shown to protect grafts from ischemia/reperfusion and rejection. In addition, the products of the HO-catalyzed reaction, particularly CO and biliverdin/bilirubin, have been shown to exert protective effects in the liver against a number of stimuli, as in chronic hepatitis C and in transplanted liver grafts. Furthermore, the induction of HO-1 expression can protect the liver against damage caused by a number of chemical compounds. More specifically, the CO derived from HO-1-mediated heme catabolism has been shown to be involved in the regulation of inflammation; furthermore, administration of low concentrations of exogenous CO has a protective effect against inflammation. Both murine and human HO-1 deficiencies have systemic manifestations associated with iron metabolism, such as hepatic overload (with signs of a chronic hepatitis) and iron deficiency anemia (with paradoxical increased levels of ferritin). Hypoxia induces HO-1 expression in multiple rodent, bovine and monkey cell lines, but interestingly, hypoxia represses expression of the human HO-1 gene in a variety of human cell types (endothelial cells, epithelial cells, T cells). These data suggest that HO-1 and CO are promising novel therapeutic molecules for patients with inflammatory diseases. In this review, we present what is currently known regarding the role of HO-1 in liver injuries and in particular, we focus on the implications of targeted induction of HO-1 as a potential therapeutic strategy to protect the liver against chemically induced injury.
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NF-?B activation mediates crystal translocation and interstitial inflammation in adenine overload nephropathy.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Adenine overload promotes intratubular crystal precipitation and interstitial nephritis. We showed recently that these abnormalities are strongly attenuated in mice knockout for Toll-like receptors-2, -4, MyD88, ASC, or caspase-1. We now investigated whether NF-?B activation also plays a pathogenic role in this model. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats were distributed among three groups: C (n = 17), receiving standard chow; ADE (n = 17), given adenine in the chow at 0.7% for 1 wk and 0.5% for 2 wk; and ADE + pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC; n = 14), receiving adenine as above and the NF-?B inhibitor PDTC (120 mg·kg?¹·day?¹ in the drinking water). After 3 wk, widespread crystal deposition was seen in tubular lumina and in the renal interstitium, along with granuloma formation, collagen accumulation, intense tubulointerstitial proliferation, and increased interstitial expression of inflammatory mediators. Part of the crystals were segregated from tubular lumina by a newly formed cell layer and, at more advanced stages, appeared to be extruded to the interstitium. p65 nuclear translocation and IKK-? increased abundance indicated activation of the NF-?B system. PDTC treatment prevented p65 migration and normalized IKK-?, limited crystal shift to the interstitium, and strongly attenuated interstitial fibrosis/inflammation. These findings indicate that the complex inflammatory phenomena associated with this model depend, at least in part, on NF-?B activation, and suggest that the NF-?B system may become a therapeutic target in the treatment of chronic kidney disease.
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Compartmentalization of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in renal-transplanted pregnant women.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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We evaluated whether chronic exposure to immunosuppression in transplant recipients modulate the placental inflammatory cytokine levels associated to gestational tolerance mechanisms.
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Mechanical spectra of glass-forming liquids. I. Low-frequency bulk and shear moduli of DC704 and 5-PPE measured by piezoceramic transducers.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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We present dynamic shear and bulk modulus measurements of supercooled tetraphenyl-tetramethyl-trisiloxane (DC704) and 5-phenyl-4-ether over a range of temperatures close to their glass transition. The data are analyzed and compared in terms of time-temperature superposition (TTS), the relaxation time, and the spectral shape parameters. We conclude that TTS is obeyed to a good approximation for both the bulk and shear moduli. The loss-peak shapes are nearly identical, while the shear modulus relaxes faster than the bulk modulus. The temperature dependence of this decoupling of time scales is constant over the temperature range explored here. In addition, we demonstrate how one can measure reliably the DC shear viscosity over ten orders of magnitude by using the two measuring techniques in combination.
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Low plasma arginine:asymmetric dimethyl arginine ratios predict mortality after intracranial aneurysm rupture.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases, predicts mortality in cardiovascular disease and has been linked to cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this prospective study, we assessed whether circulating ADMA, arginine:ADMA ratio, and nitrite/nitrate levels were associated with survival and cerebral vasospasm in SAH patients.
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G16R single nucleotide polymorphism but not haplotypes of the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor gene alters cardiac output in humans.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Variation in genes encoding the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) may influence Q (cardiac output). The 46G>A (G16R) SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) has been associated with ?(2)-mediated vasodilation, but the effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on Q has not been studied. Five SNPs within ADRB2 (46G>A, 79C>G, 491C>T, 523C>A and 1053G>C by a pairwise tagging principle) and the I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism in ACE were genotyped in 143 subjects. Cardiovascular variables were evaluated by the Model flow method at rest and during incremental cycling exercise. Only the G16R polymorphism was associated with Q. In carriers of the Arg(16) allele, Q(rest) (resting Q) was 0.4 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.0-0.7] l/min lower than in G16G homozygotes (P=0.048). During exercise, the increase in Q was by 4.7 (95% CI, 4.3-5.2) l/min per litre increase in pulmonary Vo(2) (oxygen uptake) in G16G subjects, but the increase was 0.5 (0.0-0.9) l/min lower in Arg16 carriers (P=0.035). A similar effect size was observed for the Arg16 haplotypes ACCCG and ACCCC. No interaction was found between ADRB2 and ACE polymorphisms. During exercise, the increase in Q was 0.5 (CI, 0.0 -1.0) l/min greater in ACE I/I carriers compared with I/D and D/D subjects (P=0.054). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Arg16 allele in humans is associated with a lower Q both at rest and during exercise, overriding the effects of haplotypes.
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Comparison of dyssynchrony parameters for VV-optimization in CRT patients.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Optimization of the interventricular delay (VV-optimization) in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients can be performed by evaluation of mechanical dyssynchrony. However, there is no consensus on which method to use. In this study, three conceptually different methods were evaluated.
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Influence of erythropoietin on cognitive performance during experimental hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized cross-over trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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The incidence of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes has not decreased over the past decades. New treatment modalities minimizing the risk of hypoglycemic episodes and attenuating hypoglycemic cognitive dysfunction are needed. We studied if treatment with the neuroprotective hormone erythropoietin (EPO) enhances cognitive function during hypoglycemia.
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[Volatile anaesthesias molecular biological course of action].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Anaesthesia is extensively used worldwide and in Denmark alone more than 400,000 anaesthesias are performed each year. In spite of that the molecularly mechanism of anaesthesia has not been proven. Hypotheses have been suggested (lipid versus protein theory), but none has yet been able to explain the whole mechanism. Molecular targets for volatile anaesthetics (e.g. potassium and calcium channels) affected areas in the central nervous system and the impact on the cerebral metabolism versus the cerebral blood flow are discussed.
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Hypertrophy signaling pathways in experimental chronic aortic regurgitation.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The development of left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in aortic regurgitation (AR) has only been sparsely studied experimentally. In a new model of chronic AR in rats, we examined activation of molecular pathways involved in myocardial hypertrophy. Chronic AR was produced by damaging one or two valve cusps, resulting in eccentric remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction, with no increase in overall fibrosis. Western blotting showed increased activation of Akt and p38 at 12 weeks and of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase at 2 weeks, decreased activation of extracellular regulated kinase 5 at both 2 and 12 weeks, while activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 was unchanged. Expression of calcineurin and ANF was also unchanged. Eccentric hypertrophy and early cardiac dysfunction in experimental AR are associated with a pattern of activation of intracellular pathways different from that seen with pathological hypertrophy in pressure overload, and more similar to that associated with benign physiological hypertrophy.
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Regression of albuminuria and hypertension and arrest of severe renal injury by a losartan-hydrochlorothiazide association in a model of very advanced nephropathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Treatments that effectively prevent chronic kidney disease (CKD) when initiated early often yield disappointing results when started at more advanced phases. We examined the long-term evolution of renal injury in the 5/6 nephrectomy model (Nx) and the effect of an association between an AT-1 receptor blocker, losartan (L), and hydrochlorothiazide (H), shown previously to be effective when started one month after Nx. Adult male Munich-Wistar rats underwent Nx, being divided into four groups: Nx+V, no treatment; Nx+L, receiving L monotherapy; Nx+LH, receiving the L+H association (LH), and Nx+AHHz, treated with the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, the vascular relaxant, hydralazine, and H. This latter group served to assess the effect of lowering blood pressure (BP). Rats undergoing sham nephrectomy (S) were also studied. In a first protocol, treatments were initiated 60 days after Nx, when CKD is at a relatively early stage. In a second protocol, treatments were started 120 days after Nx, when glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis are already advanced. In both protocols, L treatment promoted only partial renoprotection, whereas LH brought BP, albuminuria, tubulointerstitial cell proliferation and plasma aldosterone below pretreatment levels, and completely detained progression of renal injury. Despite normalizing BP, the AHHz association failed to prevent renal damage, indicating that the renoprotective effect of LH was not due to a systemic hemodynamic action. These findings are inconsistent with the contention that thiazides are innocuous in advanced CKD. In Nx, LH promotes effective renoprotection even at advanced stages by mechanisms that may involve anti-inflammatory and intrarenal hemodynamic effects, but seem not to require BP normalization.
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The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation.
Med Gas Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO) had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO)-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.
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Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells increase skin allograft survival and inhibit Th-17 immune response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) exhibit immunosuppressive capabilities both in vitro and in vivo. Their use for therapy in the transplant field is attractive as they could render the use of immunosuppressive drugs unnecessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ADSC therapy on prolonging skin allograft survival. Animals that were treated with a single injection of donor allogeneic ADSC one day after transplantation showed an increase in donor skin graft survival by approximately one week. This improvement was associated with preserved histological morphology, an expansion of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in draining lymph nodes, as well as heightened IL-10 expression and down-regulated IL-17 expression. In vitro, ADSC inhibit naïve CD4(+) T cell proliferation and constrain Th-1 and Th-17 polarization. In summary, infusion of ADSC one day post-transplantation dramatically increases skin allograft survival by inhibiting the Th-17 pathogenic immune response and enhancing the protective Treg immune response. Finally, these data suggest that ADSC therapy will open new opportunities for promoting drug-free allograft survival in clinical transplantation.
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Endotoxin Exposure during Sensitization to Blomia tropicalis Allergens Shifts TH2 Immunity Towards a TH17-Mediated Airway Neutrophilic Inflammation: Role of TLR4 and TLR2.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Experimental evidence and epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (eLPS) or other TLR agonists prevent asthma. We have previously shown in the OVA-model of asthma that eLPS administration during alum-based allergen sensitization blocked the development of lung TH2 immune responses via MyD88 pathway and IL-12/IFN-? axis. In the present work we determined the effect of eLPS exposure during sensitization to a natural airborne allergen extract derived from the house dust mite Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Mice were subcutaneously sensitized with Bt allergens co-adsorbed onto alum with or without eLPS and challenged twice intranasally with Bt. Cellular and molecular parameters of allergic lung inflammation were evaluated 24 h after the last Bt challenge. Exposure to eLPS but not to ultrapure LPS (upLPS) preparation during sensitization to Bt allergens decreased the influx of eosinophils and increased the influx of neutrophils to the airways. Inhibition of airway eosinophilia was not observed in IFN-?deficient mice while airway neutrophilia was not observed in IL-17RA-deficient mice as well in mice lacking MyD88, CD14, TLR4 and, surprisingly, TLR2 molecules. Notably, exposure to a synthetic TLR2 agonist (PamCSK4) also induced airway neutrophilia that was dependent on TLR2 and TLR4 molecules. In the OVA model, exposure to eLPS or PamCSK4 suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation. Our results suggest that B. tropicalis allergens engage TLR4 that potentiates TLR2 signaling. This dual TLR activation during sensitization results in airway neutrophilic inflammation associated with increased frequency of lung TH17 cells. Our work highlight the complex interplay between bacterial products, house dust mite allergens and TLR signaling in the induction of different phenotypes of airway inflammation.
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Both acute and prolonged administration of EPO reduce cerebral and systemic vascular conductance in humans.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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Administration of erythropoietin (EPO) has been linked to cerebrovascular events. EPO reduces vascular conductance, possibly because of the increase in hematocrit. Whether EPO in itself affects the vasculature remains unknown; here it was evaluated in healthy males by determining systemic and cerebrovascular variables following acute (30,000 IU/d for 3 d; n=8) and chronic (5000 IU/week for 13 wk; n=8) administration of EPO, while the responsiveness of the vasculature was challenged during cycling exercise, with and without hypoxia. Prolonged administration of EPO increased hematocrit from 42.5 ± 3.7 to 47.6 ± 4.1% (P<0.01), whereas hematocrit was unaffected following acute EPO administration. Yet, the two EPO regimes increased arterial pressure similarly (by 8±4 and 7±3 mmHg, respectively; P=0.01) through reduced vascular conductance (by 7±3 and 5±2%; P<0.05). Also, both EPO regimes widened the arterial-to-jugular O(2) differences at rest as well as during normoxic and hypoxic exercise (P<0.01), which indicated reduced cerebral blood flow despite preserved dynamic cerebral autoregulation, and an increase in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity (P<0.05), therefore, reflected vasoconstriction. Thus, administration of EPO to healthy humans lowers systemic and cerebral conductance independent of its effect on hematocrit.
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"Live high-train low" using normobaric hypoxia: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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The combination of living at altitude and training near sea level [live high-train low (LHTL)] may improve performance of endurance athletes. However, to date, no study can rule out a potential placebo effect as at least part of the explanation, especially for performance measures. With the use of a placebo-controlled, double-blinded design, we tested the hypothesis that LHTL-related improvements in endurance performance are mediated through physiological mechanisms and not through a placebo effect. Sixteen endurance cyclists trained for 8 wk at low altitude (<1,200 m). After a 2-wk lead-in period, athletes spent 16 h/day for the following 4 wk in rooms flushed with either normal air (placebo group, n = 6) or normobaric hypoxia, corresponding to an altitude of 3,000 m (LHTL group, n = 10). Physiological investigations were performed twice during the lead-in period, after 3 and 4 wk during the LHTL intervention, and again, 1 and 2 wk after the LHTL intervention. Questionnaires revealed that subjects were unaware of group classification. Weekly training effort was similar between groups. Hb mass, maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)) in normoxia, and at a simulated altitude of 2,500 m and mean power output in a simulated, 26.15-km time trial remained unchanged in both groups throughout the study. Exercise economy (i.e., VO(2) measured at 200 W) did not change during the LHTL intervention and was never significantly different between groups. In conclusion, 4 wk of LHTL, using 16 h/day of normobaric hypoxia, did not improve endurance performance or any of the measured, associated physiological variables.
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Renal lactate elimination is maintained during moderate exercise in humans.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Reduced hepatic lactate elimination initiates blood lactate accumulation during incremental exercise. In this study, we wished to determine whether renal lactate elimination contributes to the initiation of blood lactate accumulation. The renal arterial-to-venous (a-v) lactate difference was determined in nine men during sodium lactate infusion to enhance the evaluation (0.5 mol x L(-1) at 16 ± 1 mL x min(-1); mean ± s) both at rest and during cycling exercise (heart rate 139 ± 5 beats x min(-1)). The renal release of erythropoietin was used to detect kidney tissue ischaemia. At rest, the a-v O(2) (CaO(2)-CvO(2)) and lactate concentration differences were 0.8 ± 0.2 and 0.02 ± 0.02 mmol x L(-1), respectively. During exercise, arterial lactate and CaO(2)-CvO(2) increased to 7.1 ± 1.1 and 2.6 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), respectively (P < 0.05), indicating a -70% reduction of renal blood flow with no significant change in the renal venous erythropoietin concentration (0.8 ± 1.4 U x L(-1)). The a-v lactate concentration difference increased to 0.5 ± 0.8 mmol x L(-1), indicating similar lactate elimination as at rest. In conclusion, a -70% reduction in renal blood flow does not provoke critical renal ischaemia, and renal lactate elimination is maintained. Thus, kidney lactate elimination is unlikely to contribute to the initial blood lactate accumulation during progressive exercise.
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Formaldehyde induces lung inflammation by an oxidant and antioxidant enzymes mediated mechanism in the lung tissue.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Formaldehyde (FA) is an indoor and outdoor pollutant widely used by many industries, and its exposure is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress in the airways. Our previous studies have demonstrated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lung inflammation induced by FA inhalation but did not identify source of the ROS. In the present study, we investigate the effects of FA on the activities and gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and 2, catalase (CAT), nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2. The hypothesized link between NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase, the lung inflammation after FA inhalation was also investigated. For experiments, male Wistar rats were submitted to FA inhalation (1%, 90 min daily) for 3 consecutive days. The treatments with apocynin and indomethacin before the FA exposure reduced the number of neutrophils recruited into the lung. Moreover, the treatments with apocynin and indomethacin blunted the effect of FA on the generation of IL-1?, while the treatments with L-NAME and apocynin reduced the generation of IL-6 by lung explants when compared to the untreated group. FA inhalation increased the levels of NO and hydrogen peroxide by BAL cells cultured and the treatments with apocynin and l-NAME reduced these generations. FA inhalation did not modify the activities of GPX, GR, GST and CAT but reduced the activity of SOD when compared to the naïve group. Significant increases in SOD-1 and -2, CAT, iNOS, cNOS and COX-1 expression were observed in the FA group compared to the naïve group. The treatments with apocynin, indomethacin and L-NAME reduced the gene expression of antioxidant and oxidant enzymes. In conclusion, our results indicate that FA causes a disruption of the physiological balance between oxidant and antioxidant enzymes in lung tissue, most likely favoring the oxidant pathways and thus positively modulating lung inflammation.
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Common variants of the ACE gene and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Danish population: a case-control study.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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The intron 16 insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with rupture of intracranial aneurysms, but the effect of haplotypes within ACE has not been studied. This study investigated whether ACE haplotypes including the I/D polymorphism are associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
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The polysaccharide fraction of Propionibacterium acnes modulates the development of experimental focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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The pathogenesis of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) appears to be associated with type-2 cytokines and podocyte dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that immunization with the polysaccharide fraction of Propionibacterium acnes (PS), a pro-Th1 agonist, may subvert the type-2 profile and protect podocytes from adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis. Adriamycin injection resulted in albuminuria and increased serum creatinine in association with loss of glomerular podocin and podoplanin expression, which is consistent with podocyte dysfunction. Renal tissue analysis revealed the expression of transcripts for GATA3 and fibrogenic-related proteins, such as TGF-?, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). In association with the expression of fibrogenic transcripts, we observed peri-glomerular expression of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), indicating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and increased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in tubular cells, suggesting intense proliferative activity. Previous immunization with PS inhibited albuminuria and serum creatinine in association with the preservation of podocyte proteins and inhibition of fibrogenic transcripts and the expression of ?-SMA and PCNA proteins. Tissue analysis also revealed that PS treatment induced expression of mRNA for GD3 synthase, which is a glycosiltransferase related to the synthesis of GD3, a ganglioside associated with podocyte physiology. In addition, PS treatment inhibited the influx of inflammatory CD8(pos) and CD11b(pos) cells to kidney tissue. Finally, PS treatment on day 4 post-ADM, a period when proteinuria was already established, was able to improve renal function. Thus, we demonstrate that the PS fraction of P. acnes can inhibit FSGS pathogenesis, suggesting that immunomodulation can represent an alternative approach for disease management.
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The spleen CD4+ T cell response to blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi malaria develops in two phases characterized by different properties.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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The pivotal role of spleen CD4(+) T cells in the development of both malaria pathogenesis and protective immunity makes necessary a profound comprehension of the mechanisms involved in their activation and regulation during Plasmodium infection. Herein, we examined in detail the behaviour of non-conventional and conventional splenic CD4(+) T cells during P. chabaudi malaria. We took advantage of the fact that a great proportion of CD4(+) T cells generated in CD1d(-/-) mice are I-A(b)-restricted (conventional cells), while their counterparts in I-A(b-/-) mice are restricted by CD1d and other class IB major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (non-conventional cells). We found that conventional CD4(+) T cells are the main protagonists of the immune response to infection, which develops in two consecutive phases concomitant with acute and chronic parasitaemias. The early phase of the conventional CD4(+) T cell response is intense and short lasting, rapidly providing large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and helping follicular and marginal zone B cells to secrete polyclonal immunoglobulin. Both TNF-? and IFN-? production depend mostly on conventional CD4(+) T cells. IFN-? is produced simultaneously by non-conventional and conventional CD4(+) T cells. The early phase of the response finishes after a week of infection, with the elimination of a large proportion of CD4(+) T cells, which then gives opportunity to the development of acquired immunity. Unexpectedly, the major contribution of CD1d-restricted CD4(+) T cells occurs at the beginning of the second phase of the response, but not earlier, helping both IFN-? and parasite-specific antibody production. We concluded that conventional CD4(+) T cells have a central role from the onset of P. chabaudi malaria, acting in parallel with non-conventional CD4(+) T cells as a link between innate and acquired immunity. This study contributes to the understanding of malaria immunology and opens a perspective for future studies designed to decipher the molecular mechanisms behind immune responses to Plasmodium infection.
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Pivotal role of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, its adaptor molecule MyD88, and inflammasome complex in experimental tubule-interstitial nephritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Tubule-interstitial nephritis (TIN) results in decreased renal function and interstitial inflammation, which ultimately leads to fibrosis. Excessive adenine intake can cause TIN because xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) can convert this purine into an insoluble compound, which precipitates in the tubuli. Innate immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inflammasome complex, play a crucial role in the initiation of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of TLR-2 and -4, Myd88 and inflammasome complex in an experimental model of TIN. Here, we show that wild-type (WT) mice fed adenine-enriched food exhibited significant renal dysfunction and enhanced cellular infiltration accompanied by collagen deposition. They also presented higher gene and protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, TLR-2, -4, MyD88, ASC and Caspase-1 KO mice showed renoprotection associated with expression of inflammatory molecules at levels comparable to controls. Furthermore, treatment of WT animals with allopurinol, an XDH inhibitor, led to reduced levels of uric acid, oxidative stress, collagen deposition and a downregulation of the NF-kB signaling pathway. We concluded that MyD88 signaling and inflammasome participate in the development of TIN. Furthermore, inhibition of XDH seems to be a promising way to therapeutically target the developing inflammatory process.
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Immune regulatory properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: Where do we stand?
World J Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) can be isolated and efficiently expanded from almost every single body tissue and have the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into various mesodermal cell lineages. Moreover, these cells are considered immunologically privileged, related to a lack of surface expression of costimulatory molecules required for complete T cell activation. Recently, it has been observed that MSC are capable of suppressing the immune response by inhibiting the maturation of dendritic cells and suppressing the function of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as a new strategy for immunosuppression. The understanding of immune regulation mechanisms by MSC is necessary for their use as immunotherapy in clinical applications for several diseases.
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Excessive distal migration of fiber-mesh coated femoral stems.
Acta Orthop
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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The surface texture, localization, and magnitude of the surface material applied to the femoral stem can facilitate bone ingrowth and influence the survival of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical and radiographic studies have shown superior bone ingrowth in proximally porous-coated stems with a diaphyseal grit-blasted surface in comparison to a smooth diaphyseal surface. Surface textures-especially porous surface material-have been suggested to have a sealing effect against migration of polyethylene debris along the implant-bone interface and to reduce the inflammatory response, leading to a prolonged implant survival.
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Speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcome in chronic aortic regurgitation during conservative management and after surgery.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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The aim of this study was to test myocardial deformation imaging using speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcomes in chronic aortic regurgitation.
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Physical aging of molecular glasses studied by a device allowing for rapid thermal equilibration.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Aging to the equilibrium liquid state of organic glasses is studied. The glasses were prepared by cooling the liquid to temperatures just below the glass transition. Aging following a temperature jump was studied by measuring the dielectric loss at a fixed frequency using a microregulator in which temperature is controlled by means of a Peltier element. Compared to conventional equipment, the new device adds almost two orders of magnitude to the span of observable aging times. Data for the following five glass-forming liquids are presented: dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, 2,3-epoxy propyl-phenyl-ether, 5-polyphenyl-ether, and triphenyl phosphite. The aging data were analyzed using the Tool-Narayanaswamy formalism. The following features are found for all five liquids: (1) The liquid has an "internal clock," a fact that is established by showing that aging is controlled by the same material time that controls the dielectric properties. (2) There are no so-called expansion gaps between the long-time limits of the relaxation rates following up and down jumps to the same temperature. (3) At long times, the structural relaxation appears to follow a simple exponential decay. (4) For small temperature steps, the rate of the long-time exponential structural relaxation is identical to that of the long-time decay of the dipole autocorrelation function.
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The incidence and prognostic significance of new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with acute myocardial infarction and left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a CARISMA substudy.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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The incidence and risk associated with new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring after discharge in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains unknown.
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Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin in normal humans.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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This review describes some of the physiological effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) in healthy humans. At the blood level EPO increases the arterial O(2) content not only by increasing red blood cell volume, but also by an equally important decrease in plasma volume. Well before that, EPO causes a prompt decrease in plasma levels of renin and aldosterone. Renal clearance studies suggest that EPO decreases renal proximal tubular reabsorption rate leading to activation of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism and a fall in glomerular filtration rate. Thus, treatment with EPO may result in suppression of endogenous EPO production through a decrease in intrarenal oxygen consumption. EPO elevates the arterial blood pressure even in healthy subjects. The receptor for EPO is present in many tissues. However, the functional effects of EPO in the skeletal muscle seem limited, and although it has been speculated that non-erythropoietic effects of EPO (angiogenesis, shift in muscle fibre types, cognitive effects) may be responsible for the increase in exercise performance, this has not been confirmed. EPO-induced haemodynamic effects call for careful monitoring during the administration period. The metabolic, hormonal and renal effects of EPO do not seem to range beyond physiologically acceptable limits and are reversible. Taken together, EPO seems safe to use for experimental purposes in healthy volunteers.
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Erythropoietin down-regulates proximal renal tubular reabsorption and causes a fall in glomerular filtration rate in humans.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) elevates haemoglobin concentration both by increasing red blood cell volume and by a decrease in plasma volume. This study delineates the association of rHuEPO-induced changes in blood volumes with changes in the renin–aldosterone system and renal function. Sixteen healthy males were given rHuEPO for 28 days in doses raising the haematocrit to 48.3±4.1%.Renal clearance studieswith urine collections (N = 8) were done at baseline and at days 4, 11, 29 and 42. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured by 51Cr-EDTA.Renal clearance of lithium (CLi)was used as an index of proximal tubular outflow and to assess segmental renal tubular handling of sodium and water. rHuEPO-induced increases in haematocrit occurred from day 10 onwards and was caused by both an increase in red cell volume and a fall in plasma volume. Well before that (from day 2 and throughout the treatment time), rHuEPO decreased plasma levels of renin and aldosterone (N = 8) by 21–33% (P < 0.05) and 15–36% (P < 0.05), respectively. After cessation of rHuEPO, values returned to baseline. On days 11 and 29, CLi increased (P < 0.02) indicating a significant 10–16% decrease in absolute proximal reabsorption of sodium and water (APR = GFR ? CLi, P < 0.05). GFR decreased slightly, albeit significantly, on day 4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, rHuEPO promptly, and before any changes in blood volumes and haematocrit can be detected, causes a down-regulation of the renin–aldosterone system. The results are compatible with a rHuEPO-induced reduction in proximal reabsorption rate leading to activation of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism and a fall in GFR. Therefore, treatment with rHuEPO may result in suppression of endogenous EPO synthesis secondary to a decrease in intrarenal oxygen consumption.
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Expression of TLR-4 and -2 in peripheral mononuclear cells in renal transplant patients with TLR-4 gene polymorphism.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2010
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TLR-4 has also been identified as a receptor for endogenous alarmins, which are increased post transplantation. TLR-4 has also been associated with a polymorphism that could impact graft outcome.
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The role of innate immunity in septic acute kidney injuries.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important clinical syndrome characterized by abnormalities in the hydroelectrolytic balance. Because of high rates of morbidity and mortality (from 15% to 60%) associated with AKI, the study of its pathophysiology is critical in searching for clinical targets and therapeutic strategies. Severe sepsis is the major cause of AKI. The host response to sepsis involves an inflammatory response, whereby the pathogen is initially sensed by innate immune receptors (pattern recognition receptors [PRRs]). When it persists, this immune response leads to secretion of proinflammatory products that induce organ dysfunction such as renal failure and consequently increased mortality. Moreover, the injured tissue releases molecules resulting from extracellular matrix degradation or dying cells that function as alarmines, which are recognized by PRR in the absence of pathogens in a second wave of injury. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are the best characterized PRRs. They are expressed in many cell types and throughout the nephron. Their activation leads to translocation of nuclear factors and synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. TLRs signaling primes the cells for a robust inflammatory response dependent on NLRs; the interaction of TLRs and NLRs gives rise to the multiprotein complex known as the inflammasome, which in turn activates secretion of mature interleukin 1[beta] and interleukin 18. Experimental data show that innate immune receptors, the inflammasome components, and proinflammatory cytokines play crucial roles not only in sepsis, but also in organ-induced dysfunction, especially in the kidneys. In this review, we discuss the significance of the innate immune receptors in the development of acute renal injury secondary to sepsis.
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Frequency-dependent specific heat from thermal effusion in spherical geometry.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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We present a method of measuring the frequency-dependent specific heat at the glass transition applied to 5-polyphenyl-4-ether. The method employs thermal waves effusing radially out from the surface of a spherical thermistor that acts as both a heat generator and a thermometer. It is a merit of the method compared to planar effusion methods that the influence of the mechanical boundary conditions is analytically known. This implies that it is the longitudinal rather than the isobaric specific heat that is measured. As another merit the thermal conductivity and specific heat can be found independently. The method has highest sensitivity at a frequency where the thermal diffusion length is comparable to the radius of the heat generator. This limits in practice the frequency range to 2-3 decades. An account of the 3? technique used including higher-order terms in the temperature dependence of the thermistor and in the power generated is furthermore given.
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Lung inflammation is induced by renal ischemia and reperfusion injury as part of the systemic inflammatory syndrome.
Inflamm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) are mainly caused by leukocyte activation, endothelial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, IRI can lead to a systemic response affecting distant organs, such as the lungs.
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Bone marrow mononuclear cells attenuate fibrosis development after severe acute kidney injury.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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One of the early phases that lead to fibrosis progression is inflammation. Once this stage is resolved, fibrosis might be prevented. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) are emerging as a new therapy for several pathologies, including autoimmune diseases, because they enact immunosuppression. In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of BMMC administration in a model of kidney fibrosis induced by an acute injury. C57Bl6 mice were subjected to unilateral severe ischemia by clamping the left renal pedicle for 1h. BMMCs were isolated from femurs and tibia, and after 6h of reperfusion, 1 x 10(6) cells were administrated intraperitoneally. At 24h after surgery, treated animals showed a significant decrease in creatinine and urea levels when compared with untreated animals. Different administration routes were tested. Moreover, interferon (IFN) receptor knockout BMMCs were used, as this receptor is necessary for BMMC activation. Labeled BMMCs were found in ischemic kidney on FACS analysis. This improved outcome was associated with modulation of inflammation in the kidney and systemic modulation, as determined by cytokine expression profiling. Despite non-amelioration of functional parameters, kidney mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 at 6 weeks was lower in BMMC-treated animals, as were levels of collagen 1, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and vimentin. Protective molecules, such as IL-10, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and bone morphogenetic 7 (BMP-7), were increased in treated animals after 6 weeks. Moreover, Masson and Picrosirius red staining analyses showed less fibrotic areas in the kidneys of treated animals. Thus, early modulation of inflammation by BMMCs after an ischemic injury leads to reduced fibrosis through modulation of early inflammation.
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Diastolic dysfunction predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction and depressed left ventricular systolic function: a CARISMA substudy.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diastolic dysfunction and long-term occurrence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiac events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction.
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Tissue Doppler echocardiography reveals distinct patterns of impaired myocardial velocities in different degrees of coronary artery disease.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Aim To determine how the left ventricular wall motion assessed by echocardiographic Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is affected by increasing severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable angina pectoris and preserved ejection fraction.
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[Unilateral dilated light-unresponsive pupil in Guillain Barré syndrome].
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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We report a case of Guillain Barré syndrome presenting with a unilateral internal ophthalmoplegia and unilateral minor sensory impairment, followed by respiratory failure, missing reflexes, tetraparesis and bilateral facial weakness. All symptoms responded to immunoglobulin. The diagnosis was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electroneurography. This case was especially unusual because the pupil abnormality was unilateral and appeared prior to motor impairment.
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An electrical circuit model of the alpha-beta merging seen in dielectric relaxation of ultraviscous liquids.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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We present a new model for dielectric data in the alpha-beta merging region. The model is constructed using electrical circuit analogies. It leads to an interpretation of the merging region as one where the total relaxation upon cooling separates in two relaxation processes, consistent with a view where the relaxing entities involved are the same for the two processes. We use this alpha-beta model to fit dielectric data in the merging region of two different molecular liquids. These fits are performed under the assumption that the intrinsic high-frequency behavior of the alpha relaxation is a -1/2 power law and that both the alpha and the beta process separately obey time temperature superposition. We get good quality fits in the entire frequency and temperature range studied. This supports the view that alpha relaxation high-frequency slopes that are found to be numerically smaller than 1/2 can be attributed to the influence of the beta relaxation.
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Two large preoperative doses of erythropoietin do not reduce the systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery.
J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2009
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Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induce an inflammatory reaction that may lead to tissue injury. Experimental studies suggest that recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) independent of its erythropoietic effect may be used clinically as an anti-inflammatory drug. This study tested the hypothesis that 2 large doses of EPO administered shortly before CPB ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response to CPB.
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Haplotype structure of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene in 814 Danish Caucasian subjects and association with body mass index.
Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2). By the use of five SNPs (G46A, C79G, C491T, C523A, G1053C) for identification of ADRB2 haplotypes in 814 Danish Caucasians, we investigated whether ADRB2 haplotypes are associated with body mass index (BMI). The SNPs showed organization into 13 distinct haplotypes and 41 haplotype pairs. The study identified four common haplotypes: ACCCC (10.1 +/- 0.3 %), ACCCG (27.9 +/- 0.3 %), GCCAC (10.8 +/- 0.1 %) and GGCCG (41.0 +/- 0.2 %) (frequencies (SD), seen in 91 % of the population. In the total population (mean age +/- SD: 50 +/- 16 years), BMI was not related to haplotype pairs, individual SNPs or allelic haplotypes. However, in subjects < 50 years (N = 356, 36 +/- 8 years) BMI levels varied significantly between pairs of major haplotype groups (p = 0.014) but were not related to individual SNPs. In subjects < 37 years, the haplotype pair homozygote for the Gly16 and Glu27 amino acid variants (GGCCG/GGCCG) had a higher frequency of lean subjects (BMI < or = 25 kg/m(2)) compared with the GCCAC/GGCCG pair (73% versus 35%, odds ratio with 95% confidence interval: 4.95 (1.50-16.38). In conclusion, the haplotype analysis clearly revealed the prevalence of four major ADRB2 haplotypes in Caucasians. The results suggest that unique interactions in specific haplotype pairs rather than individual SNPs may affect BMI and that this effect of ADRB2 haplotypes is blunted by age-related factors.
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Functional and morphologic evaluation of kidney proximal tubuli and correlation with renal allograft prognosis.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2009
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Renal transplant patients with stable graft function and proximal tubular dysfunction (PTD) have an increased risk for chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). In this study, we investigated the histologic pattern associated with PTD and its correlation with graft outcome. Forty-nine transplant patients with stable graft function were submitted to a biopsy. Simultaneously, urinary retinol-binding protein (uRBP) was measured and creatinine clearance was also determined. Banffs score and semi-quantitative histologic analyses were performed to assess tubulointerstitial alterations. Patients were followed for 24.0 + or - 7.8 months. At biopsy time, mean serum creatinine was 1.43 + or - 0.33 mg/dl. Twelve patients (24.5%) had uRBP > or = 1 mg/l, indicating PTD and 67% of biopsies had some degree of tubulointerstitial injury. At the end of the study period, 18 (36.7%) patients had lost renal function. uRBP levels were not associated with morphologic findings of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA), interstitial fibrosis measured by Sirius red or tubulointerstitial damage. However, in multivariate analysis, the only variable associated with the loss of renal function was uRBP level > or = 1 mg/l, determining a risk of 5.290 of loss of renal function (P = 0.003). Renal transplant patients who present PTD have functional alteration, which is not associated with morphologic alteration. This functional alteration is associated to progressive decrease in renal function.
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Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate renal fibrosis through immune modulation and remodeling properties in a rat remnant kidney model.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have regenerative properties in acute kidney injury, but their role in chronic kidney diseases is still unknown. More specifically, it is not known whether MSCs halt fibrosis. The purpose of this work was to investigate the role of MSCs in fibrogenesis using a model of chronic renal failure. MSCs were obtained from the tibias and femurs of male Wistar-EPM rats. Female Wistar rats were subjected to the remnant model, and 2|x|10(5) MSCs were intravenously administrated to each rat every other week for 8 weeks or only once and followed for 12 weeks. SRY gene expression was observed in female rats treated with male MSCs, and immune localization of CD73(+)CD90(+) cells at 8 weeks was also assessed. Serum and urine analyses showed an amelioration of functional parameters in MSC-treated animals at 8 weeks, but not at 12 weeks. Massons trichrome and Sirius red staining demonstrated reduced levels of fibrosis in MSC-treated animals. These results were corroborated by reduced vimentin, type I collagen, transforming growth factor beta, fibroblast specific protein 1 (FSP-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and Smad3 mRNA expression and alpha smooth muscle actin and FSP-1 protein expression. Renal interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased after MSC treatment, whereas IL-4 and IL-10 expression levels were increased. All serum cytokine expression levels were decreased in MSC-treated animals. Taken together, these results suggested that MSC therapy can indeed modulate the inflammatory response that follows the initial phase of a chronic renal injury. The immunosuppressive and remodeling properties of MSCs may be involved in the decreased fibrosis in the kidney.
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Comparison of propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy: a randomized, blinded comparison of seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects.
J ECT
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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To compare propofol and thiopental as anesthetic agents for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with respect to seizure duration, stimulus charge, clinical effect, and cognitive side effects.
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Toll-like receptors-related genes in kidney transplant patients with chronic allograft nephropathy and acute rejection.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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Toll-like receptors (TLR) comprehend an emerging family of receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and promote the activation of leukocytes. Surgical trauma and ischemia-reperfusion injury are likely to provide exposure to endogenous ligands for TLR in virtually all kidney transplant recipients.
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Detection of the Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9, inside the allograft during a rejection episode.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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Tim-3 is a Th1 lymphocytes membrane protein with inhibitory function. Its ligand, galectin-9, was recently identified and it is expressed in some lymphocyte subpopulation. In addition, endothelial cells and fibroblasts can also express galectin-9 according to the local cytokine milieu. Both molecules can act as important regulatory tools in the immune system.
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Deletion of bradykinin B1 receptor reduces renal fibrosis.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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The Kallikrein-kinin system works through activation of two receptors. One constitutive, named B2 receptor (B2R) and another inducible, denominated B1 receptor (B1R). In renal fibrosis, B2R receptor activation appears to be protective, however B1R participation is unveiled. The aim of this study was to analyze how the deletion of the B1R would modify tissue responses after unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). For that, B1R knockout (B1KO) and wild-type mice (B1B2WT) were subjected to UUO and sacrificed at days 1, 5 and 14. Renal dysfunction was assayed by urine proteinuria/creatinine ratio and percentage of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Kidneys were harvested at day 5 to analyze anti and pro-inflammatory molecules expression by real-time PCR. We demonstrated that at all time points, B1KO mice presented lower proteinuria/creatinine ratio from bladder urine. B1KO protection was reinforced by its lower tubular interstitial fibrosis percentage at day 14 (B1B2WT: 12.16+/-1.53% vs. B1KO: 6.73+/-1.07%, p<0.02). UUO was able to induce B1R expression and its highest transcription was achieved at day 5. At this day, B1KO had significant lower expression of pro-inflammatory molecules such as TGF-beta, MCP-1, OPN and IL-6 and higher anti-inflammatory components, as IL-10 and HO-1. Herein, we observed that B1R deletion may be an important component in renal fibrosis prevention.
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Lineage-negative bone marrow cells protect against chronic renal failure.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Progressive renal failure continues to be a challenge. The use of bone marrow cells represents a means of meeting that challenge. We used lineage-negative (Lin(-)) cells to test the hypothesis that Lin(-) cell treatment decreases renal injury. Syngeneic Fischer 344 rats were divided into four groups: sham (laparotomy only, untreated); Nx (five-sixth nephrectomy and untreated); NxLC1 (five-sixth nephrectomy and receiving 2 x 10(6) Lin(-) cells on postnephrectomy day 15); and NxLC3 (five-sixth nephrectomy and receiving 2 x 10(6) Lin(-) cells on postnephrectomy days 15, 30, and 45). On postoperative day 16, renal mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6 was lower in NxLC rats than in Nx rats. On postnephrectomy day 60, NxLC rats presented less proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, anemia, renal infiltration of immune cells, and protein expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, as well as decreased interstitial area. Immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen showed that, in comparison with sham rats, Nx rats presented greater cell proliferation, whereas NxLC1 rats and NxLC3 rats presented less cell proliferation than did Nx rats. Protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and of vascular endothelial growth factor increased after nephrectomy and decreased after Lin(-) cell treatment. On postnephrectomy day 120, renal function (inulin clearance) was significantly better in Lin(-) cell-treated rats than in untreated rats. Lin(-) cell treatment significantly improved survival. These data suggest that Lin(-) cell treatment protects against chronic renal failure.
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Pulsed-wave tissue Doppler and color tissue Doppler echocardiography: calibration with M-mode, agreement, and reproducibility in a clinical setting.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Myocardial velocities can be measured with both pulsed-wave tissue Doppler (PWTD) and color tissue Doppler (CTD) echocardiography. We aimed to (A) to explore which of the two methods better approximates true tissue motion and (B) to examine the agreement and the reproducibility of the two methods in a routine clinical setting.
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Endogenous hepatocyte growth factor attenuates inflammatory response in glycerol-induced acute kidney injury.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is overexpressed after acute kidney injury (AKI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of endogenous HGF in the progression of the inflammatory response in glycerol-induced AKI (Gly-AKI) in rats.
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No consistent effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on obesity, hypertension and quantitative traits of body fatness and blood pressure among 6,514 adult Danes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Evidence regarding the association of variation within ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2) with obesity and hypertension is exceedingly ambiguous. Despite negative reports, functional impacts of individual genetic variants have been reported. Also, functional haplotypes as well as haplotype combinations affecting expression levels in vivo of ADRB2 mRNA and protein as well as receptor sensitivity have been reported. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate if variations within ADRB2 as haplotypes or as haplotype combinations confer an increased prevalence of obesity and hypertension among adults.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.