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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Synthesis and cytotoxicity of triterpenoids derived from betulin and betulinic acid via click chemistry.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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In this study, a series of triazole substituted betulin and betulinic acid derivatives was designed and synthesized via click chemistry at C-30 position. Eighteen target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antitumor activities against leukemia cell-line HL-60. Seventeen compounds have not reported before. The cytotoxic experiment showed that most of betulinic acid derived triazoles have higher cytotoxic profile than betulinic acid. Among them, compound 30-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl] betulinic acid (7b) showed the best IC50 value (1.3 ?M) against leukemia cell-line HL-60 (eight- to ninefold higher potency than betulinic acid).
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miR168 influences phase transition, leaf epinasty, and fruit development via SlAGO1s in tomato.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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In Arabidopsis thaliana, ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) interacts with miR168 to modulate the small RNA regulatory pathway. However, the underlying mechanism of regulation and relationship between AGO1 and miR168 is poorly understood in the cash crop Solanum lycopersicum (tomato). We previously found that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B were cleaved by miR168 in tomato. In this study, we show that SlAGO1A and SlAGO1B accumulate in miR168-sponge transgenic plants, and that expression of miR168-resistant SlAGO1A (4m-SlAGO1A) and SlAGO1B (4m-SlAGO1B) in tomato results in a series of defects affecting growth rate, floral timing, leaves, and fruit. Accumulation of miR156 was found when 4m-SlAGO1A was at an early developmental stage compared to the wild type and original SlAGO1A transgenic plants, and miR172 was highly expressed in adult 4m-SlAGO1A compared to the controls. In addition, the expression of multiple small RNAs was altered in 4m-SlAGO1A. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the interaction between SlAGO1s and miR168 in determining growth rate, phase change, leaf epinasty, fruit initiation and expansion, and other developmental processes in tomato.
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Dopamine inhibits the function of Gr-1+CD115+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells through D1-like receptors and enhances anti-tumor immunity.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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MDSCs accumulate in tumor-bearing animals and cancer patients and are a major factor responsible for cancer-induced immunosuppression that limits effective cancer immunotherapy. Strategies aimed at effectively inhibiting the function of MDSCs are expected to enhance host anti-tumor immunity and improve cancer immunotherapy significantly. The neurotransmitter DA has been found to have anti-cancer activity, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we sought to investigate the therapeutic mechanism and efficacy of DA on the inhibition of cancer development via the regulation of MDSC functions. The regulation of the suppressive function of Gr-1(+)CD115(+) MDSCs by DA was determined by use of murine syngeneic LLC and B16 graft models treated with DA in vivo, as well as Gr-1(+)CD115(+) MDSCs isolated from these model treated with DA ex vivo. Here, we show that Gr-1(+)CD115(+) monocytic MDSCs express D1-like DA receptors. DA dramatically attenuated the inhibitory function of tumor-induced monocytic MDSCs on T cell proliferation and IFN-? production via D1-like DA receptors and retarded tumor growth. DA and other D1 receptor agonists inhibited IFN-?-induced NO production by MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients. Decreased NO production was, in part, mediated via the suppression of p-ERK and p-JNK. In conclusion, the neurotransmitter DA potently inhibits the suppressive function of MDSC and enhances anti-tumor immunity. Our finding provides a mechanistic basis for the use of DA or D1-like receptor agonists to overcome tumor-induced immunosuppression in cancer immunotherapy.
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A thermo-responsive supramolecular organogel: dual luminescence properties and luminescence conversion induced by Cd(2+).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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A simple dual luminescent acylhydrazone-functionalized benzimidazole derivative (L) was blended with ethylene glycol affording a thermo-responsive green-light-emitting supramolecular gel (G-gel). This G-gel can convert to a blue-light-emitting gel (B-gel) by strongly increasing the luminescence of the benzimidazole moiety upon addition of one equivalent of Cd(2+).
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Enalapril inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression in BSA-overload nephropathy of rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Proteinuria is not only a common marker of renal disease, but also involved in renal tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of enalapril, an ACEI, against nephropathy in rats.
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Angiopoietin-like protein 2 negatively regulated by microRNA-25 contributes to the malignant progression of colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Angiopoietin-like protein 2 (ANGPTL2) is associated with tumor progression while dysregulation of its expression has been observed in various types of cancer. However, the expression and role of ANGPTL2 remain exclusive in colorectal cancer (CRC). In the present study, we determined the expression levels of ANGPTL2 in CRC tissues and cells. The roles of ANGPTL2 and miR-25 in the migration and invasion of CRC SW620 and HCT-116 cells were also investigated using transwell assays or scratch wound assays. The results showed that ANGPTL2 increased with metastatic progression. Increased ANGPTL2 and decreased microRNA-25 (miR-25) expression were found to coexist in CRC. The functional studies revealed that knockdown of ANGPTL2 reduced colony formation, and the invasive and migratory abilities of human CRC SW620 and HCT-116 cells. Similarly, overexpression of miR-25 resulted in reduced colony formation, invasion and migration in both cell lines. The overexpression of miR-25 led to a decreased ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein expression, whereas the downregulation of miR-25 resulted in increased ANGPTL2 mRNA and protein expression, in SW620 and HCT-116 cells. miR-25 directly targeted ANGPTL2 by binding to its 3'?UTR, as determined by the dual luciferase reporter assay. To the best of our know-ledge, the results of this study suggest for the first time that the abnormal upregulation of ANGPTL2 in CRC is associated with miR-25 downregulation. Additionally, miR-25?mediated ANGPTL2 promoted the malignant progression of CRC. The present study provides evidence supporting ANGPTL2 and miR-25 as diagnostic or therapeutic targets for CRC.
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Variations in 30-day hospital readmission rates across primary care clinics within a tertiary referral center.
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Reducing hospital readmissions is a national healthcare priority. Little is known about how readmission rates vary across unique primary care practices.
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Association of serum omentin-1 concentrations with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Omentin is a newly discovered adipokine that possesses an anti-inflammatory function. The aim of this study was to determine the association of serum omentin-1 concentration with the presence and severity of preeclampsia.
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Evaluation of a Primary Care-Based Post-Discharge Phone Call Program: Keeping the Primary Care Practice at the Center of Post-hospitalization Care Transition.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The post-hospitalization period is a precarious time for patients. Post-discharge nurse telephone call programs aiming to prevent unnecessary readmissions have had mixed results.
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Tb(3+)-containing supramolecular hydrogels: luminescence properties and reversible sol-gel transitions induced by external stimuli.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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A dual-responsive green-light-emitting supramolecular metal hydrogel (G-gel) was prepared by the reaction of a simple hydrazide-functionalized benzimidazole ligand (L) with Tb(NO3)3. The green luminescence of gelator L is enhanced in the G-gel due to the coordination effect between L and Tb(3+). In addition, the G-gel shows different luminescence when in a semisolid state (gel) and in a solid state (xerogel). Remarkable reversible sol-gel transitions induced by temperature or pH were observed for this G-gel.
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Evidence of type-II band alignment in III-nitride semiconductors: experimental and theoretical investigation for In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN heterostructures.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Type-II band alignment structure is coveted in the design of photovoltaic devices and detectors, since it is beneficial for the transport of photogenerated carriers. Regrettably, for group-III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, all existing devices are limited to type-I heterostructures, owing to the unavailable of type-II ones. This seriously restricts the designing flexibility for optoelectronic devices and consequently the relevant performance of this material system. Here we show a brandnew type-II band alignment of the lattice-matched In 0.17 Al 0.83 N/GaN heterostructure from the perspective of both experimental observations and first-principle theoretical calculations. The band discontinuity is dominated by the conduction band offset ?EC, with a small contribution from the valence band offset ?EV which equals 0.1 eV (with E(AlInN(VBM) being above E(GaN)(VBM)). Our work may open up new prospects to realize high-performance III-Nitrides optoelectronic devices based on type-II energy band engineering.
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Nuclear translocation of ?-catenin mediates the parathyroid hormone-induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human renal glomerular endothelial cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Emerging evidence shows that increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) accelerates endothelial injury and subsequent organ fibrosis. Although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown, the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has recently been demonstrated to be a crucial event during fibrotic disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether elevated PTH could induce EndMT in primary human renal glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) and to determine the possible underlying signaling pathway. The expression of EndMT-related markers was determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and confocal microscopy. The results showed that PTH receptor (PTHR) was expressed in GECs and its expression was decreased by increasing concentration of PTH. Moreover, PTH significantly inhibited the expression of endothelial marker CD31 and increased the expression of mesenchymal markers FSP1 and ?-SMA in concentration- and time-dependent manners. Confocal microscopy revealed an increasing overlap of CD31 with FSP1 in some GECs after PTH treatment. The expression of type I collagen was upregulated by PTH. Furthermore, PTH enhanced the nuclear ?-catenin protein levels, and decreased cytoplasmic ?-catenin expression in GECs was observed. In contrast, DKK1, an inhibitor of ?-catenin nuclear translocation, attenuated such changes in EndMT-related markers induced by PTH. In summary, these data demonstrated that elevated PTH-induced EndMT in human GECs might be partially mediated by the nuclear translocation of ?-catenin.
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FTY720 inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats via the Sphk1 pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Aim:FTY720, a new immunomodulatory drug with low cytotoxicity, is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on inflammatory cell infiltration in albumin overload-induced nephropathy of rats.Methods:Male Wistar rats were subjected to right-side nephrectomy and divided into 3 groups. One week after the surgery, albumin overload (AO) group was treated with BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; AO+FTY720 group was given BSA (5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) plus FTY720 (0.5 g·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 9 weeks; and control group received daily ip injection of equivalent volume of saline. All rats were killed 9 weeks after nephrectomy.Results:AO rats exhibited gradually increased urinary protein excretion accompanied by elevated urinary N-acetyl-?-O-glucosaminidase activity, and both reached their peak values at week 7. Furthermore, AO significantly increased lymphocytes and monocytes in circulation and the inflammatory cells recruited to tubulointerstitium, and the expression of inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, TNF-? and IL-6, as well as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptors S1pr1 and S1pr3, and S1P-synthesizing enzyme sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) in the kidney. Concomitant administration of FTY720 significantly attenuated all the AO-induced pathological changes.Conclusion:FTY720 alleviates tubulointerstitium inflammation in an AO rat model of nephropathy via down-regulation of the Sphk1 pathway.
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Identification of helicity-dependent photocurrents from topological surface states in Bi2Se3 gated by ionic liquid.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Dirac-like surface states on surfaces of topological insulators have a chiral spin structure with spin locked to momentum, which is interesting in physics and may also have important applications in spintronics. In this work, by measuring the tunable helicity-dependent photocurrent (HDP), we present an identification of the HDP from the Dirac-like surface states at room temperature. It turns out that the total HDP has two components, one from the Dirac-like surface states, and the other from the surface accumulation layer. These two components have opposite directions. The clear gate tuning of the electron density as well as the HDP signal indicates that the surface band bending and resulted surface accumulation are successfully modulated by the applied ionic liquid gate, which provides a promising way to the study of the Dirac-like surface states and also potential applications in spintronic devices.
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[Clinical evaluation of a melting curve analysis-based PCR assay for glucose phosphate dehydrogenase gene mutation detection].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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To evaluate the clinical value of multicolor melting curve analysis(MMCA) for detecting genetic mutations in G6PD deficiency.
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Cytotoxic activity and DNA-binding properties of isoeuxanthone derivatives.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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In this study, the interactions of different groups substituted isoeuxanthone derivatives with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) were investigated by spectrophotometric methods and viscosity measurements. Results indicated that the xanthone derivatives could intercalate into the DNA base pairs by the plane of xanthone ring and the various substituents may influence the binding affinity with DNA according to the calculated quenching constant values. Furthermore, two tumor cell lines including the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activities of xanthone derivatives by acid phosphatase assay. Analyses showed that the oxiranylmethoxy substituted xanthone exhibited more effective cytotoxic activity against the cancer cells than the other substituted xanthones. The effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro agreed with the studies of DNA-binding.
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Factors affecting atmospheric 1-, 2-nitropyrenes and 2-nitrofluoranthene in winter at Noto peninsula, a remote background site, Japan.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Airborne particulates were collected at a background site (Wajima Air Monitoring Station; WAMS) on the Noto Peninsula, Japan from January 2006 to December 2007. 1-, 2-nitropyrenes (1-, 2-NPs) and 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR), in the particulates were determined with a sensitive HPLC method with chemiluminescence detection. The average concentrations were higher in winter than in summer. A meteorological analysis indicated that the air samples collected in winter were transported mainly from Northeast China over the Japan Sea. Both the concentration ratios of 2-NFR to 1-NP and 1-NP to pyrene were similar to those in Shenyang in Northeast China which located along the air transportation route to WAMS, but not in Kanazawa which near WAMS. These results strongly suggest that most of the atmospheric 1-, 2-NPs and 2-NFR at WAMS in winter were long range transported from Northeast China.
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Understanding the relationship between wettability and dissolution of solid dispersion.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Improved wettability has been ascribed to one of the important mechanisms for enhanced dissolution of solid dispersions. But its relationship with dissolution has not been closely studied to date. In this study, solid dispersion of simvastatin (SV) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared without and with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) incorporated, respectively. The dissolution, contact angle and water absorption rate of these solid dispersions were measured to elucidate the relationship between wettability and dissolution. An abrupt increase of dissolution was observed when PVP amount exceeded a critical value. Contact angle was decreased with increasing of PVP amount. And the dissolution efficiency of the solid dispersion was increased with the decreasing of the contact angle, which was divided by a critical angle of 40.8° into two linear parts. The result was validated in the dissolution of SDS incorporated solid dispersions. Contact angle correlated well with water absorption rate. A critical water absorption rate, with value of 0.535 ?L/min, was also observed for the transition of dissolution efficiency. In conclusion, both contact angle and water absorption rate are good indicators for dissolution transition of solid dispersion, which show great potential in formula screening of solid dispersion.
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Evaluation of antioxidant activities of zein protein fractions.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Zein protein was extracted from the by-product corn gluten meal. The obtained zein protein was 1st hydrolyzed by 4 different proteases. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates or peptides were evaluated by free radical scavenging activity, metal ion chelating activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity. Among hydrolysates produced, alkaline protease hydrolysates exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. A regression model was established by uniform design to optimize the alkaline protease hydrolysis conditions. The hydrolysates with molecular weight < 3 kDa obtained from ultrafiltration showed the highest antioxidant activities in all relevant assays. The hydrolysates with molecular weight <3 kDa were subsequently purified by gel filtration chromatography, and fraction F3 exhibited the highest antioxidant activities. Two peptides were identified from fraction F3 using LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS as Pro-Phe (263.13 Da) and Leu-Pro-Phe (375.46 Da). These peptides exhibited good free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. The results clearly indicated that zein protein fractions are good sources for the development of natural antioxidants for the food industry.
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Effects of n-butylparaben on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis through changed E? levels in male rat offspring.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Parabens are widely used as antibacterial agents, which are concerned recently in the relationship between the use of parabens and reproductive toxicity. So that reassessment of the risk of parabens is needed. In this study, one of parabens, n-butylparaben (n-BP) was orally administered to pregnant Wistar rats (0, 64, 160, 400 and 1000 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Reduced anogenital distance (AGD) and delayed preputial separation (PPS) were observed in the male offspring. The weights of the testes were significantly reduced at PND 21-90. The weights of the epididymides were significantly reduced at all monitoring points, except PND 35. Seminal vesicle weights were significantly reduced on PND 21. Serum testosterone (T) was significantly decreased, especially on PND 49. The levels of 17?-estradiol (E2) showed an increase at each of the tested points except on PND 180. Serum luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in the n-BP treated groups were lower on PND 21, 35 and 49 but elevated on PND 90 compared to control levels. n-BP reduced epididymal cauda sperm counts and daily sperm production in a dose-dependent manner; this difference was statistically significant at exposure groups of 400 and 1000 mg/kg/day. The present study strongly suggests that exposure to n-BP in utero and during lactation has adverse effects on the reproductive system in male offspring, with a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 160 mg/kg/day. To our knowledge, this is the first study that reports increased E2 levels of male rats following n-BP exposure; we suggest that E2 levels may be considered as biomarkers for some endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).
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A role for sorting nexin 27 in AMPA receptor trafficking.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Sorting nexin 27 (SNX27), a PDZ domain-containing endosomal protein, was recently shown to modulate glutamate receptor recycling in Down's syndrome. However, the precise molecular role of SNX27 in GluA1 trafficking is unclear. Here we report that SNX27 is enriched in dendrites and spines, along with recycling endosomes. Significantly, the mobilization of SNX27 along with recycling endosomes into spines was observed. Mechanistically, SNX27 interacts with K-ras GTPase via the RA domain; and following chemical LTP stimuli, K-ras is recruited to SNX27-enriched endosomes through a Ca(2+)/CaM-dependent mechanism, which in turn drives the synaptic delivery of homomeric GluA1 receptors. Impairment of SNX27 prevents LTP and associated trafficking of AMPARs. These results demonstrate a role for SNX27 in neuronal plasticity, provide a molecular explanation for the K-ras signal during LTP and identify SNX27 as the PDZ-containing molecular linker that couples the plasticity stimuli to the delivery of postsynaptic cargo.
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Spin transport study in a Rashba spin-orbit coupling system.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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One of the most important topics in spintronics is spin transport. In this work, spin transport properties of two-dimensional electron gas in Al(x)Ga(1-x)N/GaN heterostructure were studied by helicity-dependent photocurrent measurements at room temperature. Spin-related photocurrent was detected under normal incidence of a circularly polarized laser with a Gaussian distribution. On one hand, spin polarized electrons excited by the laser generate a diffusive spin polarization current, which leads to a vortex charge current as a result of anomalous circular photogalvanic effect. On the other hand, photo-induced spin polarized electrons driven by a longitudinal electric field give rise to a transverse current via anomalous Hall Effect. Both of these effects originated from the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. By analyzing spin-related photocurrent varied with laser position, the contributions of the two effects were differentiated and the ratio of the spin diffusion coefficient to photo-induced anomalous spin Hall mobility D(s)/?(s) = 0.08?V was extracted at room temperature.
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Identification and quantification of in vivo metabolites of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in human urine associated with producing reactive oxygen species.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon quinones (PAHQs) are components in airborne particulate matter (PM) and generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a redox cycling process. 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is a PAHQ found in diesel exhaust particulates and PM. When inhaled, it produces much more ROS than other PAHQs. We hypothesized that urinary metabolites of 9,10-PQ could serve as biomarkers of PAHQ exposure. Here, we describe methods for pretreating urine samples and analyzing 9,10-PQ metabolites by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In urine from rats intraperitoneally injected with 9,10-PQ, the monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxyphenanthrene (9,10-PQHG) was found to be a major metabolite of 9,10-PQ. 9,10-PQHG was also identified in the urine of a nonoccupationally exposed human by its retention time and MS/MS spectra. Furthermore, the urine contained hardly any free (unmetabolized) 9,10-PQ, but treating it with hydrolytic enzymes released 9,10-PQ from conjugated metabolites such as 9,10-PQHG. The concentrations of 9,10-PQHG in urine samples from nonoccupationally exposed subjects who lived in a suburban area were 2.04-19.08 nmol/mol creatinine. This study is the first to demonstrate the presence of 9,10-PQHG in human urine. Determination of urinary 9,10-PQHG should be useful for determining 9,10-PQ exposure.
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High-frequency aberrantly methylated targets in pancreatic adenocarcinoma identified via global DNA methylation analysis using methylCap-seq.
Clin Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extensive reprogramming and dysregulation of DNA methylation is an important characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our study aimed to characterize the genomic methylation patterns in various genomic contexts of PC. The methyl capture sequencing (methylCap-seq) method was used to map differently methylated regions (DMRs) in pooled samples from ten PC tissues and ten adjacent non-tumor (PN) tissues. A selection of DMRs was validated in an independent set of PC and PN samples using methylation-specific PCR (MSP), bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP), and methylation sensitive restriction enzyme-based qPCR (MSRE-qPCR). The mRNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) expression of the corresponding genes was investigated using RT-qPCR.
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Trinuclear and Tetranuclear Magnesium Alkoxide Clusters as Highly Active Initiators for Ring-Opening Polymerization of l-Lactide.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Trinuclear and tetranuclear magnesium alkoxide clusters supported by bulky phenolates with triangular or rhombic structures were readily synthesized in acceptable yields via the reaction of 2-N,N-dimethylaminoethanol/methoxyethanol, different phenols, and dibutylmagnesium. These complexes have been characterized using (1)H and (13)C NMR, elemental analyses, and X-ray crystallography. The experimental results indicate that these clusters are efficient and excellent initiators for the ring-opening polymerizations (ROPs) of l-lactide (LA) and afford polylactides with desired molecular weights and narrow polydispersity indexes (PDIs). Complex 2 can even catalyze the ROP of 4000 equiv of l-lactide in 1 min in a controlled model. Kinetic studies indicate that the polymerization is first-order for both the trinuclear magnesium complex 3 and LA. However, for the tetranuclear magnesium complex 5, the polymerization rate is first order for 5 and second order for LA.
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Determination of selected nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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A new method for the analysis of selected nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) at ultra-trace levels in water samples is proposed. Particulate NPAHs were collected on a GC glass fiber filter. Soluble NPAHs were collected on a C18 Empore disk. After simple clean-up and concentration of NPAHs in both phases, the NPAHs were analyzed using HPLC equipped with clean-up, reducer, concentration and chemiluminescence detection units. The proposed method showed good linear calibration curves with correlation coefficients (r(2)) ranging from 0.9954 to 0.9998. The limits of detection ranged from 0.013 to 0.15?nmol/L (soluble NPAHs) and from 0.01 to 0.13?nmol/L (particulate NPAHs) for 5 NPAHs [(9-nitroanthracene, 1-nitropyrene, 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC), 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene and 6-nitrobenzo[a]pyrene] having 3 to 5 rings analyzed, when 1.5?L of water sample was used. The repeatability for soluble NPAHs ranged between 4.2 and 6.8% (n=5), while for particulate NPAHs, it varied between 2.2 and 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method successfully determined the above NPAHs expect 6-NC in river water samples, suggesting that this method is suitable for the ultra-trace analysis of NPAHs in water samples.
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Cinacalcet attenuates the renal endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in rats with adenine-induced renal failure.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an important complicated phenomenon in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Emerging evidence indicates the involvement of PTH in organ fibrosis, and suppression of PTH by cinacalcet (CINA) ameliorates the progression of fibrotic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) has been shown to be an important mechanism involved in renal fibrosis. The present study aimed to investigate whether CINA treatment attenuated renal EndMT in rats with adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Compared with the control group, serum PTH was significantly higher in the CRF group and was suppressed after CINA treatment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, and calcium × phosphorus product levels were similar in the CRF group and CINA-treated CRF group. Renal collagen accumulation was significantly increased in the CRF group, which was markedly ameliorated by CINA treatment. Expression of the endothelial marker CD31 was significantly downregulated in rats with CRF, whereas expression of the mesenchymal markers fibroblast specific-protein 1 and ?-smooth muscle actin was markedly upregulated. These changes were inhibited by CINA treatment. The protein levels of these EndMT-related markers were strongly correlated with serum PTH concentrations. Furthermore, the in vitro study showed that PTH could significantly increase the expression of fibroblast specific-protein 1 and ?-smooth muscle actin and decrease CD31 in mRNA and protein levels in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In conclusion, our study suggests that reducing serum PTH by CINA treatment could attenuate renal fibrosis via suppression of EndMT in the adenine-induced CRF rat model.
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Enhanced anisotropic effective g factors of an Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructure based quantum point contact.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Gate-defined quantum point contacts (QPCs) were fabricated with Al0.25Ga0.75N/GaN heterostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In the transport study of the Zeeman effect, greatly enhanced effective g factors (g*) were obtained. The in-plane g* is found to be 5.5 ± 0.6, 4.8 ± 0.4, and 4.2 ± 0.4 for the first to the third subband, respectively. Similarly, the out-of-plane g* is 8.3 ± 0.6, 6.7 ± 0.7, and 5.1 ± 0.7. Increasing g* with the population of odd-numbered spin-splitted subbands are obtained at 14 T. This portion of increase is assumed to arise from the exchange interaction in one-dimensional systems. A careful analysis shows that not only the exchange interaction but the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in the strongly confined QPC contributes to the enhancement and anisotropy of g* in different subbands. An approach to distinguish the respective contributions from the SOI and exchange interaction is therefore proposed.
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VEGF promotes cardiac stem cells differentiation into vascular endothelial cells via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Recent research suggested that cardiac stem cells (CSCs) may have the clinical application for cardiac repair. However, their characteristics and the regulatory mechanisms of their growth and differentiation have not been fully investigated. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF-A) is a major regulator of physiological and pathological angiogenesis. But the homing role of VEGF for CSCs is unclear. In this report, CSCs were isolated, purified, and expanded in vitro from rat heart. VEGF, SU5416 (VEGF receptor blocker), and Wortmannin (PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor) were used for differentiation into vascular endothelial cells (VECs). Real-time qPCR was selected to confirm the role of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in VECs differentiation from rat CSCs. The result of real-time qPCR demonstrated that PI3K/Akt signaling pathway plays an important role in rat CSCs differentiated into VECs. So, our research provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for therapeutic application of rat CSCs to treat cardiac repair.
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[Effects of different maize straw-returning modes on the soil respiration in a winter wheat field].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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By using static chamber-TGC method, an in situ observation was conducted in a 10-year conservation tillage winter wheat field to study the effects of different maize straw-returning modes on the soil respiration. The soil respiration had a significant positive correlation with the stubble height of maize straw, and two peaks were observed in wheat growth period. Under no tillage and no straw-returning, the soil respiration was 72.5% of that under no tillage with all straw-returning, and the soil respiration under conventional tillage and no straw- returning was 76.5% of that under conventional tillage with all straw-returning. The soil respiration was significantly positively correlated with the soil temperature and soil organic carbon at 20 cm depth, but no significant correlation with the soil organic carbon at 40 cm depth. A correlation was also observed between the soil respiration and soil moisture. The diurnal soil respiration in the treatments of all straw-returning presented a single-peak curve, with the peak at 18:00. There was a similar variation trend of soil temperature and soil respiration at the depth of 20 cm. Among the treatments of different straw-returning amounts, straw-returning with the stubble of 1 m height could reduce the soil respiration significantly, being a reasonable straw-returning mode.
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Object-based encoding in visual working memory: a life span study.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Recent studies on development of visual working memory (VWM) predominantly focus on VWM capacity and spatial-based information filtering in VWM. Here we explored another new aspect of VWM development: object-based encoding (OBE), which refers to the fact that even if one feature dimension is required to be selected into VWM, the other irrelevant dimensions are also extracted. We explored the OBE in children, young adults, and old adults, by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect" in which a change of stored irrelevant feature dramatically affects the performance of task-relevant features in a change-detection task. Participants were required to remember two or four simple colored shapes, while color was used as the relevant dimension. We found that changes to irrelevant shapes led to a significant distracting effect across the three age groups in both load conditions; however, children showed a greater degree of OBE than did young and old adults. These results suggest that OBE exists in VWM over the life span (6-67 years), yet continues to develop along with VWM.
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The mTOR signaling pathway regulates pain-related synaptic plasticity in rat entorhinal-hippocampal pathways.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Our previous work demonstrated that persistent peripheral nociception (PPN) leads to synaptic plasticity and functional changes in the rat hippocampus. The protein kinase mTOR is a critical regulator of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus as well as synaptic plasticity associated with central and peripheral pain sensitization. We examined the role of mTOR signaling in pain-associated entorhinal cortex (EC) - hippocampal synaptic plasticity to reveal possible cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of chronic pain on cognition and emotion.
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[Brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistula versus arteriovenous graft in vascular access for maintenance hemodialysis patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To compared the outcomes of autogenous brachial-basilic arteriovenous fistula (BBAVF) and AV graft (AVG) in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis.
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CD2AP mRNA in urinary exosome as biomarker of kidney disease.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Podocyte injury plays an important role in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Urinary exosomes are microvesicles released by tubular epithelial cells and podocytes containing information of their originated cells. This study investigated for the first time whether podocyte related mRNA in urinary exosome could serve as novel biomarkers for kidney disease.
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FTY720 attenuates tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in subtotally nephrectomized rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is a common pathway that leads to kidney failure, and persistent tubulointerstitial inflammation is a key event in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The new immunosuppressive drug FTY720 modifies lymphocyte migration into injured tissues by sequestering lymphocytes within secondary lymphoid organs. However, its therapeutic effect on tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis had not been well understood. This study was designed to explore the effect of FTY720 on tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in subtotally nephrectomized (SNX) rats. In total, 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Seven days after 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were randomized to FTY720 (1?mg/kg/d) and placebo-treated groups. Sham-operated rats served as controls. FTY720 significantly attenuated the rise in proteinuria, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase activity in SNX rats, and reduced the count of peripheral white blood cells and lymphocytes in SNX rats. Morphological analysis revealed that there was severe tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis in SNX group and much more tubulointerstitial infiltrating inflammatory cells with high expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68, CD163 and CCR-7 in SNX group, as compared with the controls, but the lesions were attenuated significantly by treatment with FTY720. Furthermore, the expressions of proinflammatory molecules (IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1), profibrotic molecule (TGF-?1) and production of extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and types I and III collagens were upregulated in SNX rats. FTY720 administration significantly reduced these abnormalities. In summary, FTY720 exerts therapeutic effects on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in SNX rats by inhibiting the tubulointerstitial inflammatory response.
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Transcription factor SCIRR69 involved in the activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene promoter II in mechanically injured neurons.
Neuromolecular Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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The spinal cord injury and regeneration-related gene #69 (SCIRR69), which was identified in our screen for genes upregulated after spinal cord injury, encode a protein belonging to the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)/ATF family of transcription factors. Our previous study showed that SCIRR69 functions as a transcriptional activator. However, the target gene regulated by SCIRR69 and its roles in injured neurons remain unknown. In this study, we showed that SCIRR69 is widely distributed in the central nervous system. Full-length SCIRR69 is an endoplasmic reticulum-bound protein. Following mechanical injury to neurons, SCIRR69 was induced and proteolytically cleaved by site-1 and site-2 proteases, and the proteolytically cleaved SCIRR69 (p60-SCIRR69) was translocated to the nucleus where it bound to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene promoter II. In addition, loss- and gain-of-function studies confirmed that SCIRR69 is involved in the regulation of BDNF expression in injured neurons. As expected, the culture supernatants of PC12 cells stably expressing p60-SCIRR69 contained higher levels of BDNF, and more remarkably promoted neurite outgrowth in a spinal cord slice culture model in vitro than the supernatants of control cells. These results suggest that SCIRR69 is a novel regulator of the BDNF gene and may play an important role in the repair and/or regeneration of damaged neural tissues by specifically activating BDNF promoter II.
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Heat shock factor OsHsfB2b negatively regulates drought and salt tolerance in rice.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Expression of OsHsfB2b was strongly induced by heat, salt, ABA and PEG treatments. Drought and salt tolerances were significantly decreased by OsHsfB2b overexpression, but were enhanced by RNA interference.
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Mechanism of interleukin-1?-induced proliferation in rat hepatic stellate cells from different levels of signal transduction.
APMIS
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the major producers of collagen in the liver. Their conversion from resting cells to proliferative, contractile, and activated cells is a critical step leading to liver fibrosis that is characterized by the deposition of excessive extracellular matrix. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) may play a role in maintaining HSC in a proliferative state that is responsible for hepatic fibrogenesis. The aim of this study was to study the roles of the IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1R1), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and activation protein-1 (AP-1) in IL-1?-mediated proliferation in rat HSCs. We showed that IL-1? can upregulate proliferation in rat HSCs; however, inhibition of the JNK pathway could inhibit HSCs proliferation. Furthermore, IL-1? activated IL-1R1 expression, the JNK signaling pathway, and AP-1 activity in a time-dependent manner in rat HSCs. These data demonstrate that IL-1? could promote the proliferation of rat HSCs and that the IL-1R1, JNK, and AP-1 pathways were involved in this process. In summary, IL-1?-induced proliferation is possibly mediated by the IL-1R1, JNK, and AP-1 pathways in rat HSCs. Therefore, drugs that block these pathways may inhibit the proliferation of HSCs and suppress liver fibrosis.
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Whats cost got to do with it? Association between hospital costs and frequency of admissions among "high users" of hospital care.
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Efforts to curb healthcare spending have included interventions that target frequently hospitalized individuals. It is unclear the extent to which the most frequently hospitalized individuals also represent the costliest individuals.
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Interleukin-1? upregulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 gene expression via c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 MAPK pathways in rat hepatic stellate cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) is crucial in the cleavage and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and its expression levels are decreased following the induction of liver fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in interleukin (IL)-1?-mediated MMP-13 gene expression in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). In the present study, we demonstrated that IL-1? is capable of activating JNK and p38 in a time-dependent manner and the inhibition of the JNK pathway is able to increase MMP-13 mRNA expression; however, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway is capable of inhibiting MMP-13 gene expression. These data demonstrate that IL-1? is able to promote MMP-13 mRNA expression in rat HSCs and the JNK and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in this process. In summary, IL-1?-induced MMP-13 mRNA expression is possibly mediated by cytoplasmic JNK and p38 MAPK pathways, and they play a distinct role in this process. Thus, the JNK and p38 MAPK pathway co-operatively mediate MMP-13 mRNA expression in rat HSCs.
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Antitumor activity and DNA-binding investigations of isoeuxanthone and its piperidinyl derivative.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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The binding mode and affinity of isoeuxanthone (1,6-dihydroxyxanthone) (1) and its piperidinyl derivative (1-hydroxy-6-(2-(1-piperidinyl)ethoxy)xanthone) (2) with calf thymus DNA were studied using absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. Results indicate that the two xanthones can intercalate into the DNA base pairs by the plane of xanthone ring and the binding affinity of the piperidinylethoxy substituted xanthone 2 is stronger than 1. In addition, the cytotoxic effects of both compounds were evaluated with the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) using acid phosphatase assay. Analyses show that the piperidinylethoxy substituted xanthone exhibits more effective cytotoxic activity than isoeuxanthone against the two cancer cells. The effects on the inhibition of tumor cells in vitro agree with the studies of DNA-binding.
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Time course of soluble P-selectin and von Willebrand factor levels in trauma patients: a prospective observational study.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Coagulopathy often develops in patients with serious trauma and is correlated with the clinical outcome. The contribution of platelet activity and endothelial dysfunction to trauma-induced coagulopathy remain to be defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time courses of soluble P-selectin (sPsel, an index of platelet activation) and von Willebrand factor (VWF, an index of endothelial dysfunction) in trauma patients and elucidate their relationship to coagulation parameter levels, the presence of coagulopathy, and patient outcome.
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Tunable surface electron spin splitting with electric double-layer transistors based on InN.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Electrically manipulating electron spins based on Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is a key pathway for applications of spintronics and spin-based quantum computation. Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) offer a particularly important SOC platform, where spin polarization can be tuned with an electric field perpendicular to the 2DES. Here, by measuring the tunable circular photogalvanic effect (CPGE), we present a room-temperature electric-field-modulated spin splitting of surface electrons on InN epitaxial thin films that is a good candidate to realize spin injection. The surface band bending and resulting CPGE current are successfully modulated by ionic liquid gating within an electric double-layer transistor configuration. The clear gate voltage dependence of CPGE current indicates that the spin splitting of the surface electron accumulation layer is effectively tuned, providing a way to modulate the injected spin polarization in potential spintronic devices.
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Source contribution analysis of surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in northeastern Asia by source-receptor relationships.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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We analyzed the source-receptor relationships for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in northeastern Asia using an aerosol chemical transport model. The model successfully simulated the observed concentrations. In Beijing (China) benzo[a]pyren (BaP) concentrations are due to emissions from its own domain. In Noto, Oki and Tsushima (Japan), transboundary transport from northern China (>40 °N, 40-60%) and central China (30-40 °N, 10-40%) largely influences BaP concentrations from winter to spring, whereas the relative contribution from central China is dominant (90%) in Hedo. In the summer, the contribution from Japanese domestic sources increases (40-80%) at the 4 sites. Contributions from Japan and Russia are additional source of BaP over the northwestern Pacific Ocean in summer. The contribution rates for the concentrations from each domain are different among PAH species depending on their particulate phase oxidation rates. Reaction with O3 on particulate surfaces may be an important component of the PAH oxidation processes.
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Luminescent pH sensor of a novel imidazole-containing hexanuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complex.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Hexapodal ligand H6L containing imidazole rings has been prepared by the reaction of 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione with 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis[(3-formylphenoxy)methyl]benzene. The Ru(II) polypyridyl complex [{Ru(bpy)2}6(?6-H6L)](PF6)12 (bpy=2,2-bipyridine) has been synthesized by the reaction of Ru(bpy)2Cl2·2H2O with ligand H6L. The pH effects on the UV-vis absorption and emission spectra of the complex have been studied. The ground- and excited-state ionization constants of the acid-base equilibria have been calculated according to the absorbance and emission data. The complex acts as an off-on-off luminescent pH sensor through two successive deprotonation processes of imidazole rings, with a maximum on-off ratio of 5 in buffer solution.
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[Verification of multipotential mesenchymal stem cell presence in peripheral blood of rabbits].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to verify the presence of multipotential mesenchymal stem cells in peripheral blood (PBMSC) of rabbits. For mobilization, granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor 30 µg/(kg·d) was injected into New Zealand White rabbits subcutaneously for 6 d, then the PBMSC were isolated from peripheral blood of rabbits by density gradient centrifugation and adhesive culture. The morphology of cell proliferation was observed by microscopy, the proliferative curve of cells was drawn. The phenotypes of PBMSC were detected by flow cytometry, the differential capability of PBMSC into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes was identified. The results showed that the morphology of subcultured PBMSC were spindle or polygonal shaped, and cell population doubling time was 37.4 h. The isolated PBMSC expressed mesenchymal marker CD29, but not expressed hematopoietic marker CD14. Under specific induction conditions, PBMSC demonstrated multipotency to differentiate into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. It is concluded that PBMSC are successfully isolated from peripheral blood and cultured, and their multipotential capability of differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes are verified.
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Biological effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives.
J. UOEH
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are included in various environmental pollutants such as airborne particles and have been reported to induce a variety of toxic effects. On the other hand, PAH derivatives are generated from PAHs both through chemical reaction in the atmosphere and metabolism in the body.PAH derivatives have become known for their specific toxicities such as estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities and oxidative stress, and correlations between the toxicities and structures of PAH derivatives have been shown in recent studies. These studies are indispensable for demonstrating the health effects of PAH derivatives, since they would contribute to the comprehensive toxicity prediction of many kinds of PAH derivatives.
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Inflammatory stress exacerbates the progression of cardiac fibrosis in high-fat-fed apolipoprotein E knockout mice via endothelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Background Chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in the progression of cardiac fibrosis. This study investigated whether inflammation exacerbated the progression of cardiac fibrosis in high-fat-fed apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice via endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Methods Twenty-four male ApoE KO mice were divided into normal chow diet (Control), high-fat diet (HFD), or high-fat diet plus 10% casein injection (inflamed) groups for 8 weeks. The body weight of ApoE KO mice was measured at each week. The lipid profile and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels were examined using clinical biochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. Cardiac lipid and collagen accumulation was visualised with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) and Massons trichrome staining. EndMT-related molecule expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results SAA levels were increased in the inflamed group compared with the HFD and control groups, suggesting that inflammation was successfully induced. There were no differences in body weight among three groups at each week. Interestingly, inflammation significantly reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared with the HFD mice. However, both foam cell formation in cardiac blood vessels and cardiac collagen deposition were increased in the inflamed group, as demonstrated by HE and Masson trichrome staining. Furthermore, inflammation reduced protein expression of CD31 and increased protein expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen I, which contribute to cardiac EndMT. Conclusions Inflammatory stress exacerbates the progression of cardiac fibrosis in high-fat-fed ApoE KO mice via EndMT, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia and inflammation act synergistically to redistribute plasma lipids to cardiac tissues and accelerate the progression of cardiac fibrosis.
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A primary care physicians ideal transitions of care-wheres the evidence?
J Hosp Med
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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Reducing hospital readmissions is a national healthcare priority. Most of the interventions to reduce hospital readmission have been concentrated in the inpatient setting. However, there is increasing attention placed on the role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in improving the transition from hospital to home. In this article, a primary care physicians perspective of how inpatient and outpatient providers can partner to create the ideal care transition is described. Seven steps that occur during the hospitalization are highlighted: communicate with the PCP on admission, involve the PCP early regarding discharge planning, notify the PCP on hospital discharge, complete the discharge summary at time of discharge, schedule follow-up appointments by discharge, ensure prescriptions are available at the patients pharmacy, and educate the patient about self-management. Another 7 are described as the role of the PCP and clinic staff: call the patient within 72 hours of discharge, ensure follow-up appointments with the PCP, coordinate care, repeat above until medically stable, create access for patients with new symptoms, track readmission rates, and track and review frequently admitted patients. Insights are offered on how the changing financial landscape can help support elements of this idealized transition-of-care program.
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Robust object-based encoding in visual working memory.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Recently, researchers have begun to investigate how nonspatial perceptual information is extracted into visual working memory (VWM), focusing particularly on object-based encoding (OBE). That is, whenever even one feature-dimension is selected for entry into VWM, the others are also extracted automatically. While there is evidence supporting robust OBE in VWM, some researchers have argued that it is restricted to certain conditions, suggesting that OBE might be weak. The current study analyzed the experimental differences between prior studies revealing OBE and the ones that failed, and suggested that there were three critical differences in the experimental settings. Studies supporting robust OBE predominantly were conducted by probing an "irrelevant-change distracting effect," in which a change of stored irrelevant-feature dramatically affects performance. To examine whether OBE in VWM is robust or weak, we manipulated these three aspects under the irrelevant-change distracting effect to check whether OBE could be erased. In three experiments, we found similar degrees of the distracting effect between the experimental condition (controlling these factors) and the control condition; this suggests that these factors do not affect OBE. We conclude that robust OBE exists in VWM.
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Molecular cloning and characterisation of SlAGO family in tomato.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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AGO (Argonaute) protein participates in plant developmental processes and virus defense as a core element of transcriptional regulator or/and post-transcriptional regulator in RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), which is guided by small RNAs to repress target genes expression. Previously, it was revealed that 15 putative AGO genes in tomato genome.
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Optimisation of antioxidant peptide preparation from corn gluten meal.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Corn gluten meal, containing approximately 600?g?kg(-1) protein, is a main by-product of corn wet milling. The annual output of corn gluten meal in China is over 840?000 tons. However, it is difficult to utilise corn gluten meal in the food industry because of its low water solubility and amino acid imbalance. In the present study, corn gluten meal was hydrolysed by different proteases to produce hydrolysates with antioxidant activity in order to increase its value. The hydrolysis conditions were optimised by multiple linear regression and response surface methodology. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence of one corn peptide was determined.
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Structural, densitometric and biomechanical evaluations of Chinese patients with long-term bisphosphonate treatment.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The association of long-term bisphosphonate treatment for osteoporosis and related safety problems such as atypical fractures were not clearly defined. This study was to evaluate the structural, densitometric and biomechanical properties of the prolonged bisphosphonate-loaded bones.
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3,3,5,5-Tetra-tert-butyl-2-hy-droxy-[1,1-biphen-yl]-2-yl 4-methyl-benzene-sulfonate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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In the title mol-ecule, C(37)H(48)O(4)S, the benzene rings in the biphenyl fragment are inclined to each other at 61.1?(1)°. The hy-droxy group is involved in a weak intra-molecular O-H?O(sulfonate) hydrogen bond. One tert-butyl group is disodered over two orientations in a 0.682?(17):0.318?(17) ratio. In the crystal, weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds link the mol-ecules into columns in direction [100].
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Improved Mitochondrial Function Underlies the Protective Effect of Pirfenidone against Tubulointerstitial Fibrosis in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Dysfunctional mitochondria participate in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Pirfenidone is a newly identified anti-fibrotic drug. However, its mechanism remains unclear. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event that occurs prior to the onset of renal fibrosis. In this context, we investigated the protective effect of pirfenidone on mitochondria and its relevance to apoptosis and oxidative stress in renal proximal tubular cells. A remnant kidney rat model was established. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK2) using rotenone, a mitochondrial respiratory chain complex ? inhibitor were further investigated in vitro to examine the mitochondrial protective effect of pirfenidone. Pirfenidone protected mitochondrial structures and functions by stabilizing the mitochondrial membrane potential, maintaining ATP production and improving the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number. Pirfenidone decreased tubular cell apoptosis by inhibiting the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway. Pirfenidone also reduced oxidative stress by enhancing manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and inhibiting intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which suggested that the anti-oxidant effects occurred at least partially via the mitochondrial pathway. Pirfenidone may be effective prior to the onset of renal fibrosis because this drug exerts its anti-fibrotic effect by protection of mitochondria in renal proximal tubular cells.
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Isolation and Quantification of MicroRNAs from Urinary Exosomes/Microvesicles for Biomarker Discovery.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies indicate that microRNA (miRNA) is contained within exosome. Here we sought to optimize the methodologies for the isolation and quantification of urinary exosomal microRNA as a prelude to biomarker discovery studies. Exosomes were isolated through ultracentrifugation and characterized by immunoelectron microscopy. To determine the RNA was confined inside exosomes, the pellet was treated with RNase before RNA isolation. The minimum urine volume, storage conditions for exosomes and exosomal miRNA was evaluated. The presence of miRNAs in patients with various kidney diseases was validated with real-time PCR. The result shows that miRNAs extracted from the exosomal fraction were resistant to RNase digestion and with high quality confirmed by agarose electrophoresis. 16ml of urine was sufficient for miRNA isolation by absolute quantification with 4.15×10(5) copies/ul for miR-200c. Exosomes was stable at 4? 24h for shipping before stored at -80? and was stable in urine when stored at -80°C for 12months. Exosomal miRNA was detectable despite 5 repeat freeze-thaw cycles. The detection of miRNA by quantitative PCR showed high reproducibility (>94% for intra-assay and >76% for inter-assay), high sensitivity (positive call 100% for CKD patients), broad dynamic range (8-log wide) and good linearity for quantification (R(2)>0.99). miR-29c and miR-200c showed different expression in different types of kidney disease. In summary, the presence of urinary exosomal miRNA was confirmed for patients with a diversity of chronic kidney disease. The conditions of urine collection, storage and miRNA detection determined in this study may be useful for future biomarker discovery efforts.
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Oral administration of alkylglycerols differentially modulates high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alkylglycerols (AKGs) from shark liver oil (SLO) were demonstrated to have strong potency to stimulate immune response. However, no study has been conducted on the effects of AKGs on diet-induced obesity and metabolic inflammatory disorder. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two AKGs isoforms on obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed high-fat (HF) diet. Forty-eight C57BL/6 mice were divided into normal, HF, HF + 20?mg/kg selachyl alcohol (SA), HF + 200?mg/kg SA, HF + 20?mg/kg batyl alcohol (BA), and HF + 200?mg/kg BA groups. Body weight, fasting glucose, lipids, insulin and leptin levels, serum IL-1?, and TNF- ? levels were compared among different groups. Our results showed that high-dose SA decreased body weight, serum triglyceride, cholesterol, fasting glucose level, insulin level, and serum leptin level of the HF fed mice, while high-dose BA increased fasting insulin level of the HF fed mice. Pretreatment of primary adipocytes with 10? ? M SA or BA differentially modulates LPS-mediated MAPK and NF- ? B signaling. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of AKGs has differential effects on HF-induced obesity and metabolic inflammatory disorder in mice.
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Fabrication and photoluminescence of Er(3+)-doped Al2O3 thin films with sol-gel method.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
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Erbium doped Al2O3 thin films were fabricated on quartz substrates in dip-coating process by sol-gel method, using the aluminum isopropoxide [Al(OC3H7)3]-derived AlOOH sols with the addition of erbium nitrate [Er(NO3)3 x 5H2O]. The as-deposited films, which erbium concentration was between 20 and 43 mol%, were annealed in air from 600 to 1200 degrees C. The phase structure was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the PL spectra in the wavelength range of 1400-1700 nm were investigated by spectrophotometer, which was exited by a 760 nm semiconductor LD. The PL spectrum shows a broadband extending from 1.430 to 1.670 microm and centered at 1.55 microm, corresponding to the intra-4f transition between the first excited (4I(13/2)) and the ground state (4I(15/2)) of Er3+. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of PL peaks increase from 60 to 100 nm with temperature increased from 600 to 1200 degrees C.
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Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for major depression confirm relevance of associated pathophysiology.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Individual characteristics of pathophysiology and course of depressive episodes are at present not considered in diagnostics. There are no biological markers available that can assist in categorizing subtypes of depression and detecting molecular variances related to disease-causing mechanisms between depressed patients. Identification of such differences is important to create patient subgroups, which will benefit from medications that specifically target the pathophysiology underlying their clinical condition. To detect characteristic biological markers for major depression, we analyzed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome of depressed vs control persons, using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Proteins of interest were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization TOF mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Validation of protein markers was performed by immunoblotting. We found 11 proteins and 144 peptide features that differed significantly between CSF from depressed patients and controls. In addition, we detected differences in the phosphorylation pattern of several CSF proteins. A subset of the differentially expressed proteins implicated in brain metabolism or central nervous system disease was validated by immunoblotting. The identified proteins are involved in neuroprotection and neuronal development, sleep regulation, and amyloid plaque deposition in the aging brain. This is one of the first hypothesis-free studies that identify characteristic protein expression differences in CSF of depressed patients. Proteomic approaches represent a powerful tool for the identification of disease markers for subgroups of patients with major depression.
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[Detection of common deletions and mutations causing ?-thalassemia in Southeast Asians and Southern Chinese with denaturing high performance liquid chromatography].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To establish a comprehensive and simple assay using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) for the diagnosis of most common mutations and deletions of ?-thalassemia gene in Southeast Asians and Southern Chinese.
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A selective, colorimetric, and fluorescent chemodosimeter for relay recognition of fluoride and cyanide anions based on 1,1-binaphthyl scaffold.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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The reaction-based relay recognition of fluoride and cyanide anions was demonstrated for the first time, with rapid response and unique triple (fluorescence color, intensity and absorption band) output modes in either of two sequential sensing events. Ratiometric determination of these two anions by fluorescence and/or absorbance spectra is also achieved.
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[Progress in co-culture and differentiation in adipose-derived stem cells: a review].
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Stem cells can be differentiated into many kinds of somatic cells under defined culture conditions. In addition, the homing possess can be partially imitated by co-culture of stem cells with mature somatic cells. Regarding the importance of clinical application of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), our review first introduced the sources and signs of ADSCs, and then the current knowledge of ADSCs co-culture technology, including drug and chemical induced culture, two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) co-culture, mechanisms of ADSCs differentiation, and application development in recent years in details. Finally, we also addressed prospects of ADSCs.
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Detection of ?-globin gene deletions using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
J. Clin. Lab. Anal.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) has been used to detect deletions and mutations of the ?-globin gene for diagnosis of ?-thalassemia. MLPA reaction products are usually separated and analyzed by high-voltage capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE). The goal of this study was to find and use a cost-effective method to separate and analyze MLPA products.
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Seroprevalence of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus in normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been reported in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. Although results have been conflicting, the potential of XMRV as an infectious human retrovirus has raised concerns about transfusion safety. To address this issue, normal and retrovirus-infected blood donors were screened for evidence of XMRV infection.
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Failure to confirm XMRV/MLVs in the blood of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome: a multi-laboratory study.
Science
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Murine leukemia viruses (MLVs), including xenotropic-MLV-related virus (XMRV), have been controversially linked to chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To explore this issue in greater depth, we compiled coded replicate samples of blood from 15 subjects previously reported to be XMRV/MLV-positive (14 with CFS) and from 15 healthy donors previously determined to be negative for the viruses. These samples were distributed in a blinded fashion to nine laboratories, which performed assays designed to detect XMRV/MLV nucleic acid, virus replication, and antibody. Only two laboratories reported evidence of XMRV/MLVs; however, replicate sample results showed disagreement, and reactivity was similar among CFS subjects and negative controls. These results indicate that current assays do not reproducibly detect XMRV/MLV in blood samples and that blood donor screening is not warranted.
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[Research and application progress of adipose-derived stem cells].
Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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To review the biochemical characteristics, application progress, and prospects of the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs).
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[Effects of conservation tillage and weed control on soil water and organic carbon contents in winter wheat field].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Taking a long-term (since 2004) straw-returning winter wheat field as the object, an investigation was made in the wheat growth seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 to study the effects of different tillage methods (rotary tillage, harrow tillage, no-tillage, subsoil tillage, and conventional tillage) and weed management on the soil water and organic carbon contents. No matter retaining or removing weeds, the weed density under subsoil tillage and no-tillage was much higher than that under rotary tillage, harrow tillage, and conventional tillage. From the jointing to the milking stage of winter wheat, retaining definite amounts of weeds, no matter which tillage method was adopted, could significantly increase the 0-20 cm soil water content, suggesting the soil water conservation effect of retaining weeds. Retaining weeds only increased the soil organic carbon content in 0-20 cm layer at jointing stage. At heading and milking stages, the soil organic carbon contents in 0-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm layers were lower under weed retaining than under weed removal. Under the conditions of weed removal, the grain yield under subsoil tillage increased significantly, compared with that under the other four tillage methods. Under the conditions of weed retaining, the grain yield was the highest under rotary tillage, and the lowest under conventional tillage.
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Development of sensitive single-round pol or env RT-PCR assays to screen for XMRV in multiple sample types.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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The potential association between xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) and prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been much debated. To help resolve the potential role of XMRV in human disease, it is critical to develop sensitive and accurate reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR assays to screen for the virus. Single-round RT-PCR assays were developed on the automated m2000™ system for detection of the pol or env regions of XMRV in whole blood, plasma, urine cell pellets and urogenital swab samples. Assay performance was assessed by testing two blinded panels, one comprised of whole blood and the other of plasma spiked with serial dilutions of XMRV-infected tissue culture cells and supernatant, respectively, prepared by the Blood XMRV Scientific Research Working Group (SRWG). For both whole blood and plasma panel testing, the assays showed excellent specificity and sensitivity as compared to the other tests included in the SRWG phase I study. Analytical specificity of the assays was also evaluated. Neither pol nor env PCR assays detected a panel of potential cross-reactive microorganisms, although some cross-reaction was observed with mouse genomic DNA. Screening of 196 normal human blood donor plasma, 214 HIV-1 seropositive plasma, 20 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) prostate cancer specimens, 4 FFPE benign prostate specimens, 400 urine pellets from prostate cancer patients, 166 urine pellets from non-prostate cancer patients, and 135 cervical swab specimens, detected no samples as unequivocally XMRV positive.
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A rapid detection for ?-thalassemia by PCR combined with dissociation curve analysis.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Deletion mutations of 3.7 kb and 4.2 kb of ?-globin gene are the most common causes of ?-thalassemia (-?(3.7)/, -?(4.2)/). A simple, rapid assay by using a single-tube PCR to detect the two deletions has been needed. In this study, a pair of shared primers was designed for ?2 and ?1 gene but with length-different amplicons (159 bp and 409 bp). On the dissociation curve analysis profile after PCR, there shows two obvious peaks which represent the two different amplicons. Relative copy number of ?2 and ?1 gene can be deduced from the ratio of the two peaks. A comprehensive diagnosis for ?-thalassemia 10 genotypes of deletions can be achieved when combined with a single-tube duplex PCR for detecting --SEA and non-deletional alleles of ?? or ?(T)?. Besides, a single-tube multiplex PCR, which is a cost-effective version of dual-priming-oligonucleotide based system, was designed for two common mutations of ?-thalassemia in China (Hb Constant Spring and Hb Quong Sze), and these two mutations can be identified in samples by use of dissociation curve analysis. In all, using above three PCRs followed by dissociation curve analysis, three deletions and two mutations of ?-thalassemia in the populations of southern China and Southeast Asia can be detected for molecular diagnosis or prenatal diagnosis. A blinded study of 163 samples was performed using this new assay and it was concordant with the original methods. This comprehensive molecular assay is simple, rapid, automatic and cost-effective, and can be used to diagnose ?-thalassemia in this geographical area.
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