Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) converts 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyl tetrahydrofolate and affects the activity of cellular cycles participating in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, genome stability, maintenance of methyl pool, and gene regulation. Genetically compromised MTHFR activity has been suggested to affect male fertility. The objective of the present study was to find the impact on infertility risk of c.203G>A, c.1298A>C, and c.1793G>A polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies.
The aim of presenting this article is to highlight the factors causing failure in endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). Understanding these factors will lead to an enhancement in the success rate of endoscopic DCR. Out of 600 cases done in a period of 10 years (from 1998 to 2008), 60 were revision cases. 60 patients referred over a period of 10 years, were selected. The aim was to study the factors causing failure in each case. The cases included were revised in a period of 10 years from 1998 to 2008. These were the cases that were unsuccessful for one or the other reason. The author presents a series of failed DCR cases referred over a period of 10 years. Patients had undergone primary surgery elsewhere and were referred due to the persistence of symptoms. Assessment of all the cases was done with the examination of Eyes and lids for any obvious deformity, watering or purulent discharge in the medial canthal area. ROPLAS test was done as a spot diagnosis for NLD block. This was followed by probing and syringing in the outdoor. All the cases were revised and the likely causes leading to failure of the first surgery were analyzed. It was found that the improper selection of cases accounted for 3.3% of total failed cases; Low rhinostomy accounted for 28.3% cases, inadequate sac opening for 38.3% cases, Pre existing canaliculitis for 1.6% of cases, contracture at the rhinostomy site in 10% cases. Laser burn canalicular scarring for 3.3% of total cases and laxity of the lids and atonic sac was responsible for failure in 3.3% cases. Most of the above factors are secondary to the false localization of the sac, inadequate removal of the sac wall, too much of mucosal removal leading to synaechia formation at the surgical site and inability to detect any additional block with NLD (Nasolacrimal duct) block.
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