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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multifactor Leadership Styles and New Exposure to Workplace Bullying: A Six-month Prospective Study.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study investigated the prospective association between supervisor leadership styles and workplace bullying. Altogether 404 civil servants from a local government in Japan completed baseline and follow-up surveys. The leadership variables and exposure to bullying were measured by Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, respectively. The prevalence of workplace bullying was 14.8% at baseline and 15.1% at follow-up. Among respondents who did not experience bullying at baseline (n=216), those who worked under the supervisors as higher in passive laissez-faire leadership had a 4.3 times higher risk of new exposure to bullying. On the other hand, Respondents whose supervisors with highly considerate of the individual had a 70% lower risk of new exposure to bullying. In the entire sample (n=317), passive laissez-faire leadership was significantly and positively associated, while charisma/inspiration, individual consideration, and contingent reward were negatively associated both after adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics at baseline, life events during follow-up, and exposure to workplace bullying at baseline. Results indicated that passive laissez-faire and low individual consideration leadership style at baseline were strong predictors of new exposure to bullying and high individual consideration leadership of supervisors/managers could be a preventive factor against bullying.
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Associations Between Subjective Social Status and DSM-IV Mental Disorders: Results From the World Mental Health Surveys.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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The inverse social gradient in mental disorders is a well-established research finding with important implications for causal models and policy. This research has used traditional objective social status (OSS) measures, such as educational level, income, and occupation. Recently, subjective social status (SSS) measurement has been advocated to capture the perception of relative social status, but to our knowledge, there have been no studies of associations between SSS and mental disorders.
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How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.
World Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using data collected in the immediate aftermath of TE exposure to target people at highest risk of PTSD. However, validation of the algorithm is needed in prospective samples, and additional work is warranted to refine the algorithm both in terms of determining a minimum required predictor set and developing a practical administration and scoring protocol that can be used in routine clinical practice.
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Personal Resilience and Post-traumatic Stress Symptoms of Local Government Employees: Six Months after the 2011 Magnitude 9.0 East Japan Earthquake.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Objectives: The Great East Japan Earthquake caused severe infrastructure damage in the Kanto and Tohoku regions, but the psychological stress of public sector employees in the Kanto region where tsunami damage was small has received little attention. This study examined the association between personal resilience and post-traumatic stress symptoms of local government employees in the Kanto region. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all employees (N=2,069) of a single municipality in the Kanto region were recruited in September 2011, six months after the earthquake, and 991 completed the questionnaire (response rate, 47.9%). After excluding respondents who had missing values, the data from 825 respondents (607 males and 218 females) were analyzed. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured using the Impact Event Scale-Revised. Resilience was measured using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and divided into three groups on the basis of scores; low, moderate, and high. House damage and respondents or their families' experience of injury that were caused by the earthquake were assessed using single-item questions. Participants who reported house damage or injury were defined as being affected. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of post-traumatic stress symptoms (IES-R score ?25) was calculated for the upper, middle, and low resilience score groups. Results: Among the respondents, 4.6% experienced injuries within their families, 82.3% reported house damage, and thus 83.3% were affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were significantly higher among the affected group and those with chronic diseases. After adjusting for the demographic and occupational characteristics, the likelihood of post-traumatic stress symptoms was greater in the low resilience group (Odds ratio: 2.10 [95% confidence interval = 1.31-3.37]). A significant negative relationship was observed between resilience and post-traumatic stress symptoms particularly in the affected group. Conclusions: Low personal resilience predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms among local government employees who experienced some house damage or injury during the Great East Japan Earthquake. This result may indicate that resilience reduces the onset of post-traumatic stress symptoms, even when faced by the difficulties imposed by a natural disaster such as an earthquake.
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Validation of Nepalese Version of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Objective: The objective of the current study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Nepalese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-N) in a sample of hospital nurses. Method: Registered nurses from three hospitals in Nepal (total N = 438) voluntarily completed a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the hypothesized three-factor model of the 9-item version of the UWES-N (UWES-N-9) fitted the data best. The internal consistency of the scale was acceptable. Work engagement was positively related to job satisfaction, job performance, happiness and health, and it was negatively related to psychological distress, confirming its construct validity. Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings of our study indicated that the UWES-N-9 has satisfactory psychometric properties and provided supportive evidence for use of the UWES-N-9 in the Nepalese context.
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Evaluation of a Computer-based Stress Management Training Program for Workers' Psychological Well-being and Work Performance: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees' psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either a intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires to assess psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and knowledge about stress management as secondary outcomes at baseline (T0), immediately after intervention (T1), and 2 months after intervention (T2). The group × time interaction was tested using mixed-model repeated measures ANOVA. In whole data analysis, we detected a group × time interaction for "knowledge about stress management". When selecting participants who used more than 3 days to complete the program, group × time interactions were observed on "problem-solving" and "avoidance and suppression" as well as "knowledge about stress management". Our computer-based stress management program was effective for improving knowledge about stress management. It was also effective for improving coping skills if participants had enough time (at least 3 days) to complete all sessions.
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Behavioral characteristics of subthreshold depression.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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This study examines differences in behavioral characteristics among individuals who are not depressed and individuals with subthreshold depression, and depression.
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Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Christopher J L Murray, Katrina F Ortblad, Caterina Guinovart, Stephen S Lim, Timothy M Wolock, D Allen Roberts, Emily A Dansereau, Nicholas Graetz, Ryan M Barber, Jonathan C Brown, Haidong Wang, Herbert C Duber, Mohsen Naghavi, Daniel Dicker, Lalit Dandona, Joshua A Salomon, Kyle R Heuton, Kyle Foreman, David E Phillips, Thomas D Fleming, Abraham D Flaxman, Bryan K Phillips, Elizabeth K Johnson, Megan S Coggeshall, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Jerry P Abraham, Ibrahim Abubakar, Laith J Abu-Raddad, Niveen Me Abu-Rmeileh, Tom Achoki, Austine Olufemi Adeyemo, Arsène Kouablan Adou, José C Adsuar, Emilie Elisabet Agardh, Dickens Akena, Mazin J Al Kahbouri, Deena Alasfoor, Mohammed I Albittar, Gabriel Alcalá-Cerra, Miguel Angel Alegretti, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, François Alla, Peter J Allen, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzmán, Adansi A Amankwaa, Azmeraw T Amare, Hassan Amini, Walid Ammar, Benjamin O Anderson, Carl Abelardo T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Johan Arnlöv, Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic, Ali Artaman, Rana J Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S Atkins, Alaa Badawi, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Amitava Banerjee, Sanjay Basu, Justin Beardsley, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L Bell, Eduardo Bernabé, Tariku Jibat Beyene, Neeraj Bhala, Ashish Bhalla, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Agnes Binagwaho, Jed D Blore, Berrak Bora Basara, Dipan Bose, Michael Brainin, Nicholas Breitborde, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ferrán Catalá-López, Vineet K Chadha, Jung-Chen Chang, Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang, Ting-Wu Chuang, Mercedes Colomar, Leslie Trumbull Cooper, Cyrus Cooper, Karen J Courville, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Rakhi Dandona, Anand Dayama, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Kebede Deribe, Don C Des Jarlais, Muluken Dessalegn, Samath D Dharmaratne, Ugur Dilmen, Eric L Ding, Tim R Driscoll, Adnan M Durrani, Richard G Ellenbogen, Sergey Petrovich Ermakov, Alireza Esteghamati, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Farshad Farzadfar, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Daniel Obadare Fijabi, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Urbano Fra Paleo, Lynne Gaffikin, Amiran Gamkrelidze, Fortuné Gbètoho Gankpé, Johanna M Geleijnse, Bradford D Gessner, Katherine B Gibney, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi, Elizabeth L Glaser, Philimon Gona, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N Gouda, Harish Chander Gugnani, Rajeev Gupta, Rahul Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J Hankey, Hilda L Harb, Josep Maria Haro, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Mohammad T Hedayati, Ileana B Heredia Pi, Hans W Hoek, John C Hornberger, H Dean Hosgood, Peter J Hotez, Damian G Hoy, John J Huang, Kim M Iburg, Bulat T Idrisov, Kaire Innos, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Panniyammakal Jeemon, Paul N Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Guohong Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Knud Juel, Haidong Kan, Ida Kankindi, Nadim E Karam, André Karch, Corine Kakizi Karema, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Dhruv S Kazi, Andrew H Kemp, André Pascal Kengne, Andre Keren, Maia Kereselidze, Yousef Saleh Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ejaz Ahmed Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Irma Khonelidze, Yohannes Kinfu, Jonas M Kinge, Luke Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, S Kosen, Barthélemy Kuate Defo, Veena S Kulkarni, Chanda Kulkarni, Kaushalendra Kumar, Ravi B Kumar, G Anil Kumar, Gene F Kwan, Taavi Lai, Arjun Lakshmana Balaji, Hilton Lam, Qing Lan, Van C Lansingh, Heidi J Larson, Anders Larsson, Jong-Tae Lee, James Leigh, Mall Leinsalu, Ricky Leung, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Graça Maria Ferreira De Lima, Hsien-Ho Lin, Steven E Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K Lloyd, Paulo A Lotufo, Vasco Manuel Pedro Machado, Jennifer H MacLachlan, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Marek Majdan, Christopher Chabila Mapoma, Wagner Marcenes, Melvin Barrientos Marzan, Joseph R Masci, Mohammad Taufiq Mashal, Amanda J Mason-Jones, Bongani M Mayosi, Tasara T Mazorodze, Abigail Cecilia Mckay, Peter A Meaney, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Yohannes Adama Melaku, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, Ted R Miller, Edward J Mills, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Ali H Mokdad, Glen Liddell Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Ami R Moore, Rintaro Mori, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Kinnari S Murthy, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S Naidoo, Luigi Naldi, Vinay Nangia, K M Venkat Narayan, Denis Nash, Chakib Nejjari, Robert G Nelson, Sudan Prasad Neupane, Charles R Newton, Marie Ng, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Sandra Nolte, Ole F Norheim, Vincent Nowaseb, Luke Nyakarahuka, In-Hwan Oh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Bolajoko O Olusanya, Saad B Omer, John Nelson Opio, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Christina Papachristou, Angel J Paternina Caicedo, Scott B Patten, Vinod K Paul, Boris Igor Pavlin, Neil Pearce, David M Pereira, Aslam Pervaiz, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Farshad Pourmalek, Dima Qato, Amado D Quezada, D Alex Quistberg, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Murugesan Raju, Saleem M Rana, Homie Razavi, Robert Quentin Reilly, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Jan Hendrik Richardus, Luca Ronfani, Nobhojit Roy, Nsanzimana Sabin, Mohammad Yahya Saeedi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Genesis May J Samonte, Monika Sawhney, Ione J C Schneider, David C Schwebel, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Edson E Servan-Mori, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenji Shibuya, Hwashin Hyun Shin, Ivy Shiue, Rupak Shivakoti, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Donald H Silberberg, Andrea P Silva, Edgar P Simard, Jasvinder A Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Samir Soneji, Sergey S Soshnikov, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Vasiliki Kalliopi Stathopoulou, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Soumya Swaminathan, Bryan L Sykes, Karen M Tabb, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Eric Yeboah Tenkorang, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Alan J Thomson, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Jeffrey A Towbin, Jefferson Traebert, Bach X Tran, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Uche S Uchendu, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Selen Begüm Uzun, Andrew J Vallely, Tommi J Vasankari, N Venketasubramanian, Francesco S Violante, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Stephen Waller, Mitchell T Wallin, Linhong Wang, Xiaorong Wang, Yanping Wang, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G Weintraub, Ronny Westerman, Richard A White, James D Wilkinson, Thomas Neil Williams, Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes, John Q Wong, Gelin Xu, Yang C Yang, Yuichiro Yano, Gokalp Kadri Yentur, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok-Jun Yoon, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Kim Yun Jin, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Yong Zhao, Yingfeng Zheng, Maigeng Zhou, Jun Zhu, Xiao Nong Zou, Alan D Lopez, Theo Vos.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.
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Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (?=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (?=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (?=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.
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Experiences of Municipal Public Health Nurses Following Japan's Earthquake, Tsunami, and Nuclear Disaster.
Public Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of municipal public health nurses in the wake of the March 2011 massive earthquake and tsunami and resulting nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, from the time of the disaster until December 2013.
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Development of a Short Version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the test-retest reliability and validity of a short version of the New Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ) whose scales have one item selected from a standard version. Based on the results from an anonymous web-based questionnaire of occupational health staffs and personnel/labor staffs, we selected higher-priority scales from the standard version. After selecting one item with highest item-total correlation coefficient from each scale, a 23-item questionnaire was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to Japanese employees (n=1,633) to examine test-retest reliability and validity. Most scales (or items) showed modest but adequate levels of test-retest reliability (r>0.50). Furthermore, job demands and job resources scales (or items) were associated with mental and physical stress reactions while job resources scales (or items) were also associated with positive outcomes. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the short version of the New BJSQ is reliable and valid.
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The psychological impact of a dual-disaster caused by earthquakes and radioactive contamination in Ichinoseki after the Great East Japan Earthquake.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The psychological impact of dual-disasters (earthquakes and a nuclear accident), on affected communities is unknown. This study investigated the impact of a dual-disaster (earthquakes and radioactive contamination) on the prevalence of psychological distress in a landlocked city within the Tohoku area, Japan.
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[Improvement in the therapeutic attitudes of health care professionals who offer cognitive behavioral therapy towards substance abusers].
Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Therapeutic attitudes of health care professionals toward people with substance abuse are predictors of better health care. This quasi-experimental study aimed to examine changes in therapeutic attitudes of health care professionals who offered the Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP). The SMARPP was developed based on the Matrix Model in Japan and is a new cognitive behavioral therapy for drug abusers.
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Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Nicholas J Kassebaum, Amelia Bertozzi-Villa, Megan S Coggeshall, Katya A Shackelford, Caitlyn Steiner, Kyle R Heuton, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Ryan Barber, Chantal Huynh, Daniel Dicker, Tara Templin, Timothy M Wolock, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Foad Abd-Allah, Semaw Ferede Abera, Ibrahim Abubakar, Tom Achoki, Ademola Adelekan, Zanfina Ademi, Arsène Kouablan Adou, José C Adsuar, Emilie E Agardh, Dickens Akena, Deena Alasfoor, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Samia Alhabib, Raghib Ali, Mazin J Al Kahbouri, François Alla, Peter J Allen, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ubai Alsharif, Elena Alvarez, Nelson Alvis-Guzmán, Adansi A Amankwaa, Azmeraw T Amare, Hassan Amini, Walid Ammar, Carl A T Antonio, Palwasha Anwari, Johan Arnlöv, Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic, Ali Artaman, Majed Masoud Asad, Rana J Asghar, Reza Assadi, Lydia S Atkins, Alaa Badawi, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Arindam Basu, Sanjay Basu, Justin Beardsley, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L Bell, Eduardo Bernabé, Tariku J Beyene, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Jed D Blore, Berrak Bora Basara, Dipan Bose, Nicholas Breitborde, Rosario Cárdenas, Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela, Ruben Estanislao Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Alanur Cavlin, Jung-Chen Chang, Xuan Che, Costas A Christophi, Sumeet S Chugh, Massimo Cirillo, Samantha M Colquhoun, Leslie Trumbull Cooper, Cyrus Cooper, Iuri da Costa Leite, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Adrian Davis, Anand Dayama, Louisa Degenhardt, Diego De Leo, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Kebede Deribe, Muluken Dessalegn, Gabrielle A deVeber, Samath D Dharmaratne, Ugur Dilmen, Eric L Ding, Rob E Dorrington, Tim R Driscoll, Sergei Petrovich Ermakov, Alireza Esteghamati, Emerito Jose A Faraon, Farshad Farzadfar, Manuela Mendonca Felicio, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Graça Maria Ferreira De Lima, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Elisabeth B França, Lynne Gaffikin, Ketevan Gambashidze, Fortuné Gbètoho Gankpé, Ana C Garcia, Johanna M Geleijnse, Katherine B Gibney, Maurice Giroud, Elizabeth L Glaser, Ketevan Goginashvili, Philimon Gona, Dinorah González-Castell, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N Gouda, Harish Chander Gugnani, Rahul Gupta, Rajeev Gupta, Nima Hafezi-Nejad, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Graeme J Hankey, Hilda L Harb, Rasmus Havmoeller, Simon I Hay, Ileana B Heredia Pi, Hans W Hoek, H Dean Hosgood, Damian G Hoy, Abdullatif Husseini, Bulat T Idrisov, Kaire Innos, Manami Inoue, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Eiman Jahangir, Sun Ha Jee, Paul N Jensen, Vivekanand Jha, Guohong Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Knud Juel, Edmond Kato Kabagambe, Haidong Kan, Nadim E Karam, André Karch, Corine Kakizi Karema, Anil Kaul, Norito Kawakami, Konstantin Kazanjan, Dhruv S Kazi, Andrew H Kemp, André Pascal Kengne, Maia Kereselidze, Yousef Saleh Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Ejaz Ahmed Khan, Young-Ho Khang, Luke Knibbs, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Soewarta Kosen, Barthélemy Kuate Defo, Chanda Kulkarni, Veena S Kulkarni, G Anil Kumar, Kaushalendra Kumar, Ravi B Kumar, Gene Kwan, Taavi Lai, Ratilal Lalloo, Hilton Lam, Van C Lansingh, Anders Larsson, Jong-Tae Lee, James Leigh, Mall Leinsalu, Ricky Leung, Xiaohong Li, Yichong Li, Yongmei Li, Juan Liang, Xiaofeng Liang, Stephen S Lim, Hsien-Ho Lin, Steven E Lipshultz, Shiwei Liu, Yang Liu, Belinda K Lloyd, Stephanie J London, Paulo A Lotufo, Jixiang Ma, Stefan Ma, Vasco Manuel Pedro Machado, Nana Kwaku Mainoo, Marek Majdan, Christopher Chabila Mapoma, Wagner Marcenes, Melvin Barrientos Marzan, Amanda J Mason-Jones, Man Mohan Mehndiratta, Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, Ted R Miller, Edward J Mills, Ali H Mokdad, Glen Liddell Mola, Lorenzo Monasta, Jonathan de la Cruz Monis, Julio Cesar Montañez Hernandez, Ami R Moore, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Rintaro Mori, Ulrich O Mueller, Mitsuru Mukaigawara, Aliya Naheed, Kovin S Naidoo, Devina Nand, Vinay Nangia, Denis Nash, Chakib Nejjari, Robert G Nelson, Sudan Prasad Neupane, Charles R Newton, Marie Ng, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Sandra Nolte, Ole F Norheim, Luke Nyakarahuka, In-Hwan Oh, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Bolajoko O Olusanya, Saad B Omer, John Nelson Opio, Orish Ebere Orisakwe, Jeyaraj D Pandian, Christina Papachristou, Jae-Hyun Park, Angel J Paternina Caicedo, Scott B Patten, Vinod K Paul, Boris Igor Pavlin, Neil Pearce, David M Pereira, Konrad Pesudovs, Max Petzold, Dan Poenaru, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, Dan Pope, Farshad Pourmalek, Dima Qato, D Alex Quistberg, Anwar Rafay, Kazem Rahimi, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Sajjad Ur Rahman, Murugesan Raju, Saleem M Rana, Amany Refaat, Luca Ronfani, Nobhojit Roy, Tania Georgina Sánchez Pimienta, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Itamar S Santos, Monika Sawhney, Felix Sayinzoga, Ione J C Schneider, Austin Schumacher, David C Schwebel, Soraya Seedat, Sadaf G Sepanlou, Edson E Servan-Mori, Marina Shakh-Nazarova, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenji Shibuya, Hwashin Hyun Shin, Ivy Shiue, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Donald H Silberberg, Andrea P Silva, Jasvinder A Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Sergey S Soshnikov, Luciano A Sposato, Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Lela Sturua, Bryan L Sykes, Karen M Tabb, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Feng Tan, Carolina Maria Teixeira, Eric Yeboah Tenkorang, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, David L Tirschwell, Jeffrey A Towbin, Bach X Tran, Miltiadis Tsilimbaris, Uche S Uchendu, Kingsley N Ukwaja, Eduardo A Undurraga, Selen Begüm Uzun, Andrew J Vallely, Coen H van Gool, Tommi J Vasankari, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Salvador Villalpando, Francesco S Violante, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Theo Vos, Stephen Waller, Haidong Wang, Linhong Wang, Xiaorong Wang, Yanping Wang, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G Weintraub, Ronny Westerman, James D Wilkinson, Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes, John Q Wong, Muluemebet Abera Wordofa, Gelin Xu, Yang C Yang, Yuichiro Yano, Gokalp Kadri Yentur, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Seok-Jun Yoon, Mustafa Z Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Kim Yun Jin, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Yong Zhao, Yingfeng Zheng, Maigeng Zhou, Jun Zhu, Xiao Nong Zou, Alan D Lopez, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Rafael Lozano.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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The fifth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 5) established the goal of a 75% reduction in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR; number of maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths) between 1990 and 2015. We aimed to measure levels and track trends in maternal mortality, the key causes contributing to maternal death, and timing of maternal death with respect to delivery.
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Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees.
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DSM-5 and ICD-11 definitions of posttraumatic stress disorder: investigating "narrow" and "broad" approaches.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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The development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) and ICD-11 has led to reconsideration of diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys allow investigation of the implications of the changing criteria compared to DSM-IV and ICD-10.
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Altered DNA methylation status of human brain derived neurotrophis factor gene could be useful as biomarker of depression.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the survival, development, and synaptic plasticity of neurons. BDNF is believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Several studies have suggested the relevance of DNA methylation in its promoter region with depression. Here, we report different methylation statuses in groups with different depressive scores or undergoing different levels of job-stress. DNA samples were extracted from the saliva of 774 Japanese workers, and the methylation status was determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation 450?K Microarray. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Kessler's K6 questionnaire. Job-stress scales were assessed via a self-administered questionnaire. Independent DNA pools were formed based on K6 and job-strain scores, and the methylation levels were compared among these pools. The average DNA methylation rate was significantly decreased in the highest K6 score group compared to the lowest group (methylated signals, 14.2% vs. 16.5%, P?=?2?·?16?×?10(-198)). This difference remained for the CpG island in the promoter region (10.4% vs. 5.8%, P?=?3?·?67?×?10(-133)). Regarding the job-strain score, there was a slight increase in the methylation level of the whole gene in the group with the highest score compared to that with the lowest score; however, these groups showed no difference in the promoter region. Our results revealed significant changes in the DNA methylation status of the complete human BDNF gene in persons with depression compared to normal individuals, especially in the promoter region of exon 1. This indicates that DNA methylation in this gene is a promising biomarker for diagnosing depression.
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Workaholism vs. Work Engagement: the Two Different Predictors of Future Well-being and Performance.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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This study investigated the distinctiveness of two types of heavy work investment (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) by examining their 2-year longitudinal relationships with employee well-being and job performance. Based on a previous cross-sectional study by Shimazu and Schaufeli (Ind Health 47:495-502, 2009) and a shorter term longitudinal study by Shimazu et al. (Ind Health 50:316-21, 2012; measurement interval?=?7 months), we predicted that workaholism predicts long-term future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance.
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Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002-2006.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is known to be a significant risk factor for mental disorders in Western societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar association exists in Japan.
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One-year test-retest reliability of a Japanese web-based version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) for major depression in a working population.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the one-year test-retest reliability and the demographic correlates of a self-administered web-based depression section of the World Health Organization-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) in a working population. Overall, 1060 out of all employees (N?=?1279) from a manufacturing company in Japan responded to two web-based surveys of depression of the WHO-CIDI within a one-year interval in 2009 and 2010. The concordance between lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder on two occasions was calculated as percent agreement (%), Gwet's AC1 , and Yule's Q indicators were compared by gender, age, education, and marital status. For the total sample, percent agreement was 94%, AC1 was 0.93, and Yule's Q was 0.82. The concordance rate was low (0.15) among those who were diagnosed at either time or both times. The concordance differed significantly across education and marital status. While the agreement indicators were relatively high, consistent with previous reports based on face-to-face interviews conducted within a shorter interval, the low stability of positive cases may challenge the accuracy of lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder using a web version of the WHO-CIDI. Education and marital status might affect the test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Work engagement and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels among Japanese workers: a 1-year prospective cohort study.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Evidence on the association between psychological well-being and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels is limited. We carried out a prospective study to investigate the association between work engagement and hs-CRP levels in a group of Japanese workers.
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Suicide risk among individuals with sleep disturbances in Japan: a case-control psychological autopsy study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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This case-control psychological autopsy study aimed to explore a relationship between sleep disturbances and suicide among Japanese, as well as determine the importance and usability of screening for sleep disturbances in suicide prevention.
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Development of a short questionnaire to measure an extended set of job demands, job resources, and positive health outcomes: the new brief job stress questionnaire.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the reliability and construct validity of a new version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (New BJSQ), which measures an extended set of psychosocial factors at work by adding new scales/items to the current version of the BJSQ. Additional scales/items were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaires in several countries. Scales/items were field-tested and refined through a pilot internet survey. Finally, an 84-item questionnaire (141 items in total when combined with the current BJSQ) was developed. A nationally representative survey was administered to employees in Japan (n=1,633) to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Principal component analyses showed that the first factor explained 50% or greater proportion of the variance in most scales. A scale factor analysis and a correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided a piece of evidence that the New BJSQ scales are reliable and valid. Although more detailed content and construct validity should be examined in future study, the New BJSQ is a useful instrument to evaluate psychosocial work environment and positive mental health outcomes in the current workplace.
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Psychological detachment from work during off-job time: predictive role of work and non-work factors in Japanese employees.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Psychological detachment from work, an off-job experience of "switching off" mentally, seems to be crucial for promoting employee's well-being. Previous studies on predictors of psychological detachment mainly focused on job-related factors, and only a few studies focused on family-related and personal factors. This study focuses not only on job-related factors (job demands, job control, workplace support) but also on family-related (family/friend support) and personal factors (workaholism), and examines the relation of these three factors with psychological detachment. Data of 2,520 Japanese employees was randomly split into two groups and then analyzed using cross-validation. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that family/friend support had a positive association with psychological detachment, whereas a subscale of workaholism (i.e. working compulsively) had negative associations with it across the two groups. Results suggest that family/friend support would facilitate psychological detachment whereas workaholism would inhibit it.
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Effect modification by coping strategies on the association of organizational justice with psychological distress in Japanese workers.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Several previous studies showed that the lack of organizational justice was associated with poor mental health. However, no study examined the effect modification by internal factor, such as coping strategies, on the association of organizational justice with mental health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect modification by coping strategies on the association of organizational justice with psychological distress.
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Occupational and socioeconomic differences in actigraphically measured sleep.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Occupational conditions, together with socioeconomic status, may modulate sleep. This study examined the association of occupational conditions and socioeconomic status with actigraphic measures of sleep in workers. Fifty-five employees (40 ± 12 years) wore a wrist actigraph during sleep for seven consecutive nights. Sleep variables addressed included total sleep time, sleep efficiency, mean activity during sleep, sleep-onset latency, and wake after sleep onset. We also measured household income, occupational class, work schedule, weekly work hours, job demand, job control, worksite social support, effort-reward imbalance, organizational justice, and workplace social capital. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the association of occupational indicators, socioeconomic status, as well as age and gender with each sleep variable. Higher workplace social capital was associated consistently with longer total sleep time (P < 0.001), higher sleep efficiency (P < 0.05) and lower mean activity during sleep (P < 0.07). Low occupational class (P < 0.01), higher job demand (P < 0.05) and lower job control (P < 0.05) were associated with longer total sleep time. No associations were significant for sleep-onset latency or wake after sleep onset. These preliminary results suggest that enhanced workplace social capital is closely associated with better quality and quantity of sleep.
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Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in Japan: results from the World Mental Health Japan Survey.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The purpose of the study was to report the prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD, conditional risk of PTSD associated with each trauma exposure in the community population in Japan. An interview survey was conducted of a random sample of adult residents in 11 communities of Japan. Among 4134 respondents (response rate, 55%), data from those who completed the part 2 interview (n = 1682) were analyzed with a weight for this subsample. Lifetime experiences of 27 trauma events and PTSD were assessed using the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Sixty percent of the part 2 sample reported exposure to at least one lifetime traumatic event. Lifetime and 12-month PTSD prevalences were 1.3% and 0.7%, respectively. Percentage of all months lived with PTSD in the population was predominantly accounted for by physical/sexual assaults and having a child with serious illness, and unexpected death of loved one. Ten percent of respondents reported "private events", for which respondents did not have to describe the content, which accounted for 19% of months with PTSD. The lower prevalence of PTSD in Japan seems attributable to lower conditional risks of PTSD following these events, as well as different distributions of the events. The greater impact of events that occurred to loved ones rather than to oneself and "private events" on PTSD in Japan warrants further research of cross-cultural assessment of trauma exposure and cultural heterogeneity in the trauma-PTSD relationship.
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Cross-cultural measurement equivalence of the Japanese version of Revised Conflict Tactics Scales Short Form among Japanese men and women.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales Short Form (CTS2SF) is an instrument used to measure intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization over the past 12 months.
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Optimal Cutoff Values of WHO-HPQ Presenteeism Scores by ROC Analysis for Preventing Mental Sickness Absence in Japanese Prospective Cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sickness absence due to mental disease in the workplace has become a global public health problem. Previous studies report that sickness presenteeism is associated with sickness absence. We aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores for presenteeism in the screening of the future absences due to mental disease.
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Mental health and related factors after the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mental health is one of the most important issues facing disaster survivors. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health problems in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami at 6-11 months after the disaster. The questionnaire and notification were sent to the survivors in three municipalities in the Tohoku area of the Northern part of Honshu, Japan's largest island, between September 2011 and February 2012. Questionnaires were sent to 12,772, 11,411, and 18,648 residents in the Yamada, Otsuchi, and Rikuzentakata municipalities, respectively. Residents were asked to bring the completed questionnaires to their health check-ups. A total of 11,124 or (26.0%) of them underwent health check-ups, and 10,198 were enrolled. We excluded 179 for whom a K6 score was missing and two who were both 17 years of age, which left 10,025 study participants (3,934 male and 6,091 female, mean age 61.0 years). K6 was used to measure mental health problems. The respondents were classified into moderate (5-12 of K6) and serious mental health problems (13+). A total of 42.6% of the respondents had moderate or serious mental health problems. Multivariate analysis showed that women were significantly associated with mental health problems. Other variables associated with mental health problems were: younger male, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of a social network. An interaction effect of sex and economic status on severe mental health problems was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that mental health problems were prevalent in survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. For men and women, health complaints, severe economic status, relocations, and lack of social network may be important risk factors of poor mental health. For men, interventions focusing on economic support may be particularly useful in reducing mental health problems after the disaster.
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Effects of an Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program in Manga format on improving subthreshold depressive symptoms among healthy workers: a randomized controlled trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop a new Internet-based computerized cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) program in Manga format, the Japanese cartoon, for workers and to examine the effects of the iCBT program on improving subthreshold depression using a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design among workers employed in private companies in Japan.
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Association of job demands with work engagement of Japanese employees: comparison of challenges with hindrances (J-HOPE).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent epidemiological research in Europe has reported that two groups of job demands, i.e., challenges and hindrances, are differently associated with work engagement. The purpose of the present study was to replicate the cross-sectional association of workload and time pressure (as a challenge) and role ambiguity (as a hindrance) with work engagement among Japanese employees.
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Social status and anger expression: The cultural moderation hypothesis.
Emotion
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Individuals with lower social status have been reported to express more anger, but this evidence comes mostly from Western cultures. Here, we used representative samples of American and Japanese adults and tested the hypothesis that the association between social status and anger expression depends on whether anger serves primarily to vent frustration, as in the United States, or to display authority, as in Japan. Consistent with the assumption that lower social standing is associated with greater frustration stemming from life adversities and blocked goals, Americans with lower social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by the extent of frustration. In contrast, consistent with the assumption that higher social standing affords a privilege to display anger, Japanese with higher social status expressed more anger, with the relationship mediated by decision-making authority. As expected, anger expression was predicted by subjective social status among Americans and by objective social status among Japanese. Implications for the dynamic construction of anger and anger expression are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Psychosocial mechanisms of psychological health disparity in Japanese workers.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Recent epidemiologic research has shown that people with higher socioeconomic status (SES) (e.g., educational attainment) have better psychological health than those with lower SES. However, the psychosocial mechanisms of underlying this relationship remain unclear. To fill this gap, the current study examines the mediating effects of job demands and job resources in the relationship between educational attainment and psychological distress. The hypothesized model was tested using large data sets from two different studies: a cross-sectional study of 9,652 Japanese employees from 12 workplaces (Study 1), and a longitudinal study of 1,957 Japanese employees (Study 2). Structural equation modeling revealed that (1) educational attainment was positively related to psychological distress through job demands, (2) educational attainment was negatively related to psychological distress through job resources, and (3) educational attainment was not directly related to psychological distress. These results suggest that educational attainment has an indirect effect, rather than a direct one, on psychological distress among workers; educational attainment had both a positive and a negative relationship to psychological distress through job demands and job resources, respectively.
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Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension remain unclear. Further, there are few data available on how such associations vary by gender or over life course.
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Organizational justice and psychological distress among permanent and non-permanent employees in Japan: a prospective cohort study.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Organizational justice has recently been introduced as a new concept as psychosocial determinants of employee health, and an increase in precarious employment is a challenging issue in occupational health. However, no study investigated the association of organizational justice with mental health among employees while taking into account employment contract.
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CUMULATIVE TRAUMAS AND RISK THRESHOLDS: 12-MONTH PTSD IN THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH (WMH) SURVEYS.
Depress Anxiety
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Clinical research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients exposed to multiple traumatic events (TEs) rather than a single TE have increased morbidity and dysfunction. Although epidemiological surveys in the United States and Europe also document high rates of multiple TE exposure, no population-based cross-national data have examined this issue.
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Effectiveness of a program to facilitate recovery for people with long-term mental illness in Japan.
Nurs Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Recovery is defined as the process of developing new meaning and purpose in life as one grows beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness. This study aimed to develop a program to facilitate recovery and examine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. The program was developed with three components that enhance benefit finding, personal meaning, and a sense of happiness. Sixty-three participants with long-term mental illness were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n?=?32) or the control group (n?=?31). The intervention group attended eight 2-h group sessions, with one held every week. Recovery was assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and at a three-month follow-up. In the per-protocol analysis, after excluding those who dropped out, the intervention group showed significant improvement in recovery compared with the control group (P??0.05). The program had the potential to facilitate recovery.
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Work-to-family Conflict and Family-to-Work Conflict among Japanese Dual-earner Couples with Preschool Children: A Spillover-crossover Perspective.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Objectives: This study among Japanese dual-earner couples examined the independent and combined associations of work-to-family conflict (WFC) and family-to-work conflict (FWC) with psychological health of employees and their partners and the relationship quality between partners. Methods: The matched responses of 895 couples were analyzed with logistic regression analysis to examine whether there were differences among the four work-family conflict groups (i.e., no conflict, WFC, FWC and both conflicts groups) in terms of own psychological distress, social undermining (i.e., negative behaviors directed toward the target person) reported by partners and partners psychological distress. The no conflicts group was used as the reference group. Results: The both conflicts group had the highest odds ratios for own psychological distress and social undermining towards the partner for both genders. In addition, for husbands, the both conflicts group had the highest odds ratio for partners psychological distress, whereas for wives, it did not. Conclusions: Dual experiences of WFC and FWC have adverse associations with psychological health of employees and relationship quality between partners of both genders. In addition, dual experiences in husbands have an adverse association with psychological health of their partners (i.e., wives), whereas this is not the case for wives.
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Fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and health in early adulthood: a longitudinal analysis of the Statistics Canadas National Population Health Survey.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The present study aimed to explore a longitudinal relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption in adolescence and two health-related outcomes (i.e., self-rated health and mental health) in early adulthood in the community.
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A prospective study of psychosocial work characteristics and long sick leave of Japanese male employees in multiple workplaces.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial work characteristics associated with long sick leave in a large population of male Japanese employees in multiple workplaces. We examined various psychosocial work characteristics (job overload, job control, supervisor support, coworker support, support by family and friends, role ambiguity, role conflict, intragroup conflict and intergroup conflict) of employees in six factories at the base line. We then conducted a follow-up survey on the recorded long sick leaves of ? 30 continuous days taken by the employees due to any medical condition. We found 574 cases of long sick leave out of 15,531 subjects during an average 5.07-yr follow-up. The results showed that high supervisor support was significantly associated with a decrease in the hazard ratio (HR) of long sick leave after adjustment for several confounding factors (95%CI; 0.69-0.97). High role ambiguity also tended to increase HR, but without reaching significance (95%CI; 0.99-1.41). The results suggest that supervisor support in the workplace may be important to reduce long sick leave in Japanese male employees.
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Negative emotions predict elevated interleukin-6 in the United States but not in Japan.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Previous studies conducted in Western cultures have shown that negative emotions predict higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers, specifically interleukin-6 (IL-6). This link between negative emotions and IL-6 may be specific to Western cultures where negative emotions are perceived to be problematic and thus may not extend to Eastern cultures where negative emotions are seen as acceptable and normal. Using samples of 1044 American and 382 Japanese middle-aged and older adults, we investigated whether the relationship between negative emotions and IL-6 varies by cultural context. Negative emotions predicted higher IL-6 among American adults, whereas no association was evident among Japanese adults. Furthermore, the interaction between culture and negative emotions remained even after controlling for demographic variables, psychological factors (positive emotions, neuroticism, extraversion), health behaviors (smoking status, alcohol consumption), and health status (chronic conditions, BMI). These findings highlight the role of cultural context in shaping how negative emotions affect inflammatory physiology and underscore the importance of cultural ideas and practices relevant to negative emotions for understanding of the interplay between psychology, physiology, and health.
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Sociodemographic determinants of attitudinal barriers in the use of mental health services in Japan: findings from the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2006.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Sociodemographic correlates of Japanese attitudinal barriers to mental health services might be different from previous studies in Western countries, reflecting a different culture. We investigated sociodemographic correlates of attitudinal barriers to mental health services in a community population in Japan, based on data collected in the World Mental Health Survey Japan surveys.
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Japanese dietary pattern consistently relates to low depressive symptoms and it is modified by job strain and worksite supports.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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This study examined the association between traditional Japanese dietary pattern and depressive symptoms in Japanese workers, employing large-scale samples, considering socioeconomic status (SES) and job stress factors.
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Assessing psychological violence and harassment at work: reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Inventory of Violence and Psychological Harassment (IVAPT) comparing NAQ-R and LIPT.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Inventory of Violence and Psychological Harassment (IVAPT) (Pando, 2006), a 22-item measure of psychological harassment at work and presence and intensity of psychological violence widely used in Latin American countries.
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Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with dietary salt intakes and blood pressure in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrients intakes attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary intakes were assessed with a validated, brief, self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of salt intake with the confounding factors. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with salt intake, as well as blood pressures (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, both years of education and household income significantly affect the salt intake (for education, ? = -0.031, P = 0.040; for household income, ? = -0.046, P = 0.003). SES factors also affect the risk of hypertension, those subjects with higher levels of education or income had lower risk to become hypertensive (ORs for education was 0.904, P < 0.001; ORs for income was 0.956, P = 0.032). Our results show that SES is an independent determinant of salt intake and blood pressure, in order to lower the risk of hypertension, the efforts to narrow the social status gaps should be considered by the health policy-makers.
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Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (? = 0.117, p < 0.001). The structural equation model (SEM) shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect) in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.
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Organizational justice and major depressive episodes in Japanese employees: a cross-sectional study.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Several European studies showed that low organizational justice (i.e., procedural justice and interactional justice) was associated with major depressive disorders. In these studies, however, the diagnosis of major depressive disorders may be underestimated because they identified only individuals who visited a doctor and received a diagnosis. Moreover, these studies did not consider neurotic personality traits, which can affect the occurrence of major depressive disorders. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of organizational justice with major depressive episodes in the past 12 months more precisely in Japanese employees.
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Cost of depression among adults in Japan in 2005.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2011
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Major depression is expected to become the leading contributor to disease burden worldwide by 2020. Previous studies have shown that the societal cost of depression is not less than that of other major illnesses, such as cardiovascular diseases or AIDS. Nevertheless, the cost of depression in Japan has never been examined. The goal of the present study was to estimate the total cost of depression in Japan and to clarify the characteristics of this burden.
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Screening performance of K6/K10 and other screening instruments for mood and anxiety disorders in Japan.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2011
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This study aimed to establish the screening performance and optimal cut-off points for the Japanese version of Kessler (K)6, K10 and the Depression and Suicide Screen (DSS).
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The recognition of occupational diseases attributed to heavy workloads: experiences in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2011
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Health problems caused by long working hours and work stress have gained growing concerns in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. In all the three countries, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and mental disorders attributed to heavy workloads or stressful work events are considered compensable occupational diseases by workers compensation systems. This study compared the trends of such cases and correlated the trends with changes in working hours during the period from 1980 to 2010.
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Workaholism and well-being among Japanese dual-earner couples: a spillover-crossover perspective.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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This study among Japanese dual-earner couples examined the impact of workaholism on employees and their partners work-family conflicts and psychological distress. The matched responses of 994 couples were analyzed with logistic regression analyses. Results showed that workaholics (i.e., employees scoring high on both working excessively and working compulsively) were more likely to experience work-to-family conflict and psychological distress compared to relaxed workers (i.e., low on both working excessively and working compulsively) for both genders. Results also showed that husbands of workaholic women were more likely to experience family-to-work conflict, whereas wives of workaholic men were not. These findings integrate and expand previous findings on workaholism and the recently formulated spillover-crossover model.
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Quantitative relationship between recovery and benefit-finding among persons with chronic mental illness in Japan.
Nurs Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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This study quantitatively examined the association between recovery and benefit-finding among persons with a chronic mental illness in Japan. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, with responses from 237 (74%) of 319 individuals (? 20 years old) with a chronic mental illness in community and inpatient ward settings. The data of 120 questionnaires were analyzed (men, 64%; average age, 41?years). The questionnaire included the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) and Self-identified Stage of Recovery Parts A and B (SISR-A and SISR-B) for assessing recovery and the Perceived Positive Change Scale (PPCS) for assessing benefit-finding. The total RAS and SISR-B scores strongly and positively correlated with the PPCS score. The PPCS score significantly differed among the recovery stages, as classified by the SISR-A, with higher scores at higher stages; the association was almost linear. The study confirmed the theoretically expected relationship between recovery and benefit-finding among these individuals. Benefit-finding might be associated not only with a higher stage of recovery but also with each step from one stage to another.
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Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders and its relationship to suicidal ideation in a Japanese rural community with high suicide and alcohol consumption rates.
Environ Health Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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The World Mental Health Survey Japan was conducted to address the current status of mental disorders in Japan. Among the various regions covered by the survey were Tendo City and Kaminoyama City in Yamagata Prefecture. The suicide and alcohol consumption rates in Yamagata are higher than the Japanese national average. Many studies have reported that major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and suicidal ideation are related to suicide risk. The prevalence of MDD, AUDs, and suicidal ideation, as well as the association between suicidal ideation and mental disorders must be investigated in order to implement mental health and suicide prevention measures in our community; however, only a few studies have addressed this issue.
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Crossover of work engagement among Japanese couples: Perspective taking by both partners.
J Occup Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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This study among 426 Japanese couples working in different occupational sectors tested the hypothesis that perspective taking moderates the crossover of work engagement. More specifically, we predicted that husbands work engagement would cross over to their wives, particularly when wives scored high on perspective taking (the spontaneous tendency to adopt the psychological perspective of other people). A similar effect was predicted from wives to husbands. In addition, we hypothesized that the crossover effect would be most pronounced when both partners were high in perspective taking (i.e., a 3-way interaction effect). The results of moderated structural equation modeling analyses confirmed the moderating role of perspective taking, but only for women; women who took the perspective of their partner scored higher on engagement with increasing partner engagement. Moreover, the results showed that engagement crossover was strongest when both men and women were high (vs. low) in perspective taking. This 3-way interaction effect was found from husbands to wives, and vice versa. These findings expand the crossover literature by shedding light on the crossover process.
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Population differences in proinflammatory biology: Japanese have healthier profiles than Americans.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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The pleiotropic cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), has emerged as a key factor in the biology of aging and the physiology of inflammation. Yet much of what we know about the normal functioning of IL-6 has been generated primarily from research on European populations and Americans of European descent. Our analyses compared IL-6 levels in 382 middle-aged and older Japanese to the values found in 1209 Caucasian- and African-Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey (MIDUS). Across the life span from 30 to 80 years of age, mean IL-6 levels were strikingly lower in Japanese individuals. Significantly lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen (FBG) provided confirmatory evidence for a population difference in proinflammatory activity. Because IL-6 release has been associated with obesity, differences in body mass index (BMI) were taken into consideration. Japanese had the lowest, and African-Americans had the highest overall BMIs, but significant group differences in IL-6 persisted even after BMI was included as a covariate in the analyses. Additional support for distinct variation in IL-6 biology was generated when systemic levels of the soluble receptor for IL-6 (sIL-6r) were evaluated. Serum sIL-6r was higher in Japanese than Americans, but was most notably low in African-Americans. Our cytokine data concur with national differences in the prevalence of age-related illnesses linked to inflammatory physiology, including cardiovascular disease. The findings also highlight the importance of broadening the diversity of people included in population studies of health and aging, especially given the relative paucity of information for some Asian countries and on individuals of Asian heritage living in the US.
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Work-family spillover among Japanese dual-earner couples: a large community-based study.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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To examine the effects of multiple types of work-family spillover (work-to-family negative spillover, WFNS; family-to-work negative spillover, FWNS; and work-family positive spillover, WFPS) on psychological distress among Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children.
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[Psychosocial classification of suicide completers by employment situation: a psychological autopsy study].
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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This study sought to clarify psychosocial and psychiatric differences of suicide-completers dependent on their employment situation.
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Evaluation of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorders in a community population in Japan using item response theory.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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The DSM-IV and ICD-10 are both operational diagnostic systems that classify known psychological disorders according to the number of criteria symptoms. Certain discrepancies between the criteria exist and may lead to some inconsistencies in psychiatric research. The purpose of this study was to investigate these differences in the assessment of depression with item response theory (IRT) analyses. The World Mental Health-Japan (WMHJ) Survey is an epidemiological survey of the general population in Japan. We analyzed data from the WMHJ completed by 353 respondents who had either depressive mood or diminished interest. A two-parameter logistic model was used to evaluate the characteristics of the symptoms of the DSM-IV and ICD-10. IRT analyses revealed that the symptoms about psychomotor activity, worthlessness and self-reproach were more informative and suggestive of greater severity, while the symptoms about dietary habits were less informative. IRT analyses also revealed that the ICD-10 seems more sensitive to the mild range of the depression spectrum compared to the DSM-IV. Although there were some variations in severity among respondents, most of the respondents diagnosed with a severe or moderate depressive episode according to the ICD-10 were also diagnosed with a major depressive episode according to the DSM-IV.
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Epidemiological aspects of intermittent explosive disorder in Japan; prevalence and psychosocial comorbidity: findings from the World Mental Health Japan Survey 2002-2006.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of intermittent explosive disorder (IED) as well as its comorbidity with other mental disorders in a Japanese community sample. Subjects were 4,134 residents in selected sites in Japan. Diagnoses of mental disorders are based on the World Mental Health Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of IED were 2.1% and 0.7%, respectively, whereas those of narrow IED were 1.2% and 0.6%, respectively. Male gender and young age were positively associated with an increased prevalence of IED. Mood and anxiety disorders as well as suicidal ideation were shown to be associated with IED in both genders. The overall association between anxiety disorders and IED was stronger in women than in men. Positive association of substance use problems with IED was also observed. Similar findings were observed between those psychosocial factors and narrow IED. These results suggest that people having those mixed complications might have a high suicidal risk. Further research using psychological measures for anger suppression will lead to more thorough understanding of the effects of IED on psychosocial comorbidity and suicidal risk.
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Association between workaholism and sleep problems among hospital nurses.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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The present study examined the association between workaholism, the tendency to work excessively hard in a compulsive fashion, and sleep problems among Japanese nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 600 nurses from 2 university hospitals in Japan using a self-reported questionnaire on workaholism, sleep, job-related variables (i.e., job demands, job control, and worksite support), and demographic variables. A total of 394 nurses returned the questionnaire (response rate=65.7%) and complete data from 312 female nurses were used for analyses (final coverage rate=52.0%). Workaholics, as measured using the Japanese version of the Dutch Workaholism Scale, were defined as those having high scores on both the "work excessively" and "work compulsively" subscales. Logistic regression analyses revealed that workaholics had higher risks for sleep problems in terms of subjective sleep insufficiency, excessive daytime sleepiness at work, difficulty awakening in the morning, and feeling tired when waking up in the morning (odds ratios [OR] of 4.40, 3.18, 3.48, and 4.61, respectively, p<0.05). These remained significant even after adjusting for demographic and job-related variables (OR 3.41, 5.36, 2.56, and 2.77, respectively). However, no significant associations were found between workaholism and insomnia symptoms. These results suggest that workaholic nurses had higher risks for impaired awakening, insufficient sleep, and workplace sleepiness.
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Measuring workplace bullying: reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the negative acts questionnaire.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2010
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Workplace bullying is increasingly being recognized as a serious problem within the work environment. Previous studies in European countries have reported the prevalence of workplace bullying and its association with poor mental health, using the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R: Einarsen & Hoel, 2001), but there have been very few studies in Japan. The authors translated the 22-item NAQ-R into the Japanese language and examined the internal consistency reliability and concurrent and construct validity, including factor-based validity, of this scale in a sample of Japanese civil servants.
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Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the Self-Identified Stage of Recovery for people with long term mental illness.
Int J Ment Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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The Self-Identified Stage of Recovery (SISR) is a two-part scale assessing both the stage of recovery (SISR-A) and the component processes of recovery (SISR-B) for people with mental illness. This study aimed to develop a Japanese version of the SISR and to examine its reliability and validity. The Japanese versions of the SISR-A and SISR-B were developed through focus group cognitive interviews and the translation-back translation procedure. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted of 223 participants who had long term mental illness, were aged 20 years or older, and currently living in communities and inpatient ward settings; 59.2% were males and the average age was 47.6 years. The questionnaire also included the 24-item Recovery Assessment Scale, Herth Hope Index, Empowerment Scale, and Resilience Scale. Cronbachs alpha coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and weighted kappas were generally fair to high, and the SISR-A and SISR-B scores were positively correlated with other relevant scales. This study supported the reliability and validity of the Japanese versions of the SISR-A and SISR-B among people with long term mental illness in Japan.
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Factors associated with glycemic control and diabetes self-care among outpatients with schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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We investigated the influence of the severity of schizophrenia on diabetes self-care and glycemic control among outpatients with schizophrenia and diabetes. We conducted interviews with 38 participants and reviewed their clinical charts. The mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level in the full study population was 7.65%. There was no difference in the HbA1c level between two groups of subjects classified by the severity of schizophrenia. Some diabetes self-care indicators were significantly lower in patients with high Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores (P < .05). Although psychotic symptoms do not appear to affect glycemic control, psychotic symptoms might affect diabetes self-care behaviors in people with schizophrenia.
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Association of occupation, employment contract, and company size with mental health in a national representative sample of employees in Japan.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional association of employment contract, company size, and occupation with psychological distress using a nationally representative sample of the Japanese population.
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A beverage containing fermented black soybean ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced renal oxidative damage in rats.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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It is beneficial to seek scientific basis for the effects of functional foods. Natural pigments derived from plants are widely known as possible antioxidants. Black soybean contains a larger amount of anthocyanins than regular soybean. Here we studied the antioxidative effect of a beverage obtained via citric acid fermentation of black soybean (BBS), using a rat model of renal oxidative injury induced by a renal carcinogen, ferric nitrilotriacetate. BBS (10 ml/kg) was orally administered 30 min before ferric nitrilotriacetate treatment. Renal lipid peroxidation was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated animals concomitant with decrease in 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine. Maintenance of renal activities of antioxidative enzymes including catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and quinone reductase was significantly better in the BBS-pretreated rats. Elevation of serum creatinine and urea nitrogen was significantly suppressed in the BBS-pretreated rats. These data suggest that dietary intake of BBS is useful for the prevention of renal tubular oxidative damage mediate by iron, and warrant further investigation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.