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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sterylglucoside catabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans with endoglycoceramidase-related protein 2 (EGCrP2), the first steryl-?-glucosidase identified in fungi.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Cryptococcosis is an infectious disease caused by pathogenic fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The ceramide structure (methyl-d18:2/h18:0) of C. neoformans glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is characteristic and strongly related to its pathogenicity. We recently identified that endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1) as a glucocerebrosidase in C. neoformans and showed that it was involved in the quality control of GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer during the synthesis of GlcCer (Ishibashi et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2012). We herein identified and characterized EGCrP2, a homologue of EGCrP1, as the enzyme responsible for sterylglucoside catabolism in C. neoformans. In contrast to EGCrP1, which is specific to GlcCer, EGCrP2 hydrolyzed various ?-glucosides including GlcCer, cholesteryl-?-glucoside, ergosteryl-?-glucoside, sitosteryl-?-glucoside, and para-nitrophenyl-?-glucoside, but not ?-glucosides or ?-galactosides, under acidic conditions. Disruption of the EGCrP2 gene (egcrp2) resulted in the accumulation of a glycolipid, and the structure of which was determined following purification to ergosteryl-3-?-glucoside, a major sterylglucoside in fungi, by mass spectrometric and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. This glycolipid accumulated in vacuoles in which EGCrP2 was localized. These results indicated that EGCrP2 was involved in the catabolism of ergosteryl-?-glucoside in the vacuoles of C. neoformans. Distinct growth arrest, a dysfunction in cell budding, and an abnormal vacuole morphology were detected in the egcrp2-disrupted mutants, suggesting that EGCrP2 may be a promising target for anti-cryptococcal drugs. EGCrP2, classified into glycohydrolase family 5, is the first steryl-?-glucosidase identified as well as a missing link in sterylglucoside metabolism in fungi.
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A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.
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Identification of perfluorooctane sulfonate binding protein in the plasma of tiger pufferfish Takifugu rubripes.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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It is well known that perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) preferentially accumulates in the plasma of wildlife and humans. Although earlier studies have suggested that this was due to binding of PFOS to a plasma protein, definite characterization of the protein in in vivo exposure studies was not conducted thus far. In this study, we conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments to identify PFOS binding protein in the plasma of fish. For the in vivo studies, PFOS was administered intraperitoneally to tiger pufferfish, Takifugu rubripes, and the plasma was separated by ammonium sulfate fractionation. High concentrations of PFOS were found in the 65-70 percent ammonium sulfate fraction (190ng/mL). After SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the PFOS-binding protein was identified as an apolipoprotein A-I, which was confirmed on the basis of a significant correlation to the PFOS concentration in each fraction. The plasma samples fractionated by ammonium sulfate from untreated pufferfish were subjected to PFOS binding assay by the equilibrium dialysis method. The results further confirmed that the 60-65 percent ammonium sulfate fraction showed a high PFOS-binding ratio, similar to that found from in vivo studies. We demonstrated that PFOS is likely bound to an apolipoprotein A-I in the plasma of tiger pufferfish in in vivo and in vitro studies.
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Inhibition of GM3 synthase attenuates neuropathology of niemann-pick disease type C by affecting sphingolipid metabolism.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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In several lysosomal storage disorders, including Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NP-C), sphingolipids, including glycosphingolipids, particularly gangliosides, are the predominant storage materials in the brain, raising the possibility that accumulation of these lipids may be involved in the NP-C neurodegenerative process. However, correlation of these accumulations and NP-C neuropathology has not been fully characterized. Here we derived NP-C mice with complete and partial deletion of the Siat9 (encoding GM3 synthase) gene in order to investigate the role of ganglioside in NP-C pathogenesis. According to our results, NPC mice with homozygotic deletion of GM3 synthase exhibited an enhanced neuropathological phenotype and died significantly earlier than NP-C mice. Notably, in contrast to complete depletion, NP-C mice with partial deletion of the GM3 synthase gene showed ameliorated NP-C neuropathology, including motor disability, demyelination, and abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids. These findings indicate the crucial role of GM3 synthesis in the NP-C phenotype and progression of CNS pathologic abnormality, suggesting that well-controlled inhibition of GM3 synthesis could be used as a therapeutic strategy.
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Novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase PLAT1 of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b responsible for generation of palmitate-docosahexaenoate-phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), have been reported to play roles in preventing cardiovascular diseases. The major source of DHA is fish oils but a recent increase in the global demand of DHA and decrease in fish stocks require a substitute. Thraustochytrids, unicellular marine protists belonging to the Chromista kingdom, can synthesize large amounts of DHA, and, thus, are expected to be an alternative to fish oils. DHA is found in the acyl chain(s) of phospholipids as well as triacylglycerols in thraustochytrids; however, how thraustochytrids incorporate DHA into phospholipids remains unknown. We report here a novel lysophospholipid acyltransferase (PLAT1), which is responsible for the generation of DHA-containing phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in thraustochytrids. The PLAT1 gene, which was isolated from the genomic DNA of Aurantiochytrium limacinum F26-b, was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the FLAG-tagged recombinant enzyme was characterized after purification with anti-FLAG affinity gel. PLAT1 shows wide specificity for donor substrates as well as acceptor substrates in vitro, i.e, the enzyme can adopt lysophosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidylinositol as acceptor substrates, and 15:0/16:0-CoA and DHA-CoA as donor substrates. In contrast to the in vitro experiment, only lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase and lysophosphatidylethanolamine acyltransferase activities were decreased in plat1-knockout mutants, resulting in a decrease of 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylcholine (PC) [PC(38:6)] and 16:0-DHA-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) [PE(38:6)], which are two major DHA-containing phospholipids in A. limacinum F26-b. However, the amounts of other phospholipid species including DHA-DHA-PC [PC(44:12)] and DHA-DHA-PE [PE(44:12)] were almost the same in plat-knockout mutants and the wild-type. These results indicate that PLAT1 is the enzyme responsible for the generation of 16:0-DHA-PC and 16:0-DHA-PE in the thraustochytrid.
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Pseudomonas-derived ceramidase induces production of inflammatory mediators from human keratinocytes via sphingosine-1-phosphate.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ceramide is important for water retention and permeability barrier functions in the stratum corneum, and plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). A Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived neutral ceramidase (PaCDase) isolated from a patient with AD was shown to effectively degrade ceramide in the presence of Staphylococcus aureus-derived lipids or neutral detergents. However, the effect of ceramide metabolites on the functions of differentiating keratinocytes is poorly understood. We found that the ceramide metabolite sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) stimulated the production of inflammatory mediators such as TNF-? and IL-8 from three-dimensionally cultured human primary keratinocytes (termed "3D keratinocytes"), which form a stratum corneum. PaCDase alone did not affect TNF-? gene expression in 3D keratinocytes. In the presence of the detergent Triton X-100, which damages stratum corneum structure, PaCDase, but not heat-inactivated PaCDase or PaCDase-inactive mutant, induced the production of TNF-?, endothelin-1, and IL-8, indicating that this production was dependent on ceramidase activity. Among various ceramide metabolites, sphingosine and S1P enhanced the gene expression of TNF-?, endothelin-1, and IL-8. The PaCDase-enhanced expression of these genes was inhibited by a sphingosine kinase inhibitor and by an S1P receptor antagonist VPC 23019. The TNF-?-binding antibody infliximab suppressed the PaCDase-induced upregulation of IL-8, but not TNF-?, mRNA. PaCDase induced NF-?B p65 phosphorylation. The NF-?B inhibitor curcumin significantly inhibited PaCDase-induced expression of IL-8 and endothelin-1. VPC 23019 and infliximab inhibited PaCDase-induced NF-?B p65 phosphorylation and reduction in the protein level of the NF-?B inhibitor I?B?. Collectively, these findings suggest that (i) 3D keratinocytes produce S1P from sphingosine, which is produced through the hydrolysis of ceramide by PaCDase, (ii) S1P induces the production of TNF-? via S1P receptors, and (iii) released TNF-? stimulates the production of inflammatory mediators such as IL-8.
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New insight into the structure, reaction mechanism, and biological functions of neutral ceramidase.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Ceramidase (CDase) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the N-acyl linkage between the sphingoid base and fatty acid of ceramide. These enzymes are classified into three distinct groups, acid (Asah1), neutral (Asah2), and alkaline (Asah3) CDases, based on their primary structure and optimum pH. Acid CDase catabolizes ceramide in lysosomes and is found only in vertebrates. In contrast, the distribution of neutral and alkaline CDases is broad, with both being found in species ranging from lower eukaryotes to mammals; however, only neutral CDase is found in prokaryotes, including some pathogenic bacteria. Neutral CDase is thought to have gained a specific domain (mucin box) in the N-terminal region after the vertebrate split, allowing the enzyme to be stably expressed at the plasma membrane as a type II membrane protein. The X-ray crystal structure of neutral CDase was recently solved, uncovering a unique structure and reaction mechanism for the enzyme. Neutral CDase contains a zinc ion in the active site that functions as a catalytic center, and the hydrolysis of the N-acyl linkage in ceramide proceeds through a mechanism that is similar to that described for zinc-dependent carboxypeptidase. This review describes the structure, reaction mechanism, and biological functions of neutral CDase in association with the molecular evolution, topology, and mechanical conformation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New frontiers in sphingolipid biology.
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Elevated water temperature reduces the acute toxicity of the widely used herbicide diuron to a green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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In the actual environment, temperatures fluctuate drastically through season or global warming and are thought to affects risk of pollutants for aquatic biota; however, there is no report about the effect of water temperature on toxicity of widely used herbicide diuron to fresh water microalgae. The present research investigated inhibitory effect of diuron on growth and photosynthetic activity of a green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at five different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 °C) for 144 h of exposure. As a result, effective diuron concentrations at which a 50 % decrease in algal growth occurred was increased with increasing water temperature ranging from 9.2 to 20.1 ?g L(-1) for 72 h and 9.4-28.5 ?g L(-1) for 144 h. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (F v/F m ratio) was significantly reduced at all temperatures by diuron exposure at 32 ?g L(-1) after 72 h. Inhibition rates was significantly increased with decreased water temperature (P?
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Two fatty acid elongases possessing C18-?6/C18-?9/C20-?5 or C16-?9 elongase activity in Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Thraustochytrids, unicellular eukaryotic marine protists, accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of two fatty acid elongase genes (designated tselo1 and tselo2), which could be involved in the desaturase/elongase (standard) pathway in Thraustochytrium sp. ATCC 26185. TsELO1, the product of tselo1 and classified into a ?6 elongase group by phylogenetic analysis, showed strong C18-?6 elongase activity and relatively weak C18-?9 and C20-?5 activities when expressed in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. TsELO2, classified into a ?9 elongase subgroup, showed only C16-?9 activity. When expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186 using a thraustochytrid-derived promoter and a terminator, TsELO1 exhibited almost the same specificity as expressed in the yeast but TsELO2 showed weak C18-?9 activity, in addition to its main C16-?9 activity. These results suggest that TsELO1 functions not only as a C18-?6 and a C20-?5 elongase in the main route but also as a C18-?9 elongase in the alternative route of standard pathway, while TsELO2 functions mainly as a C16-?9 elongase generating vaccenic acid (C18:1n-7) in thraustochytrids. This is the first report describing a fatty acid elongase harboring C16-?9 activity in thraustochytrids.
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Vibrios adhere to epithelial cells in the intestinal tract of red sea bream, Pagrus major, utilizing GM4 as an attachment site.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Vibrios, distributed in marine and brackish environments, can cause vibriosis in fish and shellfish under appropriate conditions. Previously, we clarified by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) overlay assay that (35)S-labeled Vibrio trachuri adhered to GM4 isolated from red sea bream intestine. However, whether GM4 actually functions on epithelial cells as an attachment site for vibrios still remains to be uncovered. We found that six isolates, classified as V. harveyi, V. campbellii, and V. splendidus, from intestinal microflora of red sea bream adhered to GM4 but not galactosylceramide (GalCer) by TLC-overlay assay. Tissue-overlay assays revealed that V. harveyi labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) adhered to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine where GM4 and GalCer were found to be distributed on the top layer of actin filaments by immunohistochemical analysis using corresponding antibodies. The number of adhering vibrios was diminished by pretreatment with anti-GM4 antibody, but not anti-GalCer antibody. These results clearly indicate that vibrios adhere to epithelial cells of red sea bream intestine utilizing GM4 as an attachment site.
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Quality control of fungus-specific glucosylceramide in Cryptococcus neoformans by endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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A fungus-specific glucosylceramide (GlcCer), which contains a unique sphingoid base possessing two double bonds and a methyl substitution, is essential for pathogenicity in fungi. Although the biosynthetic pathway of the GlcCer has been well elucidated, little is known about GlcCer catabolism because a GlcCer-degrading enzyme (glucocerebrosidase) has yet to be identified in fungi. We found a homologue of endoglycoceramidase tentatively designated endoglycoceramidase-related protein 1 (EGCrP1) in several fungal genomic databases. The recombinant EGCrP1 hydrolyzed GlcCer but not other glycosphingolipids, whereas endoglycoceramidase hydrolyzed oligosaccharide-linked glycosphingolipids but not GlcCer. Disruption of egcrp1 in Cryptococcus neoformans, a typical pathogenic fungus causing cryptococcosis, resulted in the accumulation of fungus-specific GlcCer and immature GlcCer that possess sphingoid bases without a methyl substitution concomitant with a dysfunction of polysaccharide capsule formation. These results indicated that EGCrP1 participates in the catabolism of GlcCer and especially functions to eliminate immature GlcCer in vivo that are generated as by-products due to the broad specificity of GlcCer synthase. We conclude that EGCrP1, a glucocerebrosidase identified for the first time in fungi, controls the quality of GlcCer by eliminating immature GlcCer incorrectly generated in C. neoformans, leading to accurate processing of fungus-specific GlcCer.
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Molecular cloning of a Pinguiochrysis pyriformis oleate-specific microsomal ?12-fatty acid desaturase and functional analysis in yeasts and thraustochytrids.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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We isolated a putative desaturase gene from a marine alga, Pinguiochrysis pyriformis MBIC 10872, which is capable of accumulating eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5(?5,8,11,14,17)). The gene possessed an open reading frame of 1,314 bp encoding a putative 437 amino acid residues showing high sequence identity (37-48%) with fungal and nematode ?12-fatty acid desaturases. Yeast cells transformed with the gene converted endogenous oleic acid (C18:1(?9)) to linoleic acid (C18:2(?9,12)). However, no double bonds were introduced into other endogenous fatty acids or exogenously added fatty acids. Flag-tagged enzyme was recovered in the micosome fraction when expressed in yeast cells. To express the gene in thraustochytrids, a construct driven by the thraustochytrid-derived ubiquitin promoter was used. Interestingly, exogenously added oleic acid was converted to linoleic acid in the gene transformants but not mock transformants of Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186. These results clearly indicate that the gene encodes a microsomal ?12-fatty acid desaturase and was expressed functionally in not only yeasts but also thraustochytrids. This is the first report describing the heterozygous expression of a fatty acid desaturase in thraustochytrids, and could facilitate a genetic approach towards fatty acid synthesis in thraustochytrids which are expected to be an alternative source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
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Lipid rafts enriched in monosialylGb5Cer carrying the stage-specific embryonic antigen-4 epitope are involved in development of mouse preimplantation embryos at cleavage stage.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Lipid rafts enriched in glycosphingolipids (GSLs), cholesterol and signaling molecules play an essential role not only for signal transduction started by ligand binding, but for intracellular events such as organization of actin, intracellular traffic and cell polarity, but their functions in cleavage division of preimplantation embryos are not well known.
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Multiplex analysis of sphingolipids using amine-reactive tags (iTRAQ).
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Ceramides play a crucial role in divergent signaling events, including differentiation, senescence, proliferation, and apoptosis. Ceramides are a minor lipid component in terms of content; thus, highly sensitive detection is required for accurate quantification. The recently developed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method enables a precise comparison of both protein and aminophospholipids. However, iTRAQ tagging had not been applied to the determination of sphingolipids. Here we report a method for the simultaneous measurement of multiple ceramide and monohexosylceramide samples using iTRAQ tags. Samples were hydrolyzed with sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase (SCDase) to expose the free amino group of the sphingolipids, to which the N-hydroxysuccinimide group of iTRAQ reagent was conjugated. The reaction was performed in the presence of a cleavable detergent, 3-[3-(1,1-bisalkyloxyethyl)pyridine-1-yl]propane-1-sulfonate (PPS) to both improve the hydrolysis and ensure the accuracy of the mass spectrometry analysis performed after iTRAQ labeling. This method was successfully applied to the profiling of ceramides and monohexosylceramides in sphingomyelinase-treated Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells and apoptotic Jurkat cells.
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Increase of eicosapentaenoic acid in thraustochytrids through thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter-driven expression of a fatty acid {delta}5 desaturase gene.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Thraustochytrids, marine protists known to accumulate polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in lipid droplets, are considered an alternative to fish oils as a source of PUFAs. The major fatty acids produced in thraustochytrids are palmitic acid (C(16:0)), n - 6 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) (C(22:5)(n) (- 6)), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C(22:6)(n) (- 3)), with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (C(20:5)(n) (- 3)) and arachidonic acid (AA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 6)) as minor constituents. We attempted here to alter the fatty acid composition of thraustochytrids through the expression of a fatty acid ?5 desaturase gene driven by the thraustochytrid ubiquitin promoter. The gene was functionally expressed in Aurantiochytrium limacinum mh0186, increasing the amount of EPA converted from eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) (C(20:4)(n) (- 3)) by the ?5 desaturase. The levels of EPA and AA were also increased by 4.6- and 13.2-fold in the transgenic thraustochytrids compared to levels in the mock transfectants when ETA and dihomo-?-linolenic acid (DGLA) (C(20:3)(n) (- 6)) were added to the culture at 0.1 mM. Interestingly, the amount of EPA in the transgenic thraustochytrids increased in proportion to the amount of ETA added to the culture up to 0.4 mM. The rates of conversion and accumulation of EPA were much higher in the thraustochytrids than in bakers yeasts when the desaturase gene was expressed with the respective promoters. This report describes for the first time the finding that an increase of EPA could be accomplished by introducing the ?5 desaturase gene into thraustochytrids and indicates that molecular breeding of thraustochytrids is a promising strategy for generating beneficial PUFAs.
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Purification, molecular cloning, and application of a novel sphingomyelin-binding protein (clamlysin) from the brackishwater clam, Corbicula japonica.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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A novel sphingomyelin-binding protein (clamlysin) was purified from the foot muscle of a brackishwater clam, Corbicula japonica. The purified 24.8-kDa protein lysed sheep, horse and rabbit erythrocytes and the hemolytic activity was inhibited by sphingomyelin, but not other phospholipids or glycosphingolipids. The open reading frame of the clamlysin gene encoded a putative 26.9-kDa protein (clamlysin B) which showed high sequence similarity with the actinoporin family. A surface plasmon resonance assay confirmed that clamlysin B specifically bound to sphingomyelin. Furthermore, two cDNA variants of clamlysin, encoding putative 31.4 kDa (clamlysin A) and 11 kDa (clamlysin C) proteins, were isolated. Only the 31.4-kDa variant was found to exhibit sphingomyelin-binding activity. Clamlysin A and B, but not C, shared a sequence (domain II) conserved in all known sphingomyelin-binding proteins. Domain II fused with a glutathione S-transferase bound to sphingomyelin. Horse erythrocytes, mouse melanoma B16 and GM95 cells, and Chinese hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, but not the same cells treated with bacterial sphingomyelinase, were immunostained with clamlysin B. These results indicate that clamlysin B binds to the sphingomyelin of living cells and thus would be useful as a molecular probe to detect sphingomyelin.
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Expression, purification, and characterization of a recombinant neutral ceramidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2010
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Ceramidase (CDase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of ceramide (Cer) to sphingosine (Sph) and fatty acid. We have reported the molecular cloning and preliminary characterization of the Mycobacterium CDase (MtCDase) (J. Biol. Chem., 274, 36616-36622 (1999)). To determine its function further, MtCDase was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-Sepharose and gelfiltration. The purified recombinant enzyme showed a single band and a molecular weight estimated to be 71 kDa on SDS-PAGE. It had a pH optimum at 8.0-9.0 and quite broad specificity for various Cers. Of the Cers of different fatty acid moieties tested, those composed of C6-C24 fatty acids were well hydrolyzed, and Cers with mono unsaturated fatty acids were much more hydrolyzed than those with saturated fatty acids. Using N-dodecanoyl-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-4-diazole (NBD)-D-erythro-sphingosine (C12-NBD-Cer) as substrates, the reaction followed normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent Km and Vmax values for C12-NBD-Cer were 98.7 muM and 21.1 pmol/min respectively. The purified enzyme also catalyzed the synthesis of Cer in vitro, using NBD-labeled dodecanoic acid and Sph as substrates.
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A novel fucosyl glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp that is highly sensitive to endoglycoceramidase.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Endoglycoceramidase (EGCase; EC 3.2.1.123) is a glycohydrolase that hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharide and ceramide of various glycosphingolipids. We previously reported that hydra produced EGCase to digest glycosphingolipids of brine shrimp (Artemia salina), a type of aquatic crustacean used as a diet for the culture of hydra (Horibata Y, Sakaguchi K, Okino N, Iida H, Inagaki M, Fujisawa T, Hama Y, Ito M. 2004. J Biol Chem. 279:33379-33389). We report here that a major glycosphingolipid of brine shrimp is unique in structure and highly sensitive to EGCase. The glycosphingolipid was extracted from freshly hatched brine shrimp by Folchs partition, followed by mild alkaline hydrolysis and purification with a Sep-Pak plus silica cartridge. The structure of brine shrimp glycosphingolipid was determined by gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fast-atom bombardment mass spectrometry, and (1)H-NMR spectrometry to be GlcNAcalpha1-2Fucalpha1-3Manbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer. Two major molecular species of the glycosphingolipid were identified; the sugar and sphingoid base of each were the same but the major fatty acid was C22:0 and 2-hydroxy C22:0, respectively. This is the first report describing the glycosphingolipid that has an internal fucosyl residue substituted with alpha1-2 N-acetylglucosaminyl residue. This study also suggests the biological relevance of the glycosphingolipid as a dietary source of hydra which possesses EGCase as a digestion enzyme.
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Zebrafish and mouse alpha2,3-sialyltransferases responsible for synthesizing GM4 ganglioside.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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We have previously reported that fish pathogens causing vibriosis specifically adhere to GM4 on the epithelial cells of fish intestinal tracts (Chisada, S., Horibata, Y., Hama, Y., Inagaki, M., Furuya, N., Okino, N., and Ito, M. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 333, 367-373). To identify the gene encoding the enzyme for GM4 synthesis in the fish intestinal tract, a phylogenetic tree of vertebrate ST3GalVs, including Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes, was generated in which two putative subfamilies of fish ST3GalVs were found. Two putative ST3GalVs of zebrafish (zST3GalV-1 and -2), each belonging to different subfamilies, were cloned from the zebrafish cDNA library. Interestingly, zST3GalV-1 synthesized GM3 (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1Cer) but not GM4, whereas zSTGalV-2 synthesized both gangliosides in vitro when expressed in CHO-K1 and RPMI1846 cells. Flow cytometric analysis using anti-GM4 antibody revealed that the transformation of RPMI1846 cells with zST3GalV-2 but not zST3GalV-1 cDNA increased the cell-surface expression of GM4. Whole mount in situ hybridization showed that the zST3GalV-2 transcript was strongly expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, whereas zST3GalV-1 was expressed in the brain and esophagus but not gastrointestinal tract in 3-day post-fertilization embryos. It has long been a matter of controversy which enzyme is responsible for the synthesis of GM4 in mammals. We found that three isoforms of mouse ST3GalV (mST3GalV) having different N-terminal sequences can synthesize GM4 as well as GM3 when expressed in RPMI1846 and CHO-K1 cells. Furthermore, mST3GalV knock-out mice were found to lack GM4 synthase activity and GM4 in contrast to wild-type mice. These results clearly indicate that zST3GalV-2 and mST3GalV are the enzymes responsible for the synthesis of GM4 in zebrafish and mice, respectively.
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Mechanistic insights into the hydrolysis and synthesis of ceramide by neutral ceramidase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Ceramidase (CDase; EC 3.5.1.23) hydrolyzes ceramide to generate sphingosine and fatty acid. The enzyme plays a regulatory role in a variety of physiological events in eukaryotes and also functions as an exotoxin in particular bacteria. The crystal structures of neutral CDase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaCD) in the C2-ceramide-bound and -unbound forms were determined at 2.2 and 1.4 A resolutions, respectively. PaCD consists of two domains, and the Zn(2+)- and Mg(2+)/Ca(2+)-binding sites are found within the center of the N-terminal domain and the interface between the domains, respectively. The structural comparison between the C2-ceramide-bound and unbound forms revealed an open-closed conformational change occurring to loop I upon binding of C2-ceramide. In the closed state, this loop sits above the Zn(2+) coordination site and over the opening to the substrate binding site. Mutational analyses of residues surrounding the Zn(2+) of PaCD and rat neutral CDase revealed that the cleavage or creation of the N-acyl linkage of ceramide follows a similar mechanism as observed for the Zn(2+)-dependent carboxypeptidases. The results provide an understanding of the molecular mechanism of hydrolysis and synthesis of ceramide by the enzyme. Furthermore, insights into the actions of PaCD and eukaryotic neutral CDases as an exotoxin and mediators of sphingolipid signaling are also revealed, respectively.
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Simultaneous quantification of glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide by normal-phase HPLC using O-phtalaldehyde derivatives prepared with sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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We report here a method of simultaneously quantifying glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and galactosylceramide (GalCer) by normal-phase HPLC using O-phtalaldehyde derivatives. Treatment with sphingolipid ceramide N-deacylase which converts the cerebrosides in the sample to their lyso-forms was followed by the quantitative labeling of free NH(2) groups of the lyso-cerebrosides with O-phtalaldehyde. Using this method, 14.1 pmol of GlcCer and 10.4 pmol of GalCer, and 108.1 pmol of GlcCer and 191.1 pmol of GalCer were detected in zebrafish embryos and RPMI 1864 cells, respectively, while 22.2 pmol of GlcCer but no GalCer was detected in CHOP cells using cell lysate containing 100 microg of protein. Linearity for the determination of each cerebroside was observed from 50 to 400 microg of protein under the conditions used, which corresponds to approximately 10(3) to 10(5) RPMI cells and 5 to 80 zebrafish embryos. The present method clearly revealed that the treatment of RPMI cells with a GlcCer synthase inhibitor P4 resulted in a marked decrease in GlcCer but not GalCer, concomitantly with a significant decrease in the GlcCer synthase activity. On the other hand, GlcCer but not GalCer increased 2-fold when an acid glucocerebrosidase inhibitor CBE was injected into zebrafish embryos. Interestingly, the treatment of CHOP cells with ciclosporin A increased GlcCer possibly due to the inhibition of LacCer synthase. A significant increase in levels of GlcCer in fibroblasts from patients with Gaucher disease was clearly shown by the method. The proposed method is useful for the determination of GlcCer and GalCer levels in various biological samples.
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Transglycosylation-based fluorescent labeling of 6-gala series glycolipids by endogalactosylceramidase.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2009
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Although 6-gala series glycosphingolipids possessing R-Gal (alpha/beta) 1-6Gal beta 1-1Cer have been found in some mollusks, pathogenic parasites, and fungi, their physiological functions and metabolic pathway are not fully understood. We described a novel method of detecting 6-gala series glyco- sphingolipids utilizing the specificity of endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC), which is capable of hydrolyzing 6-gala series glycosphingolipids to produce intact oligosaccharides and ceramides. EGALC catalyzes not only hydrolysis but also a transglycosylation reaction. In the latter reaction, EGALC transfers oligosaccharides from the glycosphingolipids to acceptors such as fluorescent 1-alkanols. Based on the transglycosylation reaction of EGALC, a specific, easy, fast, sensitive, and reproducible method of detecting 6-gala series glycosphingolipids was developed using NBD-pentanol as an acceptor. The fluorescent products, NBD-pentanol-conjugated 6-gala oligosaccharides, were separated and detected by TLC or HPLC with a fluorescent detector. Moreover, it was revealed that as well as glycosphingolipids, a glycoglycerolipid, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, was utilized by EGALC as a donor substrate. This method was successfully applied to detect 6-gala series glycosphingolipids in a fungus, Rhizopus oryzae, and a parasite, Taenia crassiceps. The method would be useful for studying glycosphingolipids and galactosyl glycerolipids which share the Gal (alpha/beta) 1-6Gal structure.
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Crystal structure of alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase from a luminous marine bacterium, Photobacterium phosphoreum.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Alpha/beta-galactoside alpha2,3-sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 is a unique enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid residue from cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid to acceptor carbohydrate groups. The enzyme recognizes both mono- and di-saccharides as acceptor substrates, and can transfer Neu5Ac to both alpha-galactoside and beta-galactoside, efficiently. To elucidate the structural basis for the broad acceptor substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structure of the alpha2,3-sialyltransferase in complex with CMP. The overall structure belongs to the glycosyltransferase-B structural group. We could model a reasonable active conformation structure based on the crystal structure. The predicted structure suggested that the broad substrate specificity could be attributed to the wider entrance of the acceptor substrate binding site.
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Tamavidins--novel avidin-like biotin-binding proteins from the Tamogitake mushroom.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Novel biotin-binding proteins, referred to herein as tamavidin 1 and tamavidin 2, were found in a basidiomycete fungus, Pleurotus cornucopiae, known as the Tamogitake mushroom. These are the first avidin-like proteins to be discovered in organisms other than birds and bacteria. Tamavidin 1 and tamavidin 2 have amino acid sequences with 31% and 36% identity, respectively, to avidin, and 47% and 48% identity, respectively, to streptavidin. Unlike any other biotin-binding proteins, tamavidin 1 and tamavidin 2 are expressed as soluble proteins at a high level in Escherichia coli. Recombinant tamavidin 2 was purified as a tetrameric protein in a single step by 2-iminobiotin affinity chromatography, with a yield of 5 mg per 100 mL culture of E. coli. The kinetic parameters measured by a BIAcore biosensor indicated that recombinant tamavidin 2 binds biotin with high affinity, in a similar manner to binding by avidin and streptavidin. The overall crystal structure of recombinant tamavidin 2 is similar to that of avidin and streptavidin. However, recombinant tamavidin 2 is immunologically distinct from avidin and streptavidin. Tamavidin 2 and streptavidin are very similar in terms of the arrangement of the residues interacting with biotin, but different with regard to the number of hydrogen bonds to biotin carboxylate. Recombinant tamavidin 2 is more stable than avidin and streptavidin at high temperature, and nonspecific binding to DNA and human serum by recombinant tamavidin 2 is lower than that for avidin. These findings highlight tamavidin 2 as a probable powerful tool, in addition to avidin and streptavidin, in numerous applications of biotin-binding proteins.
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Loss-of-function mutation in bi-functional marine bacterial sialyltransferase.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
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An ?2,3-sialyltransferase produced by Photobacterium phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 is a bi-functional enzyme showing both ?2,3-sialyltransferase and ?2,3-linkage specific sialidase activity. To date, the crystal structures of several sialyltransferases have been solved, but the roles of amino acid residues around the catalytic site have not been completely clarified. Hence we performed a mutational study using ?2,3-sialyltransferase cloned from P. phosphoreum JT-ISH-467 as a model enzyme to study the role of the amino acid residues around the substrate-binding site. It was found that a mutation of the glutamic acid at position 342 in the sialyltransferase resulted in a loss of sialidase activity, although the mutant showed no decrease in sialyltransferase activity. Based on this result, it is strongly expected that the Glu342 of the enzyme is an important amino acid residue for sialidase activity.
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Preparation and characterization of EGCase I, applicable to the comprehensive analysis of GSLs, using a rhodococcal expression system.
J. Lipid Res.
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Endoglycoceramidase (EGCase) is a glycosidase capable of hydrolyzing the ? -glycosidic linkage between the oligosaccharides and ceramides of glycosphingolipids (GSLs). Three molecular species of EGCase differing in specificity were found in the culture fluid of Rhodococcus equi (formerly Rhodococcus sp. M-750) and designated EGCase I, II, and III. This study describes the molecular cloning of EGCase I and characterization of the recombinant enzyme, which was highly expressed in a rhodococcal expression system using Rhodococcus erythropolis. Kinetic analysis revealed the turnover number (k(cat)) (k(cat)) of the recombinant EGCase I to be 22- and 1,200-fold higher than that of EGCase II toward GM1a and Gb3Cer, respectively, although the K(m) of both enzymes was almost the same for these substrates. Comparison of the three-dimensional structure of EGCase I (model) and EGCase II (crystal) indicated that a flexible loop hangs over the catalytic cleft of EGCase II but not EGCase I. Deletion of the loop from EGCase II increased the k(cat) of the mutant enzyme, suggesting that the loop is a critical factor affecting the turnover of substrates and products in the catalytic region. Recombinant EGCase I exhibited broad specificity and good reaction efficiency compared with EGCase II, making EGCase I well-suited to a comprehensive analysis of GSLs.
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Analysis of ?12-fatty acid desaturase function revealed that two distinct pathways are active for the synthesis of PUFAs in T. aureum ATCC 34304.
J. Lipid Res.
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Thraustochytrids are known to synthesize PUFAs such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Accumulating evidence suggests the presence of two synthetic pathways of PUFAs in thraustochytrids: the polyketide synthase-like (PUFA synthase) and desaturase/elongase (standard) pathways. It remains unclear whether the latter pathway functions in thraustochytrids. In this study, we report that the standard pathway produces PUFA in Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304. We isolated a gene encoding a putative ?12-fatty acid desaturase (Tau?12des) from T. aureum. Yeasts transformed with the tau?12des converted endogenous oleic acid (OA) into linoleic acid (LA). The disruption of the tau?12des in T. aureum by homologous recombination resulted in the accumulation of OA and a decrease in the levels of LA and its downstream PUFAs. However, the DHA content was increased slightly in tau?12des-disruption mutants, suggesting that DHA is primarily produced in T. aureum via the PUFA synthase pathway. The transformation of the tau?12des-disruption mutants with a tau?12des expression cassette restored the wild-type fatty acid profiles. These data clearly indicate that Tau?12des functions as ?12-fatty acid desaturase in the standard pathway of T. aureum and demonstrate that this thraustochytrid produces PUFAs via both the PUFA synthase and the standard pathways.
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Versatile transformation system that is applicable to both multiple transgene expression and gene targeting for Thraustochytrids.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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A versatile transformation system for thraustochytrids, a promising producer for polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid-derived fuels, was established. G418, hygromycin B, blasticidin, and zeocin inhibited the growth of thraustochytrids, indicating that multiple selectable marker genes could be used in the transformation system. A neomycin resistance gene (neo(r)), driven with an ubiquitin or an EF-1? promoter-terminator from Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304, was introduced into representatives of two thraustochytrid genera, Aurantiochytrium and Thraustochytrium. The neo(r) marker was integrated into the chromosomal DNA by random recombination and then functionally translated into neo(r) mRNA. Additionally, we confirmed that another two genera, Parietichytrium and Schizochytrium, could be transformed by the same method. By this method, the enhanced green fluorescent protein was functionally expressed in thraustochytrids. Meanwhile, T. aureum ATCC 34304 could be transformed by two 18S ribosomal DNA-targeting vectors, designed to cause single- or double-crossover homologous recombination. Finally, the fatty acid ?5 desaturase gene was disrupted by double-crossover homologous recombination in T. aureum ATCC 34304, resulting in an increase of dihomo-?-linolenic acid (C(20:3n-6)) and eicosatetraenoic acid (C(20:4n-3)), substrates for ?5 desaturase, and a decrease of arachidonic acid (C(20:4n-6)) and eicosapentaenoic acid (C(20:5n-3)), products for the enzyme. These results clearly indicate that a versatile transformation system which could be applicable to both multiple transgene expression and gene targeting was established for thraustochytrids.
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