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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Coenzyme A, more than 'just' a metabolic cofactor.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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In all organisms biomolecules play a vital role to enable proper cellular metabolism. Alteration of metabolite homoeostasis disrupts the physiology of cells, leading to various diseases [DeBerardinis and Thompson (2012) Cell, 148, 1132-1144]. Recent studies advances our understanding that some metabolites are not only involved in cellular metabolism, but also have other molecular functions. It has become evident that similar to multifunctional 'moonlighting proteins', 'moonlighting metabolites' also exists. One clear example is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is a ubiquitous molecule with a well-known function in many metabolic reactions, but it also has become clear that NAD is involved in the regulation of sirtuins. Sirtuins play a role in cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and other diseases [Donmez and Outeiro (2013) EMBO Mol. Med. 5, 344-352] and the deacetylation capacity of sirtuin proteins is NAD-dependent. This direct role of NAD in age-related diseases could not be anticipated when NAD was initially discovered as a metabolic cofactor [Donmez and Outeiro (2013) EMBO Mol. Med. 5, 344-352; Mouchiroud et al. (2013) Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 48, 397-408]. Recent findings now also indicate that CoA (coenzyme A), another metabolic cofactor, can be considered as being more than 'just' a metabolic cofactor, and altered CoA levels lead to severe and complex effects.
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Coenzyme A and its derivatives: renaissance of a textbook classic.
Biochem. Soc. Trans.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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In 1945, Fritz Lipmann discovered a heat-stable cofactor required for many enzyme-catalysed acetylation reactions. He later determined the structure for this acetylation coenzyme, or coenzyme A (CoA), an achievement for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1953. CoA is now firmly embedded in the literature, and in students' minds, as an acyl carrier in metabolic reactions. However, recent research has revealed diverse and important roles for CoA above and beyond intermediary metabolism. As well as participating in direct post-translational regulation of metabolic pathways by protein acetylation, CoA modulates the epigenome via acetylation of histones. The organization of CoA biosynthetic enzymes into multiprotein complexes with different partners also points to close linkages between the CoA pool and multiple signalling pathways. Dysregulation of CoA biosynthesis or CoA thioester homoeostasis is associated with various human pathologies and, although the biochemistry of CoA biosynthesis is highly conserved, there are significant sequence and structural differences between microbial and human biosynthetic enzymes. Therefore the CoA biosynthetic pathway is an attractive target for drug discovery. The purpose of the Coenzyme A and Its Derivatives in Cellular Metabolism and Disease Biochemical Society Focused Meeting was to bring together researchers from around the world to discuss the most recent advances on the influence of CoA, its biosynthetic enzymes and its thioesters in cellular metabolism and diseases and to discuss challenges and opportunities for the future.
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Impairment of Drosophila orthologs of the human orphan protein C19orf12 induces bang sensitivity and neurodegeneration.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mutations in the orphan gene C19orf12 were identified as a genetic cause in a subgroup of patients with NBIA, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by deposits of iron in the basal ganglia. C19orf12 was shown to be localized in mitochondria, however, nothing is known about its activity and no functional link exists to the clinical phenotype of the patients. This situation led us to investigate the effects of C19orf12 down-regulation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Two genes are present in D. melanogaster, which are orthologs of C19orf12, CG3740 and CG11671. Here we provide evidence that transgenic flies with impaired C19orf12 homologs reflect the neurodegenerative phenotype and represent a valid tool to further analyze the pathomechanism in C19orf12-associated NBIA.
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Pantethine treatment is effective in recovering the disease phenotype induced by ketogenic diet in a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration mouse model.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, caused by mutations in the PANK2 gene, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, pigmentary retinal degeneration and brain iron accumulation. PANK2 encodes the mitochondrial enzyme pantothenate kinase type 2, responsible for the phosphorylation of pantothenate or vitamin B5 in the biosynthesis of co-enzyme A. A Pank2 knockout (Pank2(-/-)) mouse model did not recapitulate the human disease but showed azoospermia and mitochondrial dysfunctions. We challenged this mouse model with a low glucose and high lipid content diet (ketogenic diet) to stimulate lipid use by mitochondrial beta-oxidation. In the presence of a shortage of co-enzyme A, this diet could evoke a general impairment of bioenergetic metabolism. Only Pank2(-/-) mice fed with a ketogenic diet developed a pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration-like syndrome characterized by severe motor dysfunction, neurodegeneration and severely altered mitochondria in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These mice also showed structural alteration of muscle morphology, which was comparable with that observed in a patient with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. We here demonstrate that pantethine administration can prevent the onset of the neuromuscular phenotype in mice suggesting the possibility of experimental treatment in patients with pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
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Activation of Histone Deacetylase-6 (HDAC6) Induces Contractile Dysfunction through Derailment of ?-Tubulin Proteostasis in Experimental and Human Atrial Fibrillation.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is characterized by structural remodeling, contractile dysfunction and AF progression. HDACs influence acetylation of both histones and cytosolic proteins, thereby mediating epigenetic regulation and influencing cell proteostasis. As the exact function of HDACs in AF is unknown, we investigated their role in experimental and clinical AF models.
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Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.
Marcel den Hoed, Mark Eijgelsheim, Tonu Esko, Bianca J J M Brundel, David S Peal, David M Evans, Ilja M Nolte, Ayellet V Segrè, Hilma Holm, Robert E Handsaker, Harm-Jan Westra, Toby Johnson, Aaron Isaacs, Jian Yang, Alicia Lundby, Jing Hua Zhao, Young Jin Kim, Min Jin Go, Peter Almgren, Murielle Bochud, Gabrielle Boucher, Marilyn C Cornelis, Daniel Gudbjartsson, David Hadley, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, Martin den Heijer, Wilmar Igl, Anne U Jackson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, John P Kemp, Kati Kristiansson, Claes Ladenvall, Mattias Lorentzon, May E Montasser, Omer T Njajou, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Beate St Pourcain, Tuomo Rankinen, Perttu Salo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay Waite, William Wheeler, Weihua Zhang, Harmen H M Draisma, Mary F Feitosa, Kathleen F Kerr, Penelope A Lind, Evelin Mihailov, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ci Song, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Loïc Yengo, Devin Absher, Christine M Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Paul I W de Bakker, Beverley Balkau, Cristina Barlassina, Paola Benaglio, Joshua C Bis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Søren Brage, Stephen J Chanock, Peter S Chines, Mina Chung, Dawood Darbar, Christian Dina, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Stephan B Felix, Krista Fischer, Christian Fuchsberger, Eco J C de Geus, Philippe Goyette, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Susan R Heckbert, Andrew A Hicks, Albert Hofman, Suzanne Holewijn, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Asa Johansson, Juhani Junttila, Stefan Kääb, Bart Kanon, Shamika Ketkar, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Angrad S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Lili Milani, Päivi Laiho, Edward G Lakatta, Claudia Langenberg, Maarten Leusink, Yongmei Liu, Robert N Luben, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stacey N Lynch, Marcello R P Markus, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Wendy L McArdle, Steven A McCarroll, Sarah E Medland, Kathryn A Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Alanna C Morrison, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ken K Ong, Anne B Newman, Annette Peters, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Dabeeru C Rao, Susan M Ring, Elizabeth J Rossin, Diana Rudan, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, Jaban S Sehmi, Stephen Sharp, Jordan T Shin, Andrew B Singleton, Albert V Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Tim D Spector, Chip Stewart, Heather M Stringham, Kirill V Tarasov, André G Uitterlinden, Liesbeth Vandenput, Shih-Jen Hwang, John B Whitfield, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Andrew Wong, Quenna Wong, Yalda Jamshidi, Paavo Zitting, Jolanda M A Boer, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ulf Ekelund, Nita G Forouhi, Philippe Froguel, Aroon Hingorani, Erik Ingelsson, Mika Kivimäki, Richard A Kronmal, Diana Kuh, Lars Lind, Nicholas G Martin, Ben A Oostra, Nancy L Pedersen, Thomas Quertermous, Jerome I Rotter, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Mark Walker, Demetrius Albanes, David O Arnar, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Michael Boehnke, Rudolf A de Boer, Claude Bouchard, W L Mark Caulfield, John C Chambers, Gary Curhan, Daniele Cusi, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Wiek H van Gilst, Nicola Glorioso, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leif Groop, Ulf Gyllensten, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Frank B Hu, Heikki V Huikuri, David J Hunter, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kraft, Licia Iacoviello, Terho Lehtimäki, Marja-Liisa L Lokki, Braxton D Mitchell, Gerjan Navis, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Neil R Poulter, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Eric B Rimm, John D Rioux, Federica Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Peter S Sever, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Alice V Stanton, Ronald P Stolk, David P Strachan, Jean-Claude Tardif, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jaako Tuomilehto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Jarmo Virtamo, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Elisabeth Widén, Yoon Shin Cho, Jesper V Olsen, Peter M Visscher, Cristen Willer, Lude Franke, , Jeanette Erdmann, John R Thompson, Arne Pfeufer, Nona Sotoodehnia, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patrick T Ellinor, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Jacques S Beckmann, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Nicholas J Wareham, Patricia B Munroe, Ody C M Sibon, David J Milan, Harold Snieder, Nilesh J Samani, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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Studying cell cycle checkpoints using Drosophila cultured cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
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Drosophila cell lines are valuable tools to study a number of cellular processes, including DNA damage responses and cell cycle checkpoint control. Using an in vitro system instead of a whole organism has two main advantages: it saves time and simple and effective molecular techniques are available. It has been shown that Drosophila cells, similarly to mammalian cells, display cell cycle checkpoint pathways required to survive DNA damaging events (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545). Moreover, a number of proteins involved in checkpoint and cell cycle control in mammals are highly conserved among different species, including Drosophila (de Vries et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 1833-1842; Bae et al. 1995, Experimental Cell Research 217, 541-545; LaRocque et al. 2007, Genetics 175, 1023-1033; Sibon et al. 1999, Current Biology 9, 302-312; Purdy et al. 2005, Journal of Cell Science 118, 3305-3315). Because of straightforward and highly efficient methods to downregulate specific transcripts in Drosophila cells, these cells are an excellent system for genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) screens. Thus, the following methods, assays and techniques: Drosophila cell culture, RNAi, introducing DNA damaging events, determination of cell cycle arrest, and determination of cell cycle distributions described here may well be applied to identifying new players in checkpoint mechanisms and will be helpful to investigate the function of these new players in detail. Results obtained with studies using in vitro systems can subsequently be extended to studies in the complete organism as described in the chapters provided by the Su laboratory and the Takada laboratory.
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RNAi-induced off-target effects in Drosophila melanogaster: frequencies and solutions.
Brief Funct Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Genes can be silenced with short-interfering RNA molecules (siRNA). siRNAs are widely used to identify gene functions and have high potential for therapeutic treatments. It is critical that the siRNA specifically targets the expression of the gene of interest but has no off-target effects on other genes. Although siRNAs were initially considered to be exclusively active on mature mRNAs in the cytoplasm, additional studies have shown that siRNAs are present in the nucleus as well, suggesting that pre-mRNA sequences containing introns and other untranslated regions can also be targeted. In this study, we investigated the extent to which off-targets may occur in Drosophila melanogaster by looking at mature mRNA sequences and pre-mature RNA sequences separately. First, an in silico approach revealed that, based on sequence similarity, numerous off-targets are predicted to occur in RNAi experiments. Second, existing microarray data were used to investigate a possible effect of the predicted off-targets based on analysis of in vitro data. We found that the occurrence of off-targets in both mature and pre-mature RNA sequences in RNAi experiments can be extensive and significant. Possibilities are discussed how to minimize off-target effects.
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Impaired Coenzyme A metabolism affects histone and tubulin acetylation in Drosophila and human cell models of pantothenate kinase associated neurodegeneration.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN is a neurodegenerative disease with unresolved pathophysiology. Previously, we observed reduced Coenzyme A levels in a Drosophila model for PKAN. Coenzyme A is required for acetyl-Coenzyme A synthesis and acyl groups from the latter are transferred to lysine residues of proteins, in a reaction regulated by acetyltransferases. The tight balance between acetyltransferases and their antagonistic counterparts histone deacetylases is a well-known determining factor for the acetylation status of proteins. However, the influence of Coenzyme A levels on protein acetylation is unknown. Here we investigate whether decreased levels of the central metabolite Coenzyme A induce alterations in protein acetylation and whether this correlates with specific phenotypes of PKAN models. We show that in various organisms proper Coenzyme A metabolism is required for maintenance of histone- and tubulin acetylation, and decreased acetylation of these proteins is associated with an impaired DNA damage response, decreased locomotor function and decreased survival. Decreased protein acetylation and the concurrent phenotypes are partly rescued by pantethine and HDAC inhibitors, suggesting possible directions for future PKAN therapy development.
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Effects of different small HSPB members on contractile dysfunction and structural changes in a Drosophila melanogaster model for Atrial Fibrillation.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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The most common clinical tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation (AF), is a progressive disease, caused by cardiomyocyte remodeling, which finally results in contractile dysfunction and AF persistence. Recently, we identified a protective role of heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially the small HSPB1 member, against tachycardia remodeling in experimental AF models. Our understanding of tachycardia remodeling and anti-remodeling drugs is currently hampered by the lack of suitable (genetic) manipulatable in vivo models for rapid screening of key targets in remodeling. We hypothesized that Drosophila melanogaster can be exploited to study tachycardia remodeling and protective effects of HSPs by drug treatments or by utilizing genetically manipulated small HSP-overexpressing strains. Tachypacing of Drosophila pupae resulted in gradual and significant cardiomyocyte remodeling, demonstrated by reduced contraction rate, increase in arrhythmic episodes and reduction in heart wall shortening, compared to normal paced pupae. Heat shock, or pre-treatment with HSP-inducers GGA and BGP-15, resulted in endogenous HSP overexpression and protection against tachycardia remodeling. DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophilas were protected against tachycardia remodeling, in contrast to overexpression of other small HSPs (DmHSP27, DmHSP67Bc, DmCG4461, DmCG7409, and DmCG14207). (Ultra)structural evaluation of the tachypaced heart wall revealed loss of sarcomeres and mitochondrial damage which were absent in tachypaced DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophila. In addition, tachypacing induced a significant increase in calpain activity, which was prevented in tachypaced Drosophila overexpressing DmHSP23. Tachypacing of Drosophila resulted in cardiomyocyte remodeling, which was prevented by general HSP-inducing treatments and overexpression of a single small HSP, DmHSP23. Thus, tachypaced D. melanogaster can be used as an in vivo model system for rapid identification of novel targets to combat AF associated cardiomyocyte remodeling.
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Small heat shock proteins, protein degradation and protein aggregation diseases.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Small heat shock proteins have been characterized in vitro as ATP-independent molecular chaperones that can prevent aggregation of un- or mis-folded proteins and assist in their refolding with the help of ATP-dependent chaperone machines (e.g., the Hsp70 proteins). Comparison of the functionality of the 10 human members of the small HSPB family in cell models now reveals that some members function entirely differently and independently from Hsp70 machines. One member, HSPB7, has strong activities to prevent toxicity of polyglutamine-containing proteins in cells and Drosophila, and seems to act by assisting the loading of misfolded proteins or small protein aggregates into autophagosomes.
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Identification of the Drosophila ortholog of HSPB8: implication of HSPB8 loss of function in protein folding diseases.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Protein aggregation is a hallmark of many neuronal disorders, including the polyglutamine disorder spinocerebellar ataxia 3 and peripheral neuropathies associated with the K141E and K141N mutations in the small heat shock protein HSPB8. In cells, HSPB8 cooperates with BAG3 to stimulate autophagy in an eIF2?-dependent manner and facilitates the clearance of aggregate-prone proteins (Carra, S., Seguin, S. J., Lambert, H., and Landry, J. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 1437-1444; Carra, S., Brunsting, J. F., Lambert, H., Landry, J., and Kampinga, H. H. (2009) J. Biol. Chem. 284, 5523-5532). Here, we first identified Drosophila melanogaster HSP67Bc (Dm-HSP67Bc) as the closest functional ortholog of human HSPB8 and demonstrated that, like human HSPB8, Dm-HSP67Bc induces autophagy via the eIF2? pathway. In vitro, both Dm-HSP67Bc and human HSPB8 protected against mutated ataxin-3-mediated toxicity and decreased the aggregation of a mutated form of HSPB1 (P182L-HSPB1) associated with peripheral neuropathy. Up-regulation of both Dm-HSP67Bc and human HSPB8 protected and down-regulation of endogenous Dm-HSP67Bc significantly worsened SCA3-mediated eye degeneration in flies. The K141E and K141N mutated forms of human HSPB8 that are associated with peripheral neuropathy were significantly less efficient than wild-type HSPB8 in decreasing the aggregation of both mutated ataxin 3 and P182L-HSPB1. Our current data further support the link between the HSPB8-BAG3 complex, autophagy, and folding diseases and demonstrate that impairment or loss of function of HSPB8 might accelerate the progression and/or severity of folding diseases.
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HSPB7 is the most potent polyQ aggregation suppressor within the HSPB family of molecular chaperones.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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A small number of heat-shock proteins have previously been shown to act protectively on aggregation of several proteins containing an extended polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch, which are linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. A specific subfamily of heat-shock proteins is formed by the HSPB family of molecular chaperones, which comprises 10 members (HSPB1-10, also called small HSP). Several of them are known to act as anti-aggregation proteins in vitro. Whether they also act protectively in cells against polyQ aggregation has so far only been studied for few of them (e.g. HSPB1, HSPB5 and HSPB8). Here, we compared the 10 members of the human HSPB family for their ability to prevent aggregation of disease-associated proteins with an expanded polyQ stretch. HSPB7 was identified as the most active member within the HSPB family. It not only suppressed polyQ aggregation but also prevented polyQ-induced toxicity in cells and its expression reduces eye degeneration in a Drosophila polyQ model. Upon overexpression in cells, HSPB7 was not found in larger oligomeric species when expressed in cells and-unlike HSPB1-it did not improve the refolding of heat-denatured luciferase. The action of HSPB7 was also not dependent on the Hsp70 machine or on proteasomal activity, and HSPB7 overexpression alone did not increase autophagy. However, in ATG5-/- cells that are defective in macroautophagy, the anti-aggregation activity of HSPB7 was substantially reduced. Hence, HSPB7 prevents toxicity of polyQ proteins at an early stage of aggregate formation by a non-canonical mechanism that requires an active autophagy machinery.
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RNAi experiments in D. melanogaster: solutions to the overlooked problem of off-targets shared by independent dsRNAs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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RNAi technology is widely used to downregulate specific gene products. Investigating the phenotype induced by downregulation of gene products provides essential information about the function of the specific gene of interest. When RNAi is applied in Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans, often large dsRNAs are used. One of the drawbacks of RNAi technology is that unwanted gene products with sequence similarity to the gene of interest can be down regulated too. To verify the outcome of an RNAi experiment and to avoid these unwanted off-target effects, an additional non-overlapping dsRNA can be used to down-regulate the same gene. However it has never been tested whether this approach is sufficient to reduce the risk of off-targets.
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Pantethine rescues a Drosophila model for pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with impairment of pantothenate kinase function. Pantothenate kinase is the first enzyme required for de novo synthesis of CoA, an essential metabolic cofactor. The pathophysiology of PKAN is not understood, and there is no cure to halt or reverse the symptoms of this devastating disease. Recently, we and others presented a PKAN Drosophila model, and we demonstrated that impaired function of pantothenate kinase induces a neurodegenerative phenotype and a reduced lifespan. We have explored this Drosophila model further and have demonstrated that impairment of pantothenate kinase is associated with decreased levels of CoA, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased protein oxidation. Furthermore, we searched for compounds that can rescue pertinent phenotypes of the Drosophila PKAN model and identified pantethine. Pantethine feeding restores CoA levels, improves mitochondrial function, rescues brain degeneration, enhances locomotor abilities, and increases lifespan. We show evidence for the presence of a de novo CoA biosynthesis pathway in which pantethine is used as a precursor compound. Importantly, this pathway is effective in the presence of disrupted pantothenate kinase function. Our data suggest that pantethine may serve as a starting point to develop a possible treatment for PKAN.
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A high throughput experimental approach to identify miRNA targets in human cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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The study of human microRNAs is seriously hampered by the lack of proper tools allowing genome-wide identification of miRNA targets. We performed Ribonucleoprotein ImmunoPrecipitation-gene Chip (RIP-Chip) using antibodies against wild-type human Ago2 in untreated Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines. Ten to thirty percent of the gene transcripts from the genome were enriched in the Ago2-IP fraction of untreated cells, representing the HL miRNA-targetome. In silico analysis indicated that approximately 40% of these gene transcripts represent targets of the abundantly co-expressed miRNAs. To identify targets of miR-17/20/93/106, RIP-Chip with anti-miR-17/20/93/106 treated cells was performed and 1189 gene transcripts were identified. These genes were analyzed for miR-17/20/93/106 target sites in the 5-UTRs, coding regions and 3-UTRs. Fifty-one percent of them had miR-17/20/93/106 target sites in the 3-UTR while 19% of them were predicted miR-17/20/93/106 targets by TargetScan. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed targeting of miR-17/20/93/106 to the 3-UTRs of 8 out of 10 genes. In conclusion, we report a method which can establish the miRNA-targetome in untreated human cells and identify miRNA specific targets in a high throughput manner. This approach is applicable to identify miRNA targets in any human tissue sample or purified cell population in an unbiased and physiologically relevant manner.
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Stwl modifies chromatin compaction and is required to maintain DNA integrity in the presence of perturbed DNA replication.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Hydroxyurea, a well-known DNA replication inhibitor, induces cell cycle arrest and intact checkpoint functions are required to survive DNA replication stress induced by this genotoxic agent. Perturbed DNA synthesis also results in elevated levels of DNA damage. It is unclear how organisms prevent accumulation of this type of DNA damage that coincides with hampered DNA synthesis. Here, we report the identification of stonewall (stwl) as a novel hydroxyurea-hypersensitive mutant. We demonstrate that Stwl is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage induced by hydroxyurea; yet, Stwl is not involved in S/M checkpoint regulation. We show that Stwl is a heterochromatin-associated protein with transcription-repressing capacities. In stwl mutants, levels of trimethylated H3K27 and H3K9 (two hallmarks of silent chromatin) are decreased. Our data provide evidence for a Stwl-dependent epigenetic mechanism that is involved in the maintenance of the normal balance between euchromatin and heterochromatin and that is required to prevent accumulation of DNA damage in the presence of DNA replication stress.
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Cofilin/Twinstar phosphorylation levels increase in response to impaired coenzyme a metabolism.
PLoS ONE
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Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture--a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics.
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Brain, blood, and iron: perspectives on the roles of erythrocytes and iron in neurodegeneration.
Neurobiol. Dis.
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The terms "neuroacanthocytosis" (NA) and "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation" (NBIA) both refer to groups of genetically heterogeneous disorders, classified together due to similarities of their phenotypic or pathological findings. Even collectively, the disorders that comprise these sets are exceedingly rare and challenging to study. The NBIA disorders are defined by their appearance on brain magnetic resonance imaging, with iron deposition in the basal ganglia. Clinical features vary, but most include a movement disorder. New causative genes are being rapidly identified; however, the mechanisms by which mutations cause iron accumulation and neurodegeneration are not well understood. NA syndromes are also characterized by a progressive movement disorder, accompanied by cognitive and psychiatric features, resulting from mutations in a number of genes whose roles are also basically unknown. An overlapping feature of the two groups, NBIA and NA, is the occurrence of acanthocytes, spiky red cells with a poorly-understood membrane dysfunction. In this review we summarise recent developments in this field, specifically insights into cellular mechanisms and from animal models. Cell membrane research may shed light upon the significance of the erythrocyte abnormality, and upon possible connections between the two sets of disorders. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms may lead to progress in the understanding of other types of neurodegeneration.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.