Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is a new circulating tumor biomarker which might be used as a prognostic biomarker in a way similar to circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Here, we used the high prevalence of TP53 mutations in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) to compare ctDNA and CTC detection rates and prognostic value in metastatic TNBC patients. Forty patients were enrolled before starting a new line of treatment. TP53 mutations were characterized in archived tumor tissues and in plasma DNA using two next generation sequencing (NGS) platforms in parallel. Archived tumor tissue was sequenced successfully for 31/40 patients. TP53 mutations were found in 26/31 (84%) of tumor samples. The same mutation was detected in the matched plasma of 21/26 (81%) patients with an additional mutation found only in the plasma for one patient. Mutated allele fractions ranged from 2 to 70% (median 5%). The observed correlation between the two NGS approaches (R(2) ?=?0.903) suggested that ctDNA levels data were quantitative. Among the 27 patients with TP53 mutations, CTC count was ?1 in 19 patients (70%) and ?5 in 14 patients (52%). ctDNA levels had no prognostic impact on time to progression (TTP) or overall survival (OS), whereas CTC numbers were correlated with OS (p?=?0.04) and marginally with TTP (p?=?0.06). Performance status and elevated LDH also had significant prognostic impact. Here, absence of prognostic impact of baseline ctDNA level suggests that mechanisms of ctDNA release in metastatic TNBC may involve, beyond tumor burden, biological features that do not dramatically affect patient outcome.
IL-17A is pivotal in the etiology of psoriasis, and CD8(+) T cells with the ability to produce this cytokine (Tc17 cells) are over-represented in psoriatic lesions. Here we demonstrate that the frequency of Tc17 cells in peripheral blood of psoriasis patients correlated with the clinical severity of the disease. Analysis of cutaneous-associated lymphocyte antigen expression showed that the blood Tc17 population contains a significantly higher proportion of cells with skin-homing potential compared with the CD8(+) T-cell population lacking IL-17A/IL-22 expression. IL-17A-producing CD8(+) T cells in blood have previously been reported to belong mainly to the mucosa-associated invariant T-cell (MAIT cell) lineage characterized by TCR V?7.2 chain, CD161, IL-18R?, and multidrug transporter ABCB1 expression. We demonstrate the presence of CD8(+) MAIT cells in the dermis and epidermis of psoriatic plaques, as well as healthy skin; however, IL-17A-producing CD8(+) MAIT cells were predominantly found in psoriatic skin. Notably, we observed IL-17A production in a large proportion of psoriatic plaque-derived CD8(+) T cells devoid of MAIT cell characteristics, likely representing conventional CD8(+) T cells. In conclusion, we provide supporting evidence that implicates Tc17 cells in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and describe the presence of innate CD8(+) MAIT cells in psoriatic lesions as an alternative source of IL-17A.
CD4(+) T cells influence tumor immunity in complex ways that are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized a population of human differentiated effector CD4(+) T cells that is defined by low levels of the interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-7 receptors (CD25(-)CD127(-)). We found that this cell population expands in patients with various types of cancer, including breast cancer, to represent 2% to 20% of total CD4(+) blood T lymphocytes as compared with only 0.2% to 2% in healthy individuals. Notably, these CD25(-)CD127(-)CD4 T cells expressed effector markers such as CD244 and CD11b with low levels of CD27, contrasting with the memory phenotype dominating this population in healthy individuals. These cells did not cycle in patients, nor did they secrete IL-10 or IL-17, but instead displayed cytotoxic features. Moreover, they encompassed oligoclonal expansions paralleling an expansion of effector CD8(+) T cells that included tumor antigen-specific T cells. During neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer, we found that the increase in CD25(-)CD127(-) CD4(+) T cells correlated with tumor regression. This observation suggested that CD4(+) T cells included tumor antigen-specific cells, which may be generated by or participate in tumor regressions during chemotherapy. In summary, our results lend support to the hypothesis that CD4(+) T cells are involved in human antitumor responses.
The induction of an active immune response to control or eliminate tumours is still an unfulfilled challenge. We focused on plasmid DNA vaccines using an innovative approach whereby the antigen is expressed in association with extracellular vesicles (EVs) to facilitate antigen cross-presentation and improve induced immunity. Our two groups had independently shown previously that DNA vaccines encoding EV-associated antigens are more efficient at inducing cytotoxic T-cell responses than vaccines encoding the non-EV-associated antigen. Here, we compared our two approaches to associate the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen to EVs: (a) by fusion to the lipid-binding domain C1C2 of MFGE8(=lactadherin), which is exposed on the surface of secreted membrane vesicles; and (b) by fusion to retroviral Gag capsid protein, which is incorporated inside membrane-enclosed virus-like particles. Plasmids encoding either form of modified OVA were used as DNA-based vaccines (i.e. injected into mice to allow in vivo expression of the antigen associated to EVs). We show that both DNA vaccines induced, with similar efficiency, OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells and total IgG antibodies. By contrast, each vaccine preferentially stimulated different isotypes of immunoglobulins, and the OVA-C1C2-encoding vaccine favoured antigen-specific CD4(+) T lymphocyte induction as compared to the Gag-OVA vaccine. Nevertheless, both OVA-C1C2 and Gag-OVA vaccines efficiently prevented in vivo outgrowth of OVA-expressing tumours and reduced tumour progression when administered to tumour-bearing mice, although with variable efficacies depending on the tumour models. DNA vaccines encoding EV-associated antigens are thus promising immunotherapy tools in cancer but also potentially other diseases.
NKT and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells express semi-invariant TCR and restriction by nonclassical MHC class Ib molecules. Despite common features, the respective development of NKT and MAIT subsets is distinct. NKTs proliferate extensively and acquire effector properties prior to thymic export. MAIT cells exit the thymus as naive cells and acquire an effector/memory phenotype in a process requiring both commensal flora and B cells. During thymic development, NKTs are selected by CD1d-expressing cortical thymocytes; however, the hematopoietic cell type responsible for MAIT cell selection remains unresolved. Using reaggregated thymic organ culture and bone marrow chimeras, we demonstrate that positive selection of mouse iV?19 transgenic and V?6 transgenic MAIT cell progenitors requires MHC-related 1-expressing CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive thymocytes, whereas thymic B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cell subsets are dispensable. Preincubation of double positive thymocytes with exogenous bacterial ligand increases MHC-related 1 surface expression and enhances mature MAIT cell activation in the in vitro cocultures. The revelation of a common cell type for the selection of both NKT and MAIT subsets raises questions about the mechanisms underlying acquisition of their specific features.
Mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are innate T lymphocytes that detect a large variety of bacteria and yeasts. This recognition depends on the detection of microbial compounds presented by the evolutionarily conserved major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) class I molecule, MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells display cytotoxic activity towards MR1 overexpressing non-hematopoietic cells cocultured with bacteria. The NK receptor, CD161, highly expressed by MAIT cells, modulated the cytokine but not the cytotoxic response triggered by bacteria infected cells. MAIT cells are also activated by and kill epithelial cells expressing endogenous levels of MRI after infection with the invasive bacteria Shigella flexneri. In contrast, MAIT cells were not activated by epithelial cells infected by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. Finally, MAIT cells are activated in human volunteers receiving an attenuated strain of Shigella dysenteriae-1 tested as a potential vaccine. Thus, in humans, MAIT cells are the most abundant T cell subset able to detect and kill bacteria infected cells.
In between innate and adaptive immunity, the recently identified innate-like mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) lymphocytes display specific reactivity to non-streptococcal bacteria. Whether they are involved in bacterial sepsis has not been investigated. We aimed to assess the number and the time course of circulating innate-like T lymphocytes (MAIT, NKT and ?? T cells) in critically ill septic and non-septic patients and to establish correlations with the further development of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections.
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) have been recently investigated in several cancer types, but their respective clinical significance remains to be determined. In our prospective study, we compared the detection rate and the prognostic value of these two circulating biomarkers in patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. GNAQ/GNA11 mutations were characterized in archived tumor tissue. Using a highly sensitive and mutation-specific bidirectional pyrophosphorolysis-activated polymerization (bi-PAP) technique, GNAQ c.626A>T, GNAQ c.626A>C and GNA11 c.626A>T copy numbers were quantified in plasma from 12 mL of blood. CTCs were detected at the same time in 7.5 mL of blood by the CellSearch® technique. Patient characteristics and outcome were prospectively collected. CTCs (?1) were detected in 12 of the 40 included patients (30%, range 1-20). Among the 26 patients with known detectable mutations, ctDNA was detected and quantified in 22 (84%, range 4-11,421 copies/mL). CTC count and ctDNA levels were associated with the presence of miliary hepatic metastasis (p = 0.004 and 0.03, respectively), with metastasis volume (p = 0.005 and 0.004) and with each other (p < 0.0001). CTC count and ctDNA levels were both strongly associated with progression-free survival (p = 0.003 and 0.001) and overall survival (p = 0.0009 and <0.0001). In multivariate analyses, ctDNA appeared to be a better prognostic marker than CTC. In conclusion, ctDNA and CTC are correlated and both have poor prognostic significance. CTC detection can be performed in every patient but, in patients with detectable mutations, ctDNA was more frequently detected than CTC and has possibly more prognostic value.
Extrathymically induced Foxp3? regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the pool of Treg cells and are implicated in the maintenance of immune tolerance at environmental interfaces. The impact of T-cell senescence on their generation and function is, however, poorly characterized. We report here that steady-state induction of Foxp3 is impaired in aged T cells in vivo. In vitro assays further revealed that this defective generation of Treg cells was independent from the strength of TCR stimulation and arose before T-cell proliferation. Importantly, they also revealed that this impairment of Foxp3 induction is unrelated to known age-related T-cell defects, such as IL-2 secretion impairment, accumulation of activated T-cell populations, or narrowing of the T-cell repertoire. Finally, a loss of extrathymic induction of Foxp3 and tolerance to minor-mismatched skin graft were observed in aged mice treated by nondepleting anti-CD4 antibody. The T-cell intrinsic impairment of Treg-cell generation revealed here highlights age as a key factor to be considered in immune tolerance induction.
Muscle-invasive forms of urothelial carcinomas are responsible for most mortality in bladder cancer. Finding new treatments for invasive bladder tumours requires adequate animal models to decipher the mechanisms of progression, in particular the way tumours interact with their microenvironment. Herein, using the murine bladder tumour cell line MB49 and its more aggressive variant MB49-I, we demonstrate that the adaptive immune system efficiently limits progression of MB49, whereas MB49-I has lost tumour antigens and is insensitive to adaptive immune responses. Furthermore, we unravel a parallel mechanism developed by MB49-I to subvert its environment: de novo secretion of the proteoglycan decorin. We show that decorin overexpression in the MB49/MB49-I model is required for efficient progression, by promoting angiogenesis and tumour cell invasiveness. Finally, we show that these results are relevant to muscle-invasive human bladder carcinomas, which overexpress decorin together with angiogenesis- and adhesion/migration-related genes, and that decorin overexpression in the human bladder carcinoma cell line TCCSUP is required for efficient invasiveness in vitro. We thus propose decorin as a new therapeutic target for these aggressive tumours.
Tolerance to self-Ags is generated in the thymus. Both epithelial and hematopoietic thymic stromal cells play an active and essential role in this process. However, the role of each of the various stromal cell types remains unresolved. To our knowledge, we describe the first comparative analysis of several types of thymic hematopoietic stromal cells (THSCs) for their ability to induce CD4 tolerance to self, in parallel with the thymic epithelium. The THSCs--two types of conventional dendritic cells (cDCs), plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages (M?s), B lymphocytes, and eosinophils--were first characterized and quantified in adult mouse thymus. They were then examined in reaggregated thymic organ cultures containing mixtures of monoclonal and polyclonal thymocytes. This thymocyte mixture allows for the analysis of Ag-specific events while avoiding the extreme skewing frequently seen in purely monoclonal systems. Our data indicate that thymic epithelium alone is capable of promoting self-tolerance by eliminating autoreactive CD4 single-positive thymocytes and by supporting regulatory T cell (Treg) development. We also show that both non-Treg CD4 single-positive thymocytes and Tregs are efficiently deleted by the two populations of cDCs present in the thymus, as well as to a lesser extent by M?s. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells, B lymphocytes, and eosinophils were not able to do so. Finally, cDCs were also the most efficient THSCs at supporting Treg development in the thymus, suggesting that although they may share some characteristics required for negative selection with M?s, they do not share those required for the support of Treg development, making cDCs a unique cell subset in the thymus.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells play an important physiological role in host pathogen defense and may also be involved in inflammatory disorders and multiple sclerosis. The rarity and inefficient expansion of these cells have hampered detailed analysis and application. Here, we report an induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-based reprogramming approach for the expansion of functional MAIT cells. We found that human MAIT cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs using a Sendai virus harboring standard reprogramming factors. Under T cell-permissive conditions, these iPSCs efficiently redifferentiate into MAIT-like lymphocytes expressing the T cell receptor V?7.2, CD161, and interleukin-18 receptor chain ?. Upon incubation with bacteria-fed monocytes, the derived MAIT cells show enhanced production of a broad range of cytokines. Following adoptive transfer into immunocompromised mice, these cells migrate to the bone marrow, liver, spleen, and intestine and protect against Mycobacterium abscessus. Our findings pave the way for further functional analysis of MAIT cells and determination of their therapeutic potential.
In the past decade, the therapeutic value of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) has been studied in various indications, thereby taking advantage of their immunosuppressive properties. Easy procurement from bone marrow, adipose tissue or other sources and conventional in vitro expansion culture have made their clinical use attractive. Bridging the gap between current scientific knowledge and regulatory prospects on the transformation potential and possible tumorigenicity of MSCs, the Cell Products Working Party and the Committee for Advanced Therapies organized a meeting with leading European experts in the field of MSCs. This meeting elucidated the risk of potential tumorigenicity related to MSC-based therapies from two angles: the scientific perspective and the regulatory point of view. The conclusions of this meeting, including the current regulatory thinking on quality, nonclinical and clinical aspects for MSCs, are presented in this review, leading to a clearer way forward for the development of such products.
Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are evolutionarily conserved T cells that are restricted by the non-classical MHC-1b molecule, MR1. MAIT cells are selected on hematopoietic cells, and exit the thymus with a naïve phenotype before expanding in the periphery and attaining a memory phenotype. MAIT cells represent an abundant oligoclonal population in human blood and liver. MAIT cells react against a newly identified class of antigens: vitamin B metabolites, which are found in most bacteria and yeasts. MAIT cells secrete IFN-? and IL-17 and their frequencies are modified in several diseases. The specificity, evolutionary conservation and unique features of MAIT cells indicate important functions, either against a ubiquitous pathogen or in gut immune/epithelial homeostasis.
The MHC-related 1 (MR1) protein is a monomorphic, evolutionarily conserved MHC class I-like molecule, which is necessary for the development and functions of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, a new subset of innate-like lymphocytes. Multiple isoforms of the MR1 gene are naturally transcribed, but only the full-length MR1A has been analyzed so far. Using transfected cell lines expressing an alternative spliced transcript, MR1B, characterized by the absence of the ?3 extracellular domain, we show that MR1B is transcribed and glycosylated but remains in an immature (endoglycosidase H-sensitive) state. MR1B mostly accumulates in the ER, without interacting with proteins of the peptide-loading complex such as tapasin. Interestingly, it is nevertheless found expressed at the cell surface, independently of ?2-microglobulin, in a homodimeric form. MR1B is functional as its overexpression induces MAIT cell activation in vitro in the presence of bacteria. Altogether, these data show that MR1B displays several remarkable features, and probably plays a physiological role complementary to MR1A with respect to MAIT cell development and/or function.
Mucosal-associated invariant T cells are a unique population of T cells that express a semi-invariant ?? TCR and are restricted by the MHC class I-related molecule MR1. MAIT cells recognize uncharacterized ligand(s) presented by MR1 through the cognate interaction between their TCR and MR1. To understand how the MAIT TCR recognizes MR1 at the surface of APCs cultured both with and without bacteria, we undertook extensive mutational analysis of both the MAIT TCR and MR1 molecule. We found differential contribution of particular amino acids to the MAIT TCR-MR1 interaction based upon the presence of bacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the structure of the MR1 molecules with the microbial-derived ligand(s) differs from the one with the endogenous ligand(s). Furthermore, we demonstrate that microbial-derived ligand(s) is resistant to proteinase K digestion and does not extract with common lipids, suggesting an unexpected class of antigen(s) might be recognized by this unique lymphocyte population.
Human mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) CD8(+) and Tc17 cells are important tissue-homing cell populations, characterized by high expression of CD161 ((++)) and type-17 differentiation, but their origins and relationships remain poorly defined. By transcriptional and functional analyses, we demonstrate that a pool of polyclonal, precommitted type-17 CD161(++)CD8??(+) T cells exist in cord blood, from which a prominent MAIT cell (TCR V?7.2(+)) population emerges post-natally. During this expansion, CD8?? T cells appear exclusively within a CD161(++)CD8(+)/MAIT subset, sharing cytokine production, chemokine-receptor expression, TCR-usage, and transcriptional profiles with their CD161(++)CD8??(+) counterparts. Our data demonstrate the origin and differentiation pathway of MAIT-cells from a naive type-17 precommitted CD161(++)CD8(+) T-cell pool and the distinct phenotype and function of CD8?? cells in man.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate T cells expressing an invariant V?7.2-J?33 T-cell antigen receptor ? chain and are enriched in mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues. Although the regulatory role of MAIT cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been determined, their role in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been elucidated. In the present study, the character of MAIT cells in the peripheral blood of MS patients was analyzed. Compared with healthy controls, the frequency of MAIT cells in peripheral blood was significantly reduced in MS patients in remission and even more profoundly reduced in those with relapse. The frequency of MAIT cells reflected the disease activity, as they were reduced significantly in patients with active disease compared with stable patients, and when blood samples from patients undergoing attack were analyzed 2-3 months later, the frequency significantly increased in parallel with clinical recovery. The frequency of MAIT cells positively correlated with the frequency of CD4(+) invariant NKT cells and of CD56(bright) NK cells in healthy controls but not in MS patients. This suggests the existence of an immune-regulatory link between MAIT cells and these other cell populations with disruption of this cross talk in MS. Moreover, MAIT cells showed a suppressive activity against IFN-? production by T cells in vitro. This suppression required cell contact but was independent of IL-10, inducible co-stimulator or the presence of B cells. Taken together, these results suggest an immune-regulatory role of MAIT cells in MS through suppression of pathogenic T(h)1 cells.
Dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) are nanovesicles bearing major histocompatibility complexes promoting T-cell-dependent antitumor effects in mice. Two phase I clinical trials aimed at vaccinating cancer patients with peptide-pulsed Dex have shown the feasibility and safety of inoculating clinical-grade Dex, but have failed to show their immunizing capacity. These low immunogenic capacities have led us to develop second-generation Dex with enhanced immunostimulatory properties. Here, we show that interferon-? is a key cytokine conditioning the dendritic cell to induce the expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and CD54 on Dex, endowing them with direct and potent peptide-dependent CD8(+) T-cell-triggering potential in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we describe the clinical grade process to manufacture large-scale interferon-?-Dex vaccines and their quality control parameters currently used in a phase II trial.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of T cells that display a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and are restricted by the evolutionarily conserved major histocompatibility complex related molecule, MR1. Here, we review recent knowledge of this T cell population. MAIT cells are abundant in human blood, gut and liver, and display an effector phenotype. They follow an atypical pathway of development and preferentially locate to peripheral tissues. Human and mouse MAIT cells react to bacterially infected cells in an MR1-dependent manner. They migrate to the infection site and can be protective in experimental infection models. MAIT cells secrete interferon-?, and interleukin-17 under certain conditions. The species conservation, as well as the wide microbial reactivity, infer an important role for this cell population in immunity.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are very abundant in humans and have antimicrobial specificity, but their functions remain unclear. MAIT cells are CD161(hi)IL-18R?(+) and either CD4(-)CD8(-) (DN) or CD8??(int) T cells. We now show that they display an effector-memory phenotype (CD45RA(-)CD45RO(+)CD95(hi)CD62L(lo)), and their chemokine receptor expression pattern (CCR9(int)CCR7(-)CCR5(hi)CXCR6(hi)CCR6(hi)) indicates preferential homing to tissues and particularly the intestine and the liver. MAIT cells can represent up to 45% of the liver lymphocytes. They produce interferon-? and Granzyme-B as well as high levels of interleukin-17 after phorbol myristate acetate + ionomycin stimulation. Most MAIT cells are noncycling cells (< 1% are Ki-67(+)) and express the multidrug resistance transporter (ABCB1). As expected from this phenotype, MAIT cells are more resistant to chemotherapy than other T-cell populations. These features might also allow MAIT cells to resist the xenobiotics potentially secreted by the gut bacteria. We also show that this population does not appear to have antiviral specificity and that CD8 MAIT cells include almost all the ABCB1(+)CD161(hi) CD8 T cells. Together with their already known abundance and antimicrobial specificity, the gut-liver homing characteristics, high expression of ABCB1, and ability to secrete interleukin-17 probably participate in the antibacterial properties of MAIT cells.
The optimization of anticancer therapeutic vaccines can lead to better efficacy but also to stronger adverse effects. In a mouse model of antitumor vaccination using a long peptide (LP), which included MHC class I- and II-restricted male (H-Y) epitopes, we observed unexpected mortality. Mice with an increased frequency of anti-H-Y CD4 T cells were primed with LP+CpG and boosted 10 d later. Within hours of boost, they displayed shock-like signs with high mortality. Serum cytokine levels were high. TNF-alpha secreted by the CD4 T cells was identified as the key effector molecule. Priming with a short peptide (SP), which included the MHC class II-restricted epitope, was a more efficient primer than LP, but did not lead to mortality when used as boost. The high mortality induced by LP compared with SP was probably related to its specific ability to be presented by B cells. Finally, targeting the LP sequence to dendritic cells allowed tumor protection without side effects. Our data: 1) confirm that the immune system can be very dangerous; 2) caution against the use of systemic activation of high-frequency Ag-specific T cells as induced by high doses of LP; and 3) underline the benefit of targeting Ag to dendritic cells.
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults and is defined by a poor natural outcome, as 50% of patients die from metastases. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a panel of human uveal melanoma xenografts transplanted into immunodeficient mice.
Control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires Th1-type immunity, of which CD8+ T cells play a unique role. High frequency Mtb-reactive CD8+ T cells are present in both Mtb-infected and uninfected humans. We show by limiting dilution analysis that nonclassically restricted CD8+ T cells are universally present, but predominate in Mtb-uninfected individuals. Interestingly, these Mtb-reactive cells expressed the Valpha7.2 T-cell receptor (TCR), were restricted by the nonclassical MHC (HLA-Ib) molecule MR1, and were activated in a transporter associated with antigen processing and presentation (TAP) independent manner. These properties are all characteristics of mucosal associated invariant T cells (MAIT), an "innate" T-cell population of previously unknown function. These MAIT cells also detect cells infected with other bacteria. Direct ex vivo analysis demonstrates that Mtb-reactive MAIT cells are decreased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals with active tuberculosis, are enriched in human lung, and respond to Mtb-infected MR1-expressing lung epithelial cells. Overall, these findings suggest a generalized role for MAIT cells in the detection of bacterially infected cells, and potentially in the control of bacterial infection.
Mucosal-associated invariant T lymphocytes (MAIT lymphocytes) are characterized by two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell antigen receptor (TCR) alpha-chain and restriction by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-related protein MR1. Here we show that MAIT cells were activated by cells infected with various strains of bacteria and yeast, but not cells infected with virus, in both humans and mice. This activation required cognate interaction between the invariant TCR and MR1, which can present a bacteria-derived ligand. In humans, we observed considerably fewer MAIT cells in blood from patients with bacterial infections such as tuberculosis. In the mouse, MAIT cells protected against infection by Mycobacterium abscessus or Escherichia coli. Thus, MAIT cells are evolutionarily conserved innate-like lymphocytes that sense and help fight off microbial infection.
Exosomes are nanovesicles originating from late endosomal compartments and secreted by most living cells in ex vivo cell culture conditions. The interest in exosomes was rekindled when B-cell and dendritic cell-derived exosomes were shown to mediate MHC-dependent immune responses. Despite limited understanding of exosome biogenesis and physiological relevance, accumulating evidence points to their bioactivity culminating in clinical applications in cancer. This review focuses on the preclinical studies exploiting the immunogenicity of dendritic cell-derived exosomes (Dex) and will elaborate on the past and future vaccination trials conducted using Dex strategy in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Several nonclassical major histocompatibilty antigens (class Ib molecules) have emerged as key players in the early immune response to pathogens or stress. Class Ib molecules activate subsets of T cells that mount effector responses before the adaptive immune system, and thus are called innate T cells. MR1 is a novel class Ib molecule with properties highly suggestive of its regulation of mucosal immunity. The Mr1 gene is evolutionarily conserved, is non-Mhc linked, and controls the development of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells. MAIT cells preferentially reside in the gut, and their development is dependent on commensal microbiota. Although these properties suggest that MAIT cells function as innate T cells in the mucosa, this has been difficult to test, due to the (i) paucity of MAIT cells that display MR1-specific activation in vitro and (ii) lack of knowledge of whether or not MR1 presents antigen. Here we show that both mouse and human MAIT cells display a high level of cross-reactivity on mammalian MR1 orthologs, but with differences consistent with limited ligand discrimination. Furthermore, acid eluates from recombinant or cellular MR1 proteins enhance MAIT cell activation in an MR1-specific and cross-species manner. Our findings demonstrate that the presentation pathway of MR1 to MAIT cells is highly evolutionarily conserved.
Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells display two evolutionarily conserved features: an invariant T cell receptor (TCR)alpha (iTCRalpha) chain and restriction by the nonpolymorphic class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule, MHC-related molecule 1 (MR1). MR1 expression on thymus epithelial cells is not necessary for MAIT cell development but their accumulation in the gut requires MR1 expressing B cells and commensal flora. MAIT cell development is poorly known, as these cells have not been found in the thymus so far. Herein, complementary human and mouse experiments using an anti-humanValpha7.2 antibody and MAIT cell-specific iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic mice in different genetic backgrounds show that MAIT cell development is a stepwise process, with an intra-thymic selection followed by peripheral expansion. Mouse MAIT cells are selected in an MR1-dependent manner both in fetal thymic organ culture and in double iTCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenic RAG knockout mice. In the latter mice, MAIT cells do not expand in the periphery unless B cells are added back by adoptive transfer, showing that B cells are not required for the initial thymic selection step but for the peripheral accumulation. In humans, contrary to natural killer T (NKT) cells, MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype in the thymus as well as in cord blood where they are in low numbers. After birth, MAIT cells acquire a memory phenotype and expand dramatically, up to 1%-4% of blood T cells. Finally, in contrast with NKT cells, human MAIT cell development is independent of the molecular adaptor SAP. Interestingly, mouse MAIT cells display a naïve phenotype and do not express the ZBTB16 transcription factor, which, in contrast, is expressed by NKT cells and the memory human MAIT cells found in the periphery after birth. In conclusion, MAIT cells are selected by MR1 in the thymus on a non-B non-T hematopoietic cell, and acquire a memory phenotype and expand in the periphery in a process dependent both upon B cells and the bacterial flora. Thus, their development follows a unique pattern at the crossroad of NKT and gammadelta T cells.
The thymic medulla is dedicated for purging the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of self-reactive specificities. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) play a pivotal role in this process because they express numerous peripheral tissue-restricted self-antigens. Although it is well known that medulla formation depends on the development of single-positive (SP) thymocytes, the mechanisms underlying this requirement are incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that conventional SP CD4? thymocytes bearing autoreactive TCRs drive a homeostatic process that fine-tunes medullary plasticity in adult mice by governing the expansion and patterning of the medulla. This process exhibits strict dependence on TCR-reactivity with self-antigens expressed by mTECs, as well as engagement of the CD28-CD80/CD86 costimulatory axis. These interactions induce the expression of lymphotoxin ? in autoreactive CD4? thymocytes and RANK in mTECs. Lymphotoxin in turn drives mTEC development in synergy with RANKL and CD40L. Our results show that Ag-dependent interactions between autoreactive CD4? thymocytes and mTECs fine-tune homeostasis of the medulla by completing the signaling axes implicated in mTEC expansion and medullary organization.
Invariant natural killer (iNKT) T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells represent peculiar T-lymphocyte subpopulations with innate-like properties that differ from conventional T cells. iNKT are reduced in the primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). By studying the mechanism of this depletion, we herein report that iNKT cells exhibit a high susceptibility to apoptosis that is not observed with conventional T cells. Elevated expression of caspases 3 and 7 accounts for the proapoptotic phenotype of iNKT cells, which is inhibited by XIAP although it exerts a moderate effect in conventional T cells. Similarly, MAIT cells exhibit a proapoptotic propensity with elevated expression of activated caspases and are decreased in XIAP-deficient individuals. Knockdown of the transcription factor PLZF/ZBTB-16, which is involved in the effector program of iNKT cells, diminishes their proapoptotic phenotype. Conversely, overexpression of PLZF/ZBTB-16 in conventional T cells leads to a proapoptotic phenotype. Our findings identify a previously unknown pathway of regulation of innate-like T-cell homeostasis depending on XIAP and PLZF. The proapoptotic feature of iNKT cells also gives a reliable explanation of their exhaustion observed in different human conditions including the XIAP immunodeficiency.
Urogenital schistosomiasis is caused by the helminth parasite Schistosoma haematobium. In high transmission areas, children acquire schistosome infection early in life with infection levels peaking in early childhood and subsequently declining in late childhood. This age-related infection profile is thought to result from the gradual development of protective acquired immunity. Age-related differences in schistosome-specific humoral and cellular responses have been reported from several field studies. However there has not yet been a systematic study of the age-related changes in human dendritic cells, the drivers of T cell polarisation.
In most cases of cervical cancers, HPV DNA is integrated into the genome of carcinoma cells. This mutational insertion constitutes a highly specific molecular marker of tumor DNA for every patient. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging marker of tumor dynamics which detection requires specific molecular motif. To determine whether the sequence of the cell-viral junction could be used in clinical practice as a specific marker of ctDNA, we analyzed a series of cervical cancer patient serums.
Characterisation of protective helminth acquired immunity in humans or experimental models has focused on effector responses with little work conducted on memory responses. Here we show for the first time, that human helminth infection is associated with altered proportions of the CD4+ memory T cells, with an associated alteration of T(H)1 responses. The reduced CD4+ memory T cell proportions are associated with a significantly lower ratio of schistosome-specific IgE/IgG4 (marker for resistance to infection/re-infection) in uninfected older people. Helminth infection does not affect the CD8+ memory T cell pool. Furthermore, we show for the first time in a helminth infection that the CD4+ memory T cell proportions decline following curative anti-helminthic treatment despite increased CD4+ memory cell replication. Reduced accumulation of the CD4+ memory T cells in schistosome-infected people has implications for the development of natural or vaccine induced schistosome-specific protective immunity as well as for unrelated pathogens.
To develop a molecular tool to detect circulating tumor-derived DNA (ctDNA) in the plasma from patients with uveal melanoma as a marker of tumor burden and monitor treatment efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.