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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fluorescence-based ion-sensing with colloidal particles.
Curr Opin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Particle-based fluorescence sensors for the quantification of specific ions can be made by coupling ion-sensitive fluorophores to carrier particles, or by using intrinsically fluorescent particles whose fluorescence properties depend on the concentration of the ions. Despite the advantages of such particle-based sensors for the quantitative detection of ions, such as the possibility to tune the surface chemistry and thus entry portal of the sensor particles to cells, they have also some associated problems. Problems involve for example crosstalk of the ion-sensitive fluorescence read-out with pH, or spectral overlap of the emission spectra of different fluorescent particles in multiplexing formats. Here the benefits of using particle-based fluorescence sensors, their limitations and strategies to overcome these limitations will be described and exemplified with selected examples.
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Strategies for the Biofunctionalization of Gold and Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The field of nanotechnology applied to medicine (nanomedicine) is developing at a fast pace and is expected to provide solutions for early diagnosis, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine. However, designing nanomaterials for biomedical applications is not a trivial task. Avoidance of the immune system, stability in physiological media, control over the interaction of a nanomaterial with biological entities such as proteins and cell membranes, low toxicity, and optimal bioperformance are critical for the success of the designed nanomaterial. In this Feature Article we provide a concise overview of some of the most recent advances concerning the derivatization of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles for bioapplications. The most important aspects relating to the functionalization of gold and iron oxide nanoparticles with carbohydrates, peptides, nucleic acids, and antibodies are covered, highlighting the recent contributions from our research group. We suggest tips for the appropriate (bio)functionalization of these inorganic nanoparticles in order to preserve the biological activity of the attached biomolecules and ensure their subsequent stability in physiological media.
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Gold nanoprisms for photothermal cell ablation in vivo.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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To develop new methodologies for selective cell ablation in a temporally and spatially precise fashion in model organisms.
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Tailoring the interplay between electromagnetic fields and nanomaterials toward applications in life sciences: a review.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Continuous advances in the field of bionanotechnology, particularly in the areas of synthesis and functionalization of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles with novel physicochemical properties, allow the development of innovative and/or enhanced approaches for medical solutions. Many of the present and future applications of bionanotechnology rely on the ability of nanoparticles to efficiently interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields and subsequently to produce a response via scattering or absorption of the interacting field. The cross-sections of nanoparticles are typically orders of magnitude larger than organic molecules, which provide the means for manipulating EM fields and, thereby, enable applications in therapy (e.g., photothermal therapy, hyperthermia, drug release, etc.), sensing (e.g., surface plasmon resonance, surface-enhanced Raman, energy transfer, etc.), and imaging (e.g., magnetic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal, etc.). Herein, an overview of the most relevant parameters and promising applications of EM-active nanoparticles for applications in life science are discussed with a view toward tailoring the interaction of nanoparticles with EM fields.
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In vitro interaction of colloidal nanoparticles with mammalian cells: What have we learned thus far?
Beilstein J Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The interfacing of colloidal nanoparticles with mammalian cells is now well into its second decade. In this review our goal is to highlight the more generally accepted concepts that we have gleaned from nearly twenty years of research. While details of these complex interactions strongly depend, amongst others, upon the specific properties of the nanoparticles used, the cell type, and their environmental conditions, a number of fundamental principles exist, which are outlined in this review.
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Design and characterization of functional nanoparticles for enhanced bio-performance.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of inorganic nanomaterials for medical applications. At present, nanomedicines-nanoparticles (NPs) destined for therapy or diagnosis purposes-can be found in a number of medical applications including therapeutics (either self-therapeutics or drug carriers) and diagnosis agents (e.g., contrast agents for imaging or transducers in biosensors). Pushing the limits of nanotechnology towards enhanced nanomedicines will surely help to reduce side effects of traditional treatments and to achieve earlier diagnosis. As for all medical approaches, the ultimate aim of nanomedicine is improving the well-being of patients. However, mixing nanomaterials with biological components such as fluids, living cells, and tissues does not always result as expected. The interplay between engineered nanomaterials and biological components is influenced by complex interactions which make predicting their biological fate and performance a nontrivial issue. Indeed, the structural integrity and the a priori function of nanomaterials can change dramatically due to unwanted nano-bio interactions. For medical applications in particular, any new nanomaterial has to be exhaustively studied when it comes in close contact with biological fluids and living cells or organisms. The motivation is clear: first, many unwanted effects can be turned on unexpectedly (e.g., leakage of toxic ions, ROS production, and sequestration by the phagocytic system) and second, their purpose as therapeutic or diagnostic agent can be lost as they are transferred to the desired working environment. This chapter aims to highlight key factors that should be taken into account when choosing and characterizing such functional materials for a given application, with a view to minimizing unwanted nano-bio interactions, rather than providing an exhaustive compilation of recent work. We hope that both early-stage and experienced researchers will find it valuable for designing nanoparticles for enhanced bio-performance.
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Interaction of stable colloidal nanoparticles with cellular membranes.
Biotechnol. Adv.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Due to their ultra-small size, inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) have distinct properties compared to the bulk form. The unique characteristics of NPs are broadly exploited in biomedical sciences in order to develop various methods of targeted drug delivery, novel biosensors and new therapeutic pathways. However, relatively little is known in the negotiation of NPs with complex biological environments. Cell membranes (CMs) in eukaryotes have dynamic structures, which is a key property for cellular responses to NPs. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge of various interactions between advanced types of NPs and CMs.
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DNA as a molecular local thermal probe for the analysis of magnetic hyperthermia.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Too hot to handle: The surroundings of magnetic nanoparticles can be heated by applying a magnetic field. Polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with single-stranded DNA molecules and further hybridized with DNA modified with different fluorophores. By correlating the denaturation profiles of the DNA with the local temperature, temperature gradients for the vicinity of the excited nanoparticles were determined.
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Plasmonic-driven thermal sensing: ultralow detection of cancer markers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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This communication describes an ultrafast high-sensitivity plasmonic-driven thermal sensing approach for the detection of tumoral markers. Gold nanoprisms derivatized with antibody against carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) are used to label CEA molecules and imprint thermal signals upon illumination, enabling sensitivities up to the attomolar range in real patient samples.
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Elucidating the function of penetratin and a static magnetic field in cellular uptake of magnetic nanoparticles.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in the biomedical arena. In particular, magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) have become important tools in molecular diagnostics, in vivo imaging and improved treatment of disease, with the ultimate aim of producing a more theranostic approach. Due to their small sizes, the nanoparticles can cross most of the biological barriers such as the blood vessels and the blood brain barrier, thus providing ubiquitous access to most tissues. In all biomedical applications maximum nanoparticle uptake into cells is required. Two promising methods employed to this end include functionalization of mNPs with cell-penetrating peptides to promote efficient translocation of cargo into the cell and the use of external magnetic fields for enhanced delivery. This study aimed to compare the effect of both penetratin and a static magnetic field with regards to the cellular uptake of 200 nm magnetic NPs and determine the route of uptake by both methods. Results demonstrated that both techniques increased particle uptake, with penetratin proving more cell specific. Clathrin- medicated endocytosis appeared to be responsible for uptake as shown via PCR and western blot, with Pitstop 2 (known to selectively block clathrin formation) blocking particle uptake. Interestingly, it was further shown that a magnetic field was able to reverse or overcome the blocking, suggesting an alternative route of uptake.
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Working together: the combined application of a magnetic field and penetratin for the delivery of magnetic nanoparticles to cells in 3D.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Nanoparticles (NPs) are currently being developed as vehicles for in vivo drug delivery. Two of the biggest barriers facing this therapy are the site-specific targeting and consequent cellular uptake of drug-loaded NPs(1). In vitro studies in 2D cell cultures have shown that an external magnetic field (MF) and functionalization with cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have the capacity to overcome these barriers. This study aimed to investigate if the potential of these techniques, which has been reported in 2D, can be successfully applied to cells growing in a 3D environment. As such, this study provides a more realistic assessment of how these techniques might perform in future clinical settings. The effect of a MF and/or penetratin attachment on the uptake of 100 and 200 nm fluorescent iron oxide magnetic NPs (mNPs) into a fibroblast-seeded 3D collagen gel was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The most suitable mNP species was further investigated by fluorescence microscopy, histology, confocal microscopy, and TEM. Results show that gel mNP uptake occurred on average twice as fast in the presence of a MF and up to three times faster with penetratin attachment. In addition, a MF increased the distance of mNP travel through the gel, while penetratin increased mNP cell localization. This work is one of the first to demonstrate that MFs and CPPs can be effectively translated for use in 3D systems and, if applied together, will make excellent partners to achieve therapeutic drug delivery in vivo.
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Influence of both a static magnetic field and penetratin on magnetic nanoparticle delivery into fibroblasts.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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With regards to nanoparticles, all biomedical applications require cellular uptake, which to date remains a hurdle to further progress. This study aims to compare both the attractive force of a static magnetic field and the cell penetrating capability of penetratin; two techniques currently employed to enhance cell uptake.
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Taking advantage of unspecific interactions to produce highly active magnetic nanoparticle-antibody conjugates.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Several strategies for linking antibodies (Abs) through their Fc region in an oriented manner have been proposed at the present time. By using these strategies, the Fab region of the Ab is available for antigen molecular recognition, leading to a more efficient interaction. Most of these strategies are complex processes optimized mainly for the functionalization of surfaces or microbeads. These methodologies imply though the Ab modification through several steps of purification or the use of expensive immobilized proteins. Besides, the functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) turned out to be much more complex than expected due to the lack of stability of most MNPs at high ionic strength and non-neutral pH values. Therefore, there is still missing an efficient, easy and universal methodology for the immobilization of nonmodified Abs onto MNPs without involving their Fab regions during the immobilization process. Herein, we propose the functionalization of MNPs via a two-steps strategy that takes advantage of the ionic reversible interactions between the Ab and the MNP. These interactions make possible the orientation of the Ab on the MNP surface before being attached in an irreversible way via covalent bonds. Three Abs (Immunoglobulin G class) with very different isoelectric points (against peroxidase, carcinoembryonic antigen, and human chorionic gonadotropin hormone) were used to prove the general applicability of the strategy here proposed and its utility for the development of more bioactive NPs.
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Gene silencing mediated by magnetic lipospheres tagged with small interfering RNA.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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Lipospheres made from soy bean oil and a combination of the cationic lipid Metafectene and the helper lipid dioleoylphosphatidyl-ethanolamine were functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The resulting magnetic lipospheres loaded with siRNA are proven here as efficient nonviral vectors for gene silencing. Embedding magnetic NPs in the shell of lipospheres allows for magnetic force-assisted transfection (magnetofection) as well as magnetic targeting in both static and fluidic conditions mimicking the bloodstream.
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Interfacing engineered nanoparticles with biological systems: anticipating adverse nano-bio interactions.
Small
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The innovative use of engineered nanomaterials in medicine, be it in therapy or diagnosis, is growing dramatically. This is motivated by the current extraordinary control over the synthesis of complex nanomaterials with a variety of biological functions (e.g. contrast agents, drug-delivery systems, transducers, amplifiers, etc.). Engineered nanomaterials are found in the bio-context with a variety of applications in fields such as sensing, imaging, therapy or diagnosis. As the degree of control to fabricate customized novel and/or enhanced nanomaterials evolves, often new applications, devices with enhanced performance or unprecedented sensing limits can be achieved. Of course, interfacing any novel material with biological systems has to be critically analyzed as many undesirable adverse effects can be triggered (e.g. toxicity, allergy, genotoxicity, etc.) and/or the performance of the nanomaterial can be compromised due to the unexpected phenomena in physiological environments (e.g. corrosion, aggregation, unspecific absorption of biomolecules, etc.). Despite the need for standard protocols for assessing the toxicity and bio-performance of each new functional nanomaterial, these are still scarce or currently under development. Nonetheless, nanotoxicology and relating adverse effects to the physico-chemical properties of nanomaterials are emerging areas of the utmost importance which have to be continuously revisited as any new material emerges. This review highlights recent progress concerning the interaction of nanomaterials with biological systems and following adverse effects.
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Gold nanoprisms as optoacoustic signal nanoamplifiers for in vivo bioimaging of gastrointestinal cancers.
Small
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Early detection of cancer greatly increases the chances of a simpler and more effective treatment. Traditional imaging techniques are often limited by shallow penetration, low sensitivity, low specificity, poor spatial resolution or the use of ionizing radiation. Hybrid modalities, like optoacoustic imaging, an emerging molecular imaging modality, contribute to improving most of these limitations. However, this imaging method is hindered by relatively low signal contrast. Here, gold nanoprisms (AuNPrs) are used as signal amplifiers in multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) to visualize gastrointestinal cancer. PEGylated AuNPrs are successfully internalized by HT-29 gastrointestinal cancer cells in vitro. Moreover, the particles show good biocompatibility and exhibit a surface plasmon band centered at 830 nm, a suitable wavelength for optoacoustic imaging purposes. These findings extend well to an in vivo setting, in which mice are injected with PEGylated AuNPrs in order to visualize tumor angiogenesis in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Overall, both our in vitro and in vivo results show that PEGylated AuNPrs have the capacity to penetrate tumors and provide a high-resolution signal amplifier for optoacoustic imaging. The combination of PEGylated AuNPrs and MSOT represents a significant advance for the in vivo imaging of cancers.
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The challenge to relate the physicochemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles to their cytotoxicity.
Acc. Chem. Res.
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Nanomaterials offer opportunities to construct novel compounds for many different fields. Applications include devices for energy, including solar cells, batteries, and fuel cells, and for health, including contrast agents and mediators for photodynamic therapy and hyperthermia. Despite these promising applications, any new class of materials also bears a potential risk for human health and the environment. The advantages and innovations of these materials must be thoroughly compared against risks to evaluate each new nanomaterial. Although nanomaterials are often used intentionally, they can also be released unintentionally either inside the human body, through wearing of a prosthesis or the inhalation of fumes, or into the environment, through mechanical wear or chemical powder waste. This possibility adds to the importance of understanding potential risks from these materials. Because of fundamental differences in nanomaterials, sound risk assessment currently requires that researchers perform toxicology studies on each new nanomaterial. However, if toxicity could be correlated to the basic physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, those relationships could allow researchers to predict potential risks and design nanomaterials with minimum toxicity. In this Account we describe the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs) and how they can be determined and discuss their general importance for cytotoxicity. For simplicity, we focus primarily on in vitro toxicology that examines the interaction of living cells with engineered colloidal NPs with an inorganic core. Serious risk assessment of NPs will require additional in vivo studies. Basic physicochemical properties of nanoparticulate materials include colloidal stability, purity, inertness, size, shape, charge, and their ability to adsorb environmental compounds such as proteins. Unfortunately, the correlation of these properties with toxicity is not straightforward. First, for NPs released either unintentionally or intentionally, it can be difficult to pinpoint these properties in the materials. Therefore, researchers typically use NP models with better defined properties, which dont include the full complexity of most industrially relevant materials. In addition, many of these properties are strongly mutually connected. Therefore, it can be difficult to vary individual properties in NP models while keeping the others constant.
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Tailoring the synthesis and heating ability of gold nanoprisms for bioapplications.
Langmuir
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The paper describes a novel and straightforward wet-chemical synthetic route to produce biocompatible single-crystalline gold tabular nanoparticles, herein called nanoprisms (NPRs) due to their characteristic shape. Besides the novelty of the method to produce NPRs with an unprecedented high yield, the synthesis avoids the use of highly toxic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), the most widely used surfactant for the synthesis of gold anisotropic nanoparticles such as nanorods or nanoprisms. The method presented here allows for tuning the edge length of NPRs in the range of 100-170 nm by adjusting the final concentration/molar ratio of gold salt and reducing agent (thiosulfate), while the thickness of NPRs remained constant (9 nm). Thus, the surface plasmon band of NPRs can be set along the near-infrared (NIR) range. The resulting NPRs were derivatized with heterobifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG) and 4-aminophenyl ?-D-glucopyranoside (glucose) chains to improve their stability and cellular uptake, respectively. The heating properties of colloidal solutions of NPRs upon 1064 nm light illumination were evaluated. As a proof of concept, the biocompatibility and suitability of functional NPRs as photothermal agents were studied in cell cultures. Due to their biocompatibility (avoiding CTAB), ease of production, ease of functionalization, and remarkable heating features, the NPRs discussed herein represent a significant advance in the biocompatibility of nanoparticles and serve as an attractive alternative to those currently in use as plasmonic photothermal agents.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.