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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Muscle Proteomics Reveals Novel Insights into the Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Collagen VI Myopathies.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Mutations in the collagen VI genes cause the Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD), with severe phenotype, and Bethlem myopathy (BM) with mild to moderate phenotype. Both, UCMD and BM patients show dystrophic features with degeneration/regeneration and replacement of muscle with fat and fibrous connective tissue. At molecular level, UCMD patients show autophagic impairment and increased PTP opening; these features are less severe in BM. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms adopted by the muscle to adapt to collagen VI deficiency in BM and UCMD patients, a proteome analysis was carried out on human muscle biopsies. Qualitative and quantitative differences were assessed by 2D-DIGE coupled to MALDI-ToF/ToF MS. Proteomics results, coupled with immunoblotting, indicate changes in UPR, hexosamine pathway, and amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, suggesting an association of ER stress, metabolic dysregulation, autophagic impairment, and alteration in mechanotransduction signaling. Overall, these results indicate that despite the common downregulation of hexosamine pathway in UCMD and BM, in BM the protein quality control system is sustained by a metabolic adaptation supporting energy requirements for the maintenance of autophagy, counteracting ER misfolded protein overload. In UCMD, this multilayered system may be disrupted and worsened by the metabolic rewiring, which leads to lipotoxicity.
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Biodistribution studies of polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery in mice.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Abstract Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe hereditary neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Antisense-mediated targeted exon skipping has been shown to restore dystrophin expression both in DMD patients and in the mdx mouse, the murine model of DMD, but the ineffective delivery of these molecules limits their therapeutic use. We demonstrated that PMMA/N-isopropil-acrylamide (ZM2) nanoparticles (NPs), administered both intraperitoneally and orally, were able to deliver 2'OMePS antisense inducing various extents of dystrophin restoration in the mdx mice. Defining NP biodistribution is crucial to improve effects on target and dose regimens; thus, we performed in vivo studies of novel ZM4 NPs. ZM4 are conjugated with NIR fluorophores as optical probes suitable for studies on the Odyssey Imaging System. Our results indicate that NPs are widely distributed in all body muscles, including skeletal muscles and heart, suggesting that these vehicles are appropriate to deliver antisense oligonucleotides for targeting striated muscles in the DMD animal model, thus opening new horizons for Duchenne therapy.
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NIM811, a cyclophilin inhibitor without immunosuppressive activity, is beneficial in collagen VI congenital muscular dystrophy models.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are inherited muscle diseases due to mutations in the genes encoding the extracellular matrix protein collagen (Col) VI. Opening of the cyclosporin A-sensitive mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP) is a causative event in disease pathogenesis, and a potential target for therapy. Here, we have tested the effect of N-methyl-4-isoleucine-cyclosporin (NIM811), a non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitor, in a zebrafish model of ColVI myopathy obtained by deletion of the N-terminal region of the ColVI ?1 triple helical domain, a common mutation of UCMD. Treatment with antisense morpholino sequences targeting col6a1 exon 9 at the 1-4 cell stage (within 1 h post fertilization, hpf) caused severe ultrastructural and motor abnormalities as assessed by electron and fluorescence microscopy, birefringence, spontaneous coiling events and touch-evoked responses measured at 24-48 hpf. Structural and functional abnormalities were largely prevented when NIM811--which proved significantly more effective than cyclosporin A--was administered at 21 hpf, while FK506 was ineffective. Beneficial effects of NIM811 were also detected (i) in primary muscle-derived cell cultures from UCMD and BM patients, where the typical mitochondrial alterations and depolarizing response to rotenone and oligomycin were significantly reduced; and (ii) in the Col6a1(-/-) myopathic mouse model, where apoptosis was prevented and muscle strength was increased. Since the PTP of zebrafish shares its key regulatory features with the mammalian pore, our results suggest that early treatment with NIM811 should be tested as a potential therapy for UCMD and BM.
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Cyclosporin A Promotes in vivo Myogenic Response in Collagen VI-Deficient Myopathic Mice.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mutations of genes encoding for collagen VI cause various muscle diseases in humans, including Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy. Collagen VI null (Col6a1 (-/-)) mice are affected by a myopathic phenotype with mitochondrial dysfunction, spontaneous apoptosis of muscle fibers, and defective autophagy. Moreover, Col6a1 (-/-) mice display impaired muscle regeneration and defective self-renewal of satellite cells after injury. Treatment with cyclosporin A (CsA) is effective in normalizing the mitochondrial, apoptotic, and autophagic defects of myofibers in Col6a1 (-/-) mice. A pilot clinical trial with CsA in Ullrich patients suggested that CsA may increase the number of regenerating myofibers. Here, we report the effects of CsA administration at 5?mg/kg body weight every 12?h in Col6a1 (-/-) mice on muscle regeneration under physiological conditions and after cardiotoxin (CdTx)-induced muscle injury. Our findings indicate that CsA influences satellite cell activity and triggers the formation of regenerating fibers in Col6a1 (-/-) mice. Data obtained on injured muscles show that under appropriate administration, regimens CsA is able to stimulate myogenesis in Col6a1 (-/-) mice by significantly increasing the number of myogenin (MyoG)-positive cells and of regenerating myofibers at the early stages of muscle regeneration. CsA is also able to ameliorate muscle regeneration of Col6a1 (-/-) mice subjected to multiple CdTx injuries, with a concurrent maintenance of the satellite cell pool. Our data show that CsA is beneficial for muscle regeneration in Col6a1 (-/-) mice.
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NG2/CSPG4-collagen type VI interplays putatively involved in the microenvironmental control of tumour engraftment and local expansion.
J Mol Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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In soft-tissue sarcoma patients, enhanced expression of NG2/CSPG4 proteoglycan in pre-surgical primary tumours predicts post-surgical metastasis formation and thereby stratifies patients into disease-free survivors and patients destined to succumb to the disease. Both primary and secondary sarcoma lesions also up-regulate collagen type VI, a putative extracellular matrix ligand of NG2, and this matrix alteration potentiates the prognostic impact of NG2. Enhanced constitutive levels of the proteoglycan in isolated sarcoma cells closely correlate with a superior engraftment capability and local growth in xenogenic settings. This apparent NG2-associated malignancy was also corroborated by the diverse tumorigenic behaviour in vitro and in vivo of immunoselected NG2-expressing and NG2-deficient cell subsets, by RNAi-mediated knock down of endogenous NG2, and by ectopic transduction of full-length or deletion constructs of NG2. Cells with modified expression of NG2 diverged in their interaction with purified Col VI, matrices supplemented with Col VI, and cell-free matrices isolated from wild-type and Col VI null fibroblasts. The combined use of dominant-negative NG2 mutant cells and purified domain fragments of the collagen allowed us to pinpoint the reciprocal binding sites within the two molecules and to assert the importance of this molecular interaction in the control of sarcoma cell adhesion and motility. The NG2-mediated binding to Col VI triggered activation of convergent cell survival- and cell adhesion/migration-promoting signal transduction pathways, implicating PI-3K as a common denominator. Thus, the findings point to an NG2-Col VI interplay as putatively involved in the regulation of the cancer cell-host microenvironment interactions sustaining sarcoma progression.
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Changes in muscle cell metabolism and mechanotransduction are associated with myopathic phenotype in a mouse model of collagen VI deficiency.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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This study identifies metabolic and protein phenotypic alterations in gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior and diaphragm muscles of Col6a1(-/-) mice, a model of human collagen VI myopathies. All three muscles of Col6a1(-/-) mice show some common changes in proteins involved in metabolism, resulting in decreased glycolysis and in changes of the TCA cycle fluxes. These changes lead to a different fate of ?-ketoglutarate, with production of anabolic substrates in gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior, and with lipotoxicity in diaphragm. The metabolic changes are associated with changes of proteins involved in mechanotransduction at the myotendineous junction/costameric/sarcomeric level (TN-C, FAK, ROCK1, troponin I fast) and in energy metabolism (aldolase, enolase 3, triose phosphate isomerase, creatine kinase, adenylate kinase 1, parvalbumin, IDH1 and FASN). Together, these change may explain Ca(2+) deregulation, impaired force development, increased muscle-relaxation-time and fiber damage found in the mouse model as well as in patients. The severity of these changes differs in the three muscles (gastrocnemius
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Oxidative stress by monoamine oxidases is causally involved in myofiber damage in muscular dystrophy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Several studies documented the key role of oxidative stress and abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathophysiology of muscular dystrophies (MDs). The sources of ROS, however, are still controversial as well as their major molecular targets. This study investigated whether ROS produced in mitochondria by monoamine oxidase (MAO) contributes to MD pathogenesis. Pargyline, an MAO inhibitor, reduced ROS accumulation along with a beneficial effect on the dystrophic phenotype of Col6a1(-/-) mice, a model of Bethlem myopathy and Ullrich congenital MD, and mdx mice, a model of Duchenne MD. Based on our previous observations on oxidative damage of myofibrillar proteins in heart failure, we hypothesized that MAO-dependent ROS might impair contractile function in dystrophic muscles. Indeed, oxidation of myofibrillar proteins, as probed by formation of disulphide cross-bridges in tropomyosin, was detected in both Col6a1(-/-) and mdx muscles. Notably, pargyline significantly reduced myofiber apoptosis and ameliorated muscle strength in Col6a1(-/-) mice. This study demonstrates a novel and determinant role of MAO in MDs, adding evidence of the pivotal role of mitochondria and suggesting a therapeutic potential for MAO inhibition.
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Preclinical PK and PD studies on 2-O-methyl-phosphorothioate RNA antisense oligonucleotides in the mdx mouse model.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) are being developed as RNA therapeutic molecules for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For oligonucleotides with the 2-O-methyl-phosphorothioate (2OMePS) RNA chemistry, proof of concept has been obtained in patient-specific muscle cell cultures, the mouse and dog disease models, and recently by local administration in Duchenne patients. To further explore the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of this chemical class of oligonucleotides, we performed a series of preclinical studies in mice. The results demonstrate that the levels of oligonucleotides in dystrophin-deficient muscle fibers are much higher than in healthy fibers, leading to higher exon-skipping levels. Oligonucleotide levels and half-life differed for specific muscle groups, with heart muscle showing the lowest levels but longest half-life (approximately 46 days). Intravenous (i.v.), subcutaneous (s.c.), and intraperitoneal (i.p.) delivery methods were directly compared. For each method, exon-skipping and novel dystrophin expression were observed in all muscles, including arrector pili smooth muscle in skin biopsies. After i.v. administration, the oligonucleotide peak levels in plasma, liver, and kidney were higher than after s.c. or i.p. injections. However, as the bioavailability was similar, and the levels of oligonucleotide, exon-skipping, and dystrophin steadily accumulated overtime after s.c. administration, we selected this patient-convenient delivery method for future clinical study protocols.
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Analysis of beta cell proliferation dynamics in zebrafish.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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Among the different mechanisms invoked to explain the beta cell mass expansion during postnatal stages and adulthood, self-replication is being considered the major cellular event occurring both under physiological conditions and in regenerating pancreas after partial pancreactomy. Neogenesis, i.e. differentiation from pancreatic progenitors, has been demonstrated to act concurrently with beta cell replication during pancreatic regeneration. Both phenomena have been largely elucidated in higher vertebrates (mouse, rat and guinea pig), but an extensive description of beta cell dynamics in other animal models is currently lacking. We, therefore, explored in zebrafish the cellular origins of new beta cells in both adult and larval stages. By integrating the results from in vivo time lapse analysis and immunostaining, we provide a detailed reconstruction of the major processes involved in fish beta cell genesis and maintenance. Moreover, by establishing the selective ablation of proliferating beta cells, through the ganciclovir-HSVTK system, we could show that in larval stages self-replication is the main mechanism of beta cells expansion. Since the same mechanism of proliferation has been observed to occur during early and late life stages, we suggest that zebrafish larvae can be used as an alternative tool for an in vivo exploration and screening of new potential mitogens specifically targeting beta cells.
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Cationic PMMA nanoparticles bind and deliver antisense oligoribonucleotides allowing restoration of dystrophin expression in the mdx mouse.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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For subsets of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) mutations, antisense oligoribonucleotide (AON)-mediated exon skipping has proven to be efficacious in restoring the expression of dystrophin protein. In the mdx murine model systemic delivery of AON, recognizing the splice donor of dystrophin exon 23, has shown proof of concept. Here, we show that using cationic polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) (marked as T1) nanoparticles loaded with a low dose of 2-O-methyl-phosphorothioate (2OMePS) AON delivered by weekly intraperitoneal (IP) injection (0.9 mg/kg/week), could restore dystrophin expression in body-wide striated muscles. Delivery of an identical dose of naked AON did not result in detectable dystrophin expression. Transcription, western, and immunohistochemical analysis showed increased levels of dystrophin transcript and protein, and correct localization at the sarcolemma. This study shows that T1 nanoparticles have the capacity to bind and convoy AONs in body-wide muscle tissues and to reduce the dose required for dystrophin rescue. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies, we highlighted the diffusion pathways of this compound. This nonviral approach may valuably improve the therapeutic usage of AONs in DMD as well as the delivery of RNA molecules with many implications in both basic research and medicine.
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Lentiviral-mediated RNAi in vivo silencing of Col6a1, a gene with complex tissue specific expression pattern.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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RNA interference (RNAi) through the use of lentiviral vectors is a valuable technique to induce loss of function mutations in mammals. Although very promising, the method has found only limited application and its general applicability remains to be established. Here we analyze how different factors influence RNAi mediated silencing of Col6a1, a gene of the extracellular matrix with a complex pattern of tissue specific expression. Our results, obtained with vectors pLVTHM and pLVPT-rtTRKRAB, point out three parameters as major determinants of the efficiency of interference: the choice of interfering sequence, the number of proviral copies integrated into the mouse genome and the site of insertion of the provirus. Although low copy number may produce efficient interference with low frequency, the general trend is that the number of integrated proviral copies determines the level of silencing and the severity of phenotypic traits. The site of insertion not only determines the overall intensity of expression of the small interfering RNA (siRNA), but also introduces slight variability of silencing in different organs. A lentiviral vector (pLVPT-rtTRKRAB) with doxycycline-inducible production of siRNA was also tested. Control of expression by the drug was stringent in many tissues; however, in some tissues turning off of siRNA synthesis was not complete. The data support the application of lentiviral vectors used here in transgenesis.
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Persistent dystrophin protein restoration 90 days after a course of intraperitoneally administered naked 2OMePS AON and ZM2 NP-AON complexes in mdx mice.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
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In Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the exon-skipping approach has obtained proof of concept in animal models, myogenic cell cultures, and following local and systemic administration in Duchenne patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that low doses (7.5 mg/Kg/week) of 2-O-methyl-phosphorothioate antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) adsorbed onto ZM2 nanoparticles provoke widespread dystrophin restoration 7 days after intraperitoneal treatment in mdx mice. In this study, we went on to test whether this dystrophin restoration was still measurable 90 days from the end of the same treatment. Interestingly, we found that both western blot and immunohistochemical analysis (up to 7% positive fibres) were still able to detect dystrophin protein in the skeletal muscles of ZM2-AON-treated mice at this time, and the level of exon-23 skipping could still be assessed by RT real-time PCR (up to 10% of skipping percentage). In contrast, the protein was undetectable by western blot analysis in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice treated with an identical dose of naked AON, and the percentage of dystrophin-positive fibres and exon-23 skipping were reminiscent of those of untreated mdx mice. Our data therefore demonstrate the long-term residual efficacy of this systemic low-dose treatment and confirm the protective effect nanoparticles exert on AON molecules.
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Vascular smooth muscle Emilin-1 is a regulator of arteriolar myogenic response and blood pressure.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
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Emilin-1 is a protein of elastic extracellular matrix involved in blood pressure (BP) control by negatively affecting transforming growth factor (TGF)-? processing. Emilin1 null mice are hypertensive. This study investigates how Emilin-1 deals with vascular mechanisms regulating BP.
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EMILIN-3, peculiar member of elastin microfibril interface-located protein (EMILIN) family, has distinct expression pattern, forms oligomeric assemblies, and serves as transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) antagonist.
J. Biol. Chem.
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EMILIN-3 is a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix belonging to a family that contains a characteristic N-terminal cysteine-rich EMI domain. Currently, EMILIN-3 is the least characterized member of the elastin microfibril interface-located protein (EMILIN)/Multimerin family. Using RNA, immunohistochemical, and protein chemistry approaches, we carried out a detailed characterization of the expression and biochemical properties of EMILIN-3 in mouse. During embryonic and postnatal development, EMILIN-3 showed a peculiar and dynamic pattern of gene expression and protein distribution. EMILIN-3 mRNA was first detected at E8.5-E9.5 in the tail bud and in the primitive gut, and at later stages it became abundant in the developing gonads and osteogenic mesenchyme. Interestingly and in contrast to other EMILIN/Multimerin genes, EMILIN-3 was not found in the cardiovascular system. Despite the absence of the globular C1q domain, immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses demonstrated that EMILIN-3 forms disulfide-bonded homotrimers and higher order oligomers. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the most C-terminal part of EMILIN-3 has a substantial ?-helical content and forms coiled coil structures involved in EMILIN-3 homo-oligomerization. Transfection experiments with recombinant constructs showed that the EMI domain contributes to the higher order self-assembly but was dispensable for homotrimer formation. EMILIN-3 was found to bind heparin with high affinity, a property mediated by the EMI domain, thus revealing a new function for this domain that may contribute to the interaction of EMILIN-3 with other extracellular matrix and/or cell surface molecules. Finally, in vitro experiments showed that EMILIN-3 is able to function as an extracellular regulator of the activity of TGF-? ligands.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.