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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lipid biosynthesis and protein concentration respond uniquely to phosphate supply during leaf development in highly-phosphorus-efficient harsh hakea.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Hakea prostrata R.Br. (Proteaceae) is adapted to severely phosphorus-impoverished soils and extensively replaces phospholipids during leaf development. We investigated how polar lipid profiles change during leaf development and in response to external phosphate supply. Leaf size was unaffected by a moderate increase in phosphate supply. However, leaf protein concentration increased by more than two-fold in young and mature leaves, indicating that phosphate stimulates protein synthesis. Orthologs of known lipid-remodeling genes in Arabidopsis thaliana were identified in the H. prostrata transcriptome. Their transcript profiles in young and mature leaves were analyzed in response to phosphate supply alongside changes in polar lipid fractions. In young leaves of phosphate-limited plants, phosphatidylcholine/-ethanolamine and associated transcript levels were higher, while phosphatidylglycerol and sulfolipid levels were lower than in mature leaves, consistent with low photosynthetic rates and delayed chloroplast development. Phosphate reduced galactolipid and increased phospholipid concentrations in mature leaves, with concomitant changes in the expression of only four genes, HpGDPD1, HpNMT2, HpNPC4, and HpMGD3. Remarkably, phosphatidylglycerol levels decreased with increasing phosphate supply and were associated with lower photosynthetic rates. Levels of polar lipids with highly unsaturated 32:x and 34:x acyl chains increased. We conclude that a regulatory network with a small number of central hubs underpins extensive phospholipid replacement during leaf development in H. prostrata. This hard-wired regulatory framework allows increased photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency and growth in a low-phosphate environment. This may have rendered harsh hakea lipid metabolism unable to adjust to higher internal phosphate concentrations.
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Sulphate fertilization ameliorates long-term aluminum toxicity symptoms in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne).
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Effects of the oxanion sulphate on plant aluminum (Al(3+)) detoxification mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, holistic physiological and biochemical modifications induced by progressively increased doses of sulphate fertilization in the presence of long-term Al(3+) stress were investigated in the aluminum sensitive perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cvJumbo). Plant growth inhibition induced by Al(3+) was decreased in response to increasing doses of sulphate supply. Aluminum concentrations measured in roots of perennial ryegrass by atomic absorption spectrometry declined significantly with increasing sulphate concentrations. In parallel, we determined a rise of sulphur in shoots and roots of perennial ryegrass. Inclusion of up to 360 ?M of sulphate enhanced cysteine and glutathione biosynthesis in Al(3+) (1.07 ?M) treated plants. This increase of thiol-containing compounds favored all modifications in the glutathione redox balance, declining lipid peroxidation, decreasing the activity of superoxide dismutase, and modifying the expression of proteins involved in the diminution of Al(3+) toxicity in roots. In particular, proteome analysis by 1D-SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS allowed to identify up (e.g. vacuolar proton ATPase, proteosome ? subunit, etc) and down (Glyoxilase I, Ascorbate peroxidase, etc.) regulated proteins induced by Al(3+) toxicity symptoms in roots. Although, sulphate supply up to 480 ?M caused a reduction in Al(3+) toxicity symptoms, it was not as efficient as compared to 360 ?M sulphate fertilization. These results suggest that sulphate fertilization ameliorates Al(3+) toxicity responses in an intracellular specific manner within Lolium perenne.
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Uric acid accumulation in an Arabidopsis urate oxidase mutant impairs seedling establishment by blocking peroxisome maintenance.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Purine nucleotides can be fully catabolized by plants to recycle nutrients. We have isolated a urate oxidase (uox) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that accumulates uric acid in all tissues, especially in the developing embryo. The mutant displays a reduced germination rate and is unable to establish autotrophic growth due to severe inhibition of cotyledon development and nutrient mobilization from the lipid reserves in the cotyledons. The uox mutant phenotype is suppressed in a xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh) uox double mutant, demonstrating that the underlying cause is not the defective purine base catabolism, or the lack of UOX per se, but the elevated uric acid concentration in the embryo. Remarkably, xanthine accumulates to similar levels in the xdh mutant without toxicity. This is paralleled in humans, where hyperuricemia is associated with many diseases whereas xanthinuria is asymptomatic. Searching for the molecular cause of uric acid toxicity, we discovered a local defect of peroxisomes (glyoxysomes) mostly confined to the cotyledons of the mature embryos, which resulted in the accumulation of free fatty acids in dry seeds. The peroxisomal defect explains the developmental phenotypes of the uox mutant, drawing a novel link between uric acid and peroxisome function, which may be relevant beyond plants.
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Consequences of induced brassinosteroid deficiency in Arabidopsis leaves.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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BackgroundThe identification of brassinosteroid (BR) deficient and BR insensitive mutants provided conclusive evidence that BR is a potent growth-promoting phytohormone. Arabidopsis mutants are characterized by a compact rosette structure, decreased plant height and reduced root system, delayed development, and reduced fertility. Cell expansion, cell division, and multiple developmental processes depend on BR. The molecular and physiological basis of BR action is diverse. The BR signalling pathway controls the activity of transcription factors, and numerous BR responsive genes have been identified. The analysis of dwarf mutants, however, may to some extent reveal phenotypic changes that are an effect of the altered morphology and physiology. This restriction holds particularly true for the analysis of established organs such as rosette leaves.ResultsIn this study, the mode of BR action was analysed in established leaves by means of two approaches. First, an inhibitor of BR biosynthesis (brassinazole) was applied to 21-day-old wild-type plants. Secondly, BR complementation of BR deficient plants, namely CPD (constitutive photomorphogenic dwarf)-antisense and cbb1 (cabbage1) mutant plants was stopped after 21 days. BR action in established leaves is associated with stimulated cell expansion, an increase in leaf index, starch accumulation, enhanced CO2 release by the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and increased biomass production. Cell number and protein content were barely affected.ConclusionPrevious analysis of BR promoted growth focused on genomic effects. However, the link between growth and changes in gene expression patterns barely provided clues to the physiological and metabolic basis of growth. Our study analysed comprehensive metabolic data sets of leaves with altered BR levels. The data suggest that BR promoted growth may depend on the increased provision and use of carbohydrates and energy. BR may stimulate both anabolic and catabolic pathways.
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Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species.
Plant Cell Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- (P) impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low P levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis. We measured ribosomal RNA (rRNA) abundance, soluble protein, activities of several enzymes and glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) levels in expanding and mature leaves of six Proteaceae species in their natural habitat. The results were compared with those for Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with A. thaliana, immature leaves of Proteaceae species contained very low levels of rRNA, especially plastidic rRNA. Proteaceae species showed slow development of the photosynthetic apparatus (‘delayed greening’), with young leaves having very low levels of chlorophyll and Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes. In mature leaves, soluble protein and Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme activities were low, but Glc6P levels were similar to those in A. thaliana. We propose that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high P efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: (1) less P is invested in ribosomes; (2) the rate of growth and, hence, demand for P is low; and (3) the especially low plastidic ribosome abundance in young leaves delays formation of the photosynthetic machinery, spreading investment of P in rRNA. Although Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme activities are low, Glc6P levels are maintained, allowing their effective use.
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Diacylglycerol activates the light-dependent channel TRP in the photosensitive microvilli of Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Drosophila light-dependent channels, TRP and TRPL, reside in the light-sensitive microvilli of the photoreceptor's rhabdomere. Phospholipase C mediates TRP/TRPL opening, but the gating process remains unknown. Controversial evidence has suggested diacylglycerol (DAG), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, a DAG metabolite), phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2), and H(+) as possible channel activators. We tested each of them directly in inside-out TRP-expressing patches excised from the rhabdomere, making use of mutants and pharmacology. When patches were excised in darkness TRP remained closed, while when excised under illumination it stayed constitutively active. TRP was opened by DAG and silenced by ATP, suggesting DAG-kinase (DGK) involvement. The ATP effect was abolished by inhibiting DGK and in the rdgA mutant, lacking functional DGK, implicating DGK. DAG activated TRP even in the presence of a DAG-lipase inhibitor, inconsistent with a requirement of PUFAs in opening TRP. PIP2 had no effect and acidification, pH 6.4, activated TRP irreversibly, unlike the endogenous activator. Complementary liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry determinations of DAG and PUFAs in membranes enriched in rhabdomere obtained from light- and dark-adapted eyes showed light-dependent increment in six DAG species and no changes in PUFAs. The results strongly support DAG as the endogenous TRP agonist, as some of its vertebrate TRPC homologs of the same channel family.
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Exceptional evolutionary divergence of human muscle and brain metabolomes parallels human cognitive and physical uniqueness.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Metabolite concentrations reflect the physiological states of tissues and cells. However, the role of metabolic changes in species evolution is currently unknown. Here, we present a study of metabolome evolution conducted in three brain regions and two non-neural tissues from humans, chimpanzees, macaque monkeys, and mice based on over 10,000 hydrophilic compounds. While chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse metabolomes diverge following the genetic distances among species, we detect remarkable acceleration of metabolome evolution in human prefrontal cortex and skeletal muscle affecting neural and energy metabolism pathways. These metabolic changes could not be attributed to environmental conditions and were confirmed against the expression of their corresponding enzymes. We further conducted muscle strength tests in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The results suggest that, while humans are characterized by superior cognition, their muscular performance might be markedly inferior to that of chimpanzees and macaque monkeys.
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Analysis of subcellular metabolite distributions within Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissue: a primer for subcellular metabolomics.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Every biological organism relies for its proper function on interactions between a multitude of molecular entities like RNA, proteins, and metabolites. The comprehensive measurement and the analysis of all these entities would therefore provide the basis for our functional and mechanistic understanding of most biological processes. Next to their amount and identity, it is most crucial to also gain information about the subcellular distribution and the flux of the measured compounds between the cellular compartments. That is, we want to understand not only the individual functions of cellular components but also their functional implications within the whole organism. While the analysis of macromolecules like DNA, RNA, and proteins is quite established and robust, analytical techniques for small metabolites, which are prone to diffusion and degradation processes, provide a host of unsolved challenges. The major limitations here are the metabolite conversion and relocation processes. In this protocol we describe a methodological workflow which includes a nonaqueous fractionation method, a fractionated two-phase liquid/liquid extraction protocol, and a software package, which together allow extracting and analyzing starch, proteins, and especially polar and lipophilic metabolites from a single sample towards the estimation of their subcellular distributions.
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MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: Discrimination of pathophysiological regions in traumatized skeletal muscle by characteristic peptide signatures.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Due to formation of fibrosis and the loss of contractile muscle tissue, severe muscle injuries often result in insufficient healing marked by a significant reduction of muscle force and motor activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that the local transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells into an injured skeletal muscle of the rat improves the functional outcome of the healing process. Since, due to the lack of sufficient markers, the accurate discrimination of pathophysiological regions in injured skeletal muscle is inadequate, underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation on primary trauma and trauma adjacent muscle area remain elusive. For discrimination of these pathophysiological regions, formalin-fixed injured skeletal muscle tissue was analyzed by MALDI imaging MS. By using two computational evaluation strategies, a supervised approach (ClinProTools) and unsupervised segmentation (SCiLS Lab), characteristic m/z species could be assigned to primary trauma and trauma adjacent muscle regions. Using "bottom-up" MS for protein identification and validation of results by immunohistochemistry, we could identify two proteins, skeletal muscle alpha actin and carbonic anhydrase III, which discriminate between the secondary damage on adjacent tissue and the primary traumatized muscle area. Our results underscore the high potential of MALDI imaging MS to describe the spatial characteristics of pathophysiological changes in muscle.
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Neanderthal ancestry drives evolution of lipid catabolism in contemporary Europeans.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in contemporary humans. Here we show that while the genome-wide frequency of Neanderthal-like sites is approximately constant across all contemporary out-of-Africa populations, genes involved in lipid catabolism contain more than threefold excess of such sites in contemporary humans of European descent. Evolutionally, these genes show significant association with signatures of recent positive selection in the contemporary European, but not Asian or African populations. Functionally, the excess of Neanderthal-like sites in lipid catabolism genes can be linked with a greater divergence of lipid concentrations and enzyme expression levels within this pathway, seen in contemporary Europeans, but not in the other populations. We conclude that sequence variants that evolved in Neanderthals may have given a selective advantage to anatomically modern humans that settled in the same geographical areas.
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The sucrose-trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P) nexus: specificity and mechanisms of sucrose signalling by Tre6P.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Trehalose 6-phosphate (Tre6P), the intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, has a profound influence on plant metabolism, growth, and development. It has been proposed that Tre6P acts as a signal of sugar availability and is possibly specific for sucrose status. Short-term sugar-feeding experiments were carried out with carbon-starved Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings grown in axenic shaking liquid cultures. Tre6P increased when seedlings were exogenously supplied with sucrose, or with hexoses that can be metabolized to sucrose, such as glucose and fructose. Conditional correlation analysis and inhibitor experiments indicated that the hexose-induced increase in Tre6P was an indirect response dependent on conversion of the hexose sugars to sucrose. Tre6P content was affected by changes in nitrogen status, but this response was also attributable to parallel changes in sucrose. The sucrose-induced rise in Tre6P was unaffected by cordycepin but almost completely blocked by cycloheximide, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is necessary for the response. There was a strong correlation between Tre6P and sucrose even in lines that constitutively express heterologous trehalose-phosphate synthase or trehalose-phosphate phosphatase, although the Tre6P:sucrose ratio was shifted higher or lower, respectively. It is proposed that the Tre6P:sucrose ratio is a critical parameter for the plant and forms part of a homeostatic mechanism to maintain sucrose levels within a range that is appropriate for the cell type and developmental stage of the plant.
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Comprehensive dissection of spatiotemporal metabolic shifts in primary, secondary, and lipid metabolism during developmental senescence in arabidopsis.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Developmental senescence is a coordinated physiological process in plants and is critical for nutrient redistribution from senescing leaves to newly formed sink organs, including young leaves and developing seeds. Progress has been made concerning the genes involved and the regulatory networks controlling senescence. The resulting complex metabolome changes during senescence have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive profiling of metabolites, including pigments, lipids, sugars, amino acids, organic acids, nutrient ions, and secondary metabolites, and determined approximately 260 metabolites at distinct stages in leaves and siliques during senescence in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). This provided an extensive catalog of metabolites and their spatiotemporal cobehavior with progressing senescence. Comparison with silique data provides clues to source-sink relations. Furthermore, we analyzed the metabolite distribution within single leaves along the basipetal sink-source transition trajectory during senescence. Ceramides, lysolipids, aromatic amino acids, branched chain amino acids, and stress-induced amino acids accumulated, and an imbalance of asparagine/aspartate, glutamate/glutamine, and nutrient ions in the tip region of leaves was detected. Furthermore, the spatiotemporal distribution of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates was already changed in the presenescent leaves, and glucosinolates, raffinose, and galactinol accumulated in the base region of leaves with preceding senescence. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the metabolic shifts occurring during developmental and environmentally induced senescence. As senescence processes are correlated to crop yield, the metabolome data and the approach provided here can serve as a blueprint for the analysis of traits and conditions linking crop yield and senescence.
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Long-distance signaling in bypass1 mutants: bioassay development reveals the bps signal to be a metabolite.
Mol Plant
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Root-to-shoot signaling is used by plants to coordinate shoot development with the conditions experienced by the roots. A mobile and biologically active compound, the bps signal, is over-produced in roots of an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant called bypass1 (bps1), and might also be a normally produced signaling molecule in wild-type plants. Our goal is to identify the bps signal chemically, which will then allow us to assess its production in normal plants. To identify any signaling molecule, a bioassay is required, and here we describe the development of a robust, simple, and quantitative bioassay for the bps signal. The developed bioassay follows the growth-reducing activity of the bps signal using the pCYCB1;1::GUS cell cycle marker. Wild-type plants carrying this marker, and provided the bps signal through either grafts or metabolite extracts, showed reduced cell division. By contrast, control grafts and treatment with control extracts showed no change in pCYCB1;1::GUS expression. To determine the chemical nature of the bps signal, extracts were treated with RNase A, Proteinase K, or heat. None of these treatments diminished the activity of bps1 extracts, suggesting that the active molecule might be a metabolite. This bioassay will be useful for future biochemical fractionation and analysis directed toward bps signal identification.
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Systemic analysis of inducible target of rapamycin mutants reveal a general metabolic switch controlling growth in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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The target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway is a major regulator of growth in all eukaryotes, integrating energy, nutrient and stress signals into molecular decisions. By using large-scale MS-based metabolite profiling of primary, secondary and lipid compounds in combination with array-based transcript profiling, we show that the TOR protein not only regulates growth but also influences nutrient partitioning and central energy metabolism. The study was performed on plants exhibiting conditional down-regulation of AtTOR expression, revealing strong regulation of genes involved in pathways such as the cell cycle, cell-wall modifications and senescence, together with major changes in transcripts and metabolites of the primary and secondary metabolism. In agreement with these results, our morphological and metabolic analyses disclosed major metabolic changes leading to massive accumulations of storage lipids and starch. The implications of these data in the context of the general role of TOR in eukaryotic systems are discussed in parallel with the plant-specific aspects of TOR function. Finally, we propose a role for harnessing the plant TOR pathway by utilizing it as a potent metabolic switch, offering a possible route for biotechnological optimization of plant energy content and carbon partitioning for the production of bioenergy.
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Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites on the plant cell death suppressor Adi3 contribute to substrate phosphorylation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The tomato AGC kinase Adi3 is phosphorylated by Pdk1 for activation of its cell death suppression activity. The Pdk1 phosphorylation site for activation of Adi3 is at Ser539. However, there is at least one additional Pdk1 phosphorylation site on Adi3 that has an unknown function. Here we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana sequence homologue of Adi3 termed AGC1-3. Two Pdk1 phosphorylation sites were identified on AGC1-3, activation site Ser596 and Ser269, and by homology Ser212 on Adi3 was identified as a second Pdk1 phosphorylation site. While Ser212 is not required for Adi3 autophosphorylation, Ser212 was shown to be required for full phosphorylation of the Adi3 substrate Gal83.
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Metabolic analysis of adaptation to short-term changes in culture conditions of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This report describes the metabolic and lipidomic profiling of 97 low-molecular weight compounds from the primary metabolism and 124 lipid compounds of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. The metabolic profiles were created for diatoms perturbed for 24 hours with four different treatments: (I) removal of nitrogen, (II) lower iron concentration, (III) addition of sea salt, (IV) addition of carbonate to their growth media. Our results show that as early as 24 hours after nitrogen depletion significant qualitative and quantitative change in lipid composition as well as in the primary metabolism of Thalassiosira pseudonana occurs. So we can observe the accumulation of several storage lipids, namely triacylglycerides, and TCA cycle intermediates, of which citric acid increases more than 10-fold. These changes are positively correlated with expression of TCA enzymes genes. Next to the TCA cycle intermediates and storage lipid changes, we have observed decrease in N-containing lipids and primary metabolites such as amino acids. As a measure of counteracting nitrogen starvation, we have observed elevated expression levels of nitrogen uptake and amino acid biosynthetic genes. This indicates that diatoms can fast and efficiently adapt to changing environment by altering the metabolic fluxes and metabolite abundances. Especially, the accumulation of proline and the decrease of dimethylsulfoniopropionate suggest that the proline is the main osmoprotectant for the diatom in nitrogen rich conditions.
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Toward the storage metabolome: profiling the barley vacuole.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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While recent years have witnessed dramatic advances in our capacity to identify and quantify an ever-increasing number of plant metabolites, our understanding of how metabolism is spatially regulated is still far from complete. In an attempt to partially address this question, we studied the storage metabolome of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) vacuole. For this purpose, we used highly purified vacuoles isolated by silicon oil centrifugation and compared their metabolome with that found in the mesophyll protoplast from which they were derived. Using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform-mass spectrometry, we were able to detect 59 (primary) metabolites for which we know the exact chemical structure and a further 200 (secondary) metabolites for which we have strong predicted chemical formulae. Taken together, these metabolites comprise amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, shikimate pathway intermediates, vitamins, phenylpropanoids, and flavonoids. Of the 259 putative metabolites, some 12 were found exclusively in the vacuole and 34 were found exclusively in the protoplast, while 213 were common in both samples. When analyzed on a quantitative basis, however, there is even more variance, with more than 60 of these compounds being present above the detection limit of our protocols. The combined data were also analyzed with respect to the tonoplast proteome in an attempt to infer specificities of the transporter proteins embedded in this membrane. Following comparison with recent observations made using nonaqueous fractionation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we discuss these data in the context of current models of metabolic compartmentation in plants.
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Corn hybrids display lower metabolite variability and complex metabolite inheritance patterns.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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We conducted a comparative analysis of the root metabolome of six parental maize inbred lines and their 14 corresponding hybrids showing fresh weight heterosis. We demonstrated that the metabolic profiles not only exhibit distinct features for each hybrid line compared with its parental lines, but also separate reciprocal hybrids. Reconstructed metabolic networks, based on robust correlations between metabolic profiles, display a higher network density in most hybrids as compared with the corresponding inbred lines. With respect to metabolite level inheritance, additive, dominant and overdominant patterns are observed with no specific overrepresentation. Despite the observed complexity of the inheritance pattern, for the majority of metabolites the variance observed in all 14 hybrids is lower compared with inbred lines. Deviations of metabolite levels from the average levels of the hybrids correlate negatively with biomass, which could be applied for developing predictors of hybrid performance based on characteristics of metabolite patterns.
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Elemental formula annotation of polar and lipophilic metabolites using (13) C, (15) N and (34) S isotope labelling, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The unbiased and comprehensive analysis of metabolites in any organism presents a major challenge if proper peak annotation and unambiguous assignment of the biological origin of the peaks are required. Here we provide a comprehensive multi-isotope labelling-based strategy using fully labelled (13) C, (15) N and (34) S plant tissues, in combination with a fractionated metabolite extraction protocol. The extraction procedure allows for the simultaneous extraction of polar, semi-polar and hydrophobic metabolites, as well as for the extraction of proteins and starch. After labelling and extraction, the metabolites and lipids were analysed using a high-resolution mass spectrometer providing accurate MS and all-ion fragmentation data, providing an unambiguous readout for every detectable isotope-labelled peak. The isotope labelling assisted peak annotation process employed can be applied in either an automated database-dependent or a database-independent analysis of the plant polar metabolome and lipidome. As a proof of concept, the developed methods and technologies were applied and validated using Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root extracts. Along with a large repository of assigned elemental compositions, which is provided, we show, using selected examples, the accuracy and reliability of the developed workflow.
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Ultra performance liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of plant lipids.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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Holistic analysis of lipids is becoming increasingly popular in the life sciences. Recently, several interesting, mass spectrometry-based studies have been conducted, especially in plant biology. However, while great advancements have been made we are still far from detecting all the lipids species in an organism. In this study we developed an ultra performance liquid chromatography-based method using a high resolution, accurate mass, mass spectrometer for the comprehensive profiling of more than 260 polar and non-polar Arabidopsis thaliana leaf lipids. The method is fully compatible to the commonly used lipid extraction protocols and provides a viable alternative to the commonly used direct infusion-based shotgun lipidomics approaches. The whole process is described in detail and compared to alternative lipidomic approaches. Next to the developed method we also introduce an in-house developed database search software (GoBioSpace), which allows one to perform targeted or un-targeted lipidomic and metabolomic analysis on mass spectrometric data of every kind.
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Analysis of the compartmentalized metabolome - a validation of the non-aqueous fractionation technique.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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With the development of high-throughput metabolic technologies, a plethora of primary and secondary compounds have been detected in the plant cell. However, there are still major gaps in our understanding of the plant metabolome. This is especially true with regards to the compartmental localization of these identified metabolites. Non-aqueous fractionation (NAF) is a powerful technique for the determination of subcellular metabolite distributions in eukaryotic cells, and it has become the method of choice to analyze the distribution of a large number of metabolites concurrently. However, the NAF technique produces a continuous gradient of metabolite distributions, not discrete assignments. Resolution of these distributions requires computational analyses based on marker molecules to resolve compartmental localizations. In this article we focus on expanding the computational analysis of data derived from NAF. Along with an experimental workflow, we describe the critical steps in NAF experiments and how computational approaches can aid in assessing the quality and robustness of the derived data. For this, we have developed and provide a new version (v1.2) of the BestFit command line tool for calculation and evaluation of subcellular metabolite distributions. Furthermore, using both simulated and experimental data we show the influence on estimated subcellular distributions by modulating important parameters, such as the number of fractions taken or which marker molecule is selected. Finally, we discuss caveats and benefits of NAF analysis in the context of the compartmentalized metabolome.
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Rapid metabolic evolution in human prefrontal cortex.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Human evolution is characterized by the rapid expansion of brain size and drastic increase in cognitive capabilities. It has long been suggested that these changes were accompanied by modifications of brain metabolism. Indeed, human-specific changes on gene expression or amino acid sequence were reported for a number of metabolic genes, but actual metabolite measurements in humans and apes have remained scarce. Here, we investigate concentrations of more than 100 metabolites in the prefrontal and cerebellar cortex in 49 humans, 11 chimpanzees, and 45 rhesus macaques of different ages using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We show that the brain metabolome undergoes substantial changes, both ontogenetically and evolutionarily: 88% of detected metabolites show significant concentration changes with age, whereas 77% of these metabolic changes differ significantly among species. Although overall metabolic divergence reflects phylogenetic relationships among species, we found a fourfold acceleration of metabolic changes in prefrontal cortex compared with cerebellum in the human lineage. These human-specific metabolic changes are paralleled by changes in expression patterns of the corresponding enzymes, and affect pathways involved in synaptic transmission, memory, and learning.
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Gibberellin biosynthesis and signalling during development of the strawberry receptacle.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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The enlargement of receptacle cells during strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit development is a critical factor determining fruit size, with the increase in cell expansion being one of the most important physiological processes regulated by the phytohormone gibberellin (GA). Here, we studied the role of GA during strawberry fruit development by analyzing the endogenous content of bioactive GAs and the expression of key components of GA signalling and metabolism. Bioactive GA(1) , GA(3) and GA(4) were monitored during fruit development, with the content of GA(4) being extremely high in the receptacle, peaking at the white stage of development. •Genes with high homology to genes encoding GA pathway components, including receptors (FaGID1(GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1)b and FaGID1c), DELLA (FaRGA(REPRESSOR OF GA) and FaGAI(GA-INSENSITIVE)), and enzymes involved in GA biosynthesis (FaGA3ox) and catabolism (FaGA2ox), were identified, and their expression in different tissues and developmental stages of strawberry fruit was studied in detail. The expression of all of these genes showed a stage-specific pattern during fruit development and was highest in the receptacle. FaGID1c bound GA in vitro, interacted with FaRGA in vitro and in vivo, and increased GA responses when ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis. This study thus reveals key elements of GA responses in strawberry and points to a critical role for GA in the development of the receptacle.
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Analysis of short-term changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana glycerolipidome in response to temperature and light.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Although the influence of temperature, particularly cold, on lipid metabolism is well established, previous studies have focused on long-term responses and have largely ignored the influence of other interacting environmental factors. Here, we present a time-resolved analysis of the early responses of the glycerolipidome of Arabidopsis thaliana plants exposed to various temperatures (4, 21 and 32°C) and light intensities (darkness, 75, 150 and 400 ?mol m(-2) s(-1)), including selected combinations. Using a UPLC/MS-based lipidomic platform, we reproducibly measured most glycerolipid species reported for Arabidopsis leaves, including the classes phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) phosphatidylglycerol (PG), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG), digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG). In addition to known lipids, we have identified previously unobserved compounds, such as 36-C PGs and eukaryotic phospholipids containing 16:3 acyl chains. Occurrence of these lipid species implies the action of new biochemical mechanisms. Exposition of Arabidopsis plants to various light and temperature regimes results in two major effects. The first is the dependence of the saturation level of PC and MGDG pools on light intensity, likely arising from light regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis. The second concerns an immediate decrease in unsaturated species of PG at high-temperature conditions (32°C), which could mark the first stages of adaptation to heat-stress conditions. Observed changes are discussed in the context of current knowledge, and new hypotheses have been formulated concerning the early stages of the plant response to changing light and temperature conditions.
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A topological map of the compartmentalized Arabidopsis thaliana leaf metabolome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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The extensive subcellular compartmentalization of metabolites and metabolism in eukaryotic cells is widely acknowledged and represents a key factor of metabolic activity and functionality. In striking contrast, the knowledge of actual compartmental distribution of metabolites from experimental studies is surprisingly low. However, a precise knowledge of, possibly all, metabolites and their subcellular distributions remains a key prerequisite for the understanding of any cellular function.
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Demethylation of oligogalacturonides by FaPE1 in the fruits of the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca triggers metabolic and transcriptional changes associated with defence and development of the fruit.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Ectopic expression of the strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) gene FaPE1 encoding pectin methyl esterase produced in the wild species Fragaria vesca partially demethylated oligogalacturonides (OGAs), which conferred partial resistance of ripe fruits to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Analyses of metabolic and transcriptional changes in the receptacle of the transgenic fruits revealed channelling of metabolites to aspartate and aromatic amino acids as well as phenolics, flavanones, and sesquiterpenoids, which was in parallel with the increased expression of some genes related to plant defence. The results illustrate the changes associated with resistance to B. cinerea in the transgenic F. vesca. These changes were accompanied by a significant decrease in the auxin content of the receptacle of the ripe fruits of transgenic F. vesca, and enhanced expression of some auxin-repressed genes. The role of these OGAs in fruit development was revealed by the larger size of the ripe fruits in transgenic F. vesca. When taken together these results show that in cultivated F. ananassa FaPE1 participates in the de-esterification of pectins and the generation of partially demethylated OGAs, which might reinforce the plant defence system and play an active role in fruit development.
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Sample amount alternatives for data adjustment in comparative cyanobacterial metabolomics.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Here we describe an integrative protocol for metabolite extraction and the measurement of three cellular constituents, chlorophyll a, total protein, and glycogen from the same small volume of cyanobacterial cultures that can be used as alternative sample amount parameters for data adjustment in comparative metabolome studies. We conducted recovery experiments to assess the robustness and reproducibility of the measurements obtained for the cellular constituents. Also, we have chosen three profile-intrinsic parameters derived from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data in order to test their utility for spectral data adjustment. To demonstrate the relevance of these six parameters, we analyzed three cyanobacteria with greatly different morphologies, comprising a unicellular, a filamentous, and a filamentous biofilm-forming strain. Comparative analysis of GC/MS data from cultures grown under standardized conditions indicated that adjustment of the corresponding metabolite profiles by any of the measured cellular constituents or chosen intrinsic parameters led to similar results with respect to sample cohesion and strain separation. Twenty-one metabolites significantly enriched for the carbohydrate and amine superclasses are mainly responsible for strain separation, with a majority of the remaining metabolites contributing to sample group cohesion. Therefore, we conclude that any of the parameters tested in this study can be used for spectral data adjustment of cyanobacterial strains grown under controlled conditions. However, their use for the differentiation between different stresses or physiological states within a strain remains to be shown. Interestingly, both the adjustment approaches and statistical tests applied effected the detection of metabolic differences and their patterns among the analyzed strains.
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Metabolomics unravel contrasting effects of biodiversity on the performance of individual plant species.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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In spite of evidence for positive diversity-productivity relationships increasing plant diversity has highly variable effects on the performance of individual plant species, but the mechanisms behind these differential responses are far from being understood. To gain deeper insights into the physiological responses of individual plant species to increasing plant diversity we performed systematic untargeted metabolite profiling on a number of herbs derived from a grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). The Jena Experiment comprises plots of varying species number (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60) and number and composition of functional groups (1 to 4; grasses, legumes, tall herbs, small herbs). In this study the metabolomes of two tall-growing herbs (legume: Medicago x varia; non-legume: Knautia arvensis) and three small-growing herbs (legume: Lotus corniculatus; non-legumes: Bellis perennis, Leontodon autumnalis) in plant communities of increasing diversity were analyzed. For metabolite profiling we combined gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) and UPLC coupled to FT-ICR-MS (LC-FT-MS) analyses from the same sample. This resulted in several thousands of detected m/z-features. ANOVA and multivariate statistical analysis revealed 139 significantly changed metabolites (30 by GC-TOF-MS and 109 by LC-FT-MS). The small-statured plants L. autumnalis, B. perennis and L. corniculatus showed metabolic response signatures to increasing plant diversity and species richness in contrast to tall-statured plants. Key-metabolites indicated C- and N-limitation for the non-leguminous small-statured species B. perennis and L. autumnalis, while the metabolic signature of the small-statured legume L. corniculatus indicated facilitation by other legumes. Thus, metabolomic analysis provided evidence for negative effects of resource competition on the investigated small-statured herbs that might mechanistically explain their decreasing performance with increasing plant diversity. In contrast, taller species often becoming dominant in mixed plant communities did not show modified metabolite profiles in response to altered resource availability with increasing plant diversity. Taken together, our study demonstrates that metabolite profiling is a strong diagnostic tool to assess individual metabolic phenotypes in response to plant diversity and ecophysiological adjustment.
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Discrimination of wine attributes by metabolome analysis.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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The chemical composition of any wine sample contains numerous small molecules largely derived from three different sources: the grape berry, the yeast strain used for fermentation, and the containers used for wine making and storage. The combined sum of these small molecules present in the wine, therefore, might account for all wine specific features such as cultivar, vintage, origin, and quality. Still, most wine authentication procedures rely either on subjective human measures or if they are based on measurable features, they include a limited number of compounds. In this study, which is based on an untargeted UPLC-FT-ICR-MS-based approach, we provide data, demonstrating that unbiased and objective analytical chemistry in combination with multivariate statistical methods allows to reproducible classify/distinguish wine attributes like variety, origin, vintage, and quality.
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Intersection of the tocopherol and plastoquinol metabolic pathways at the plastoglobule.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
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Plastoglobules, lipid-protein bodies in the stroma of plant chloroplasts, are enriched in non-polar lipids, in particular prenyl quinols. In the present study we show that, in addition to the thylakoids, plastoglobules also contain a considerable proportion of the plastidial PQ-9 (plastoquinol-9), the redox component of photosystem II, and of the cyclized product of PQ-9, PC-8 (plastochromanol-8), a tocochromanol with a structure similar to gamma-tocopherol and gamma-tocotrienol, but with a C-40 prenyl side chain. PC-8 formation was abolished in the Arabidopsis thaliana tocopherol cyclase mutant vte1, but accumulated in VTE1-overexpressing plants, in agreement with a role of tocopherol cyclase (VTE1) in PC-8 synthesis. VTE1 overexpression resulted in the proliferation of the number of plastoglobules which occurred in the form of clusters in the transgenic lines. Simultaneous overexpression of VTE1 and of the methyltransferase VTE4 resulted in the accumulation of a compound tentatively identified as 5-methyl-PC-8, the methylated form of PC-8. The results of the present study suggest that the existence of a plastoglobular pool of PQ-9, along with the partial conversion of PQ-9 into PC-8, might represent a mechanism for the regulation of the antioxidant content in thylakoids and of the PQ-9 pool that is available for photosynthesis.
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SlCCD7 controls strigolactone biosynthesis, shoot branching and mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoid formation in tomato.
Plant J.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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The regulation of shoot branching is an essential determinant of plant architecture, integrating multiple external and internal signals. One of the signaling pathways regulating branching involves the MAX (more axillary branches) genes. Two of the genes within this pathway, MAX3/CCD7 and MAX4/CCD8, encode carotenoid cleavage enzymes involved in generating a branch-inhibiting hormone, recently identified as strigolactone. Here, we report the cloning of SlCCD7 from tomato. As in other species, SlCCD7 encodes an enzyme capable of cleaving cyclic and acyclic carotenoids. However, the SlCCD7 protein has 30 additional amino acids of unknown function at its C terminus. Tomato plants expressing a SlCCD7 antisense construct display greatly increased branching. To reveal the underlying changes of this strong physiological phenotype, a metabolomic screen was conducted. With the exception of a reduction of stem amino acid content in the transgenic lines, no major changes were observed. In contrast, targeted analysis of the same plants revealed significantly decreased levels of strigolactone. There were no significant changes in root carotenoids, indicating that relatively little substrate is required to produce the bioactive strigolactones. The germination rate of Orobanche ramosa seeds was reduced by up to 90% on application of extract from the SlCCD7 antisense lines, compared with the wild type. Additionally, upon mycorrhizal colonization, C(13) cyclohexenone and C(14) mycorradicin apocarotenoid levels were greatly reduced in the roots of the antisense lines, implicating SlCCD7 in their biosynthesis. This work demonstrates the diverse roles of MAX3/CCD7 in strigolactone production, shoot branching, source-sink interactions and production of arbuscular mycorrhiza-induced apocarotenoids.
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13C isotope-labeled metabolomes allowing for improved compound annotation and relative quantification in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic research.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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Metabolomics is rapidly becoming an integral part of many life science studies ranging from disease diagnostics to systems biology. However, a number of problems such as the discrimination of biological from non-biological signals, efficient compound annotation, and reliable quantification are still not satisfactorily solved in untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics research. Extending our previous work on direct infusion-based metabolomics, we here describe a (13)C isotope labeling strategy in combination with an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry-based approach (UPLC-FTICR MS) which provides a technological platform offering solutions to a number of the above-mentioned problems. We further demonstrate that the use of a fully labeled metabolome is not only beneficial for high end mass spectrometers, such as that used in this study but also provides a considerable improvement to every other mass spectrometry-based metabolomic platform.
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RNA interference of LIN5 in tomato confirms its role in controlling Brix content, uncovers the influence of sugars on the levels of fruit hormones, and demonstrates the importance of sucrose cleavage for normal fruit development and fertility.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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It has been previously demonstrated, utilizing intraspecific introgression lines, that Lycopersicum Invertase5 (LIN5), which encodes a cell wall invertase, controls total soluble solids content in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The physiological role of this protein, however, has not yet been directly studied, since evaluation of data obtained from the introgression lines is complicated by the fact that they additionally harbor many other wild species alleles. To allow a more precise comparison, we generated transgenic tomato in which we silenced the expression of LIN5 using the RNA interference approach. The transformants were characterized by an altered flower and fruit morphology, displaying increased numbers of petals and sepals per flower, an increased rate of fruit abortion, and a reduction in fruit size. Evaluation of the mature fruit revealed that the transformants were characterized by a reduction of seed number per plant. Furthermore, detailed physiological analysis revealed that the transformants displayed aberrant pollen morphology and a reduction in the rate of pollen tube elongation. Metabolite profiling of ovaries and green and red fruit revealed that metabolic changes in the transformants were largely confined to sugar metabolism, whereas transcript and hormone profiling revealed broad changes both in the hormones themselves and in transcripts encoding their biosynthetic enzymes and response elements. These results are discussed in the context of current understanding of the role of sugar during the development of tomato fruit, with particular focus given to its impact on hormone levels and organ morphology.
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PROTEOMER: A workflow-optimized laboratory information management system for 2-D electrophoresis-centered proteomics.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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In recent years proteomics became increasingly important to functional genomics. Although a large amount of data is generated by high throughput large-scale techniques, a connection of these mostly heterogeneous data from different analytical platforms and of different experiments is limited. Data mining procedures and algorithms are often insufficient to extract meaningful results from large datasets and therefore limit the exploitation of the generated biological information. In our proteomic core facility, which almost exclusively focuses on 2-DE/MS-based proteomics, we developed a proteomic database custom tailored to our needs aiming at connecting MS protein identification information to 2-DE derived protein expression profiles. The tools developed should not only enable an automatic evaluation of single experiments, but also link multiple 2-DE experiments with MS-data on different levels and thereby helping to create a comprehensive network of our proteomics data. Therefore the key feature of our "PROTEOMER" database is its high cross-referencing capacity, enabling integration of a wide range of experimental data. To illustrate the workflow and utility of the system, two practical examples are provided to demonstrate that proper data cross-referencing can transform information into biological knowledge.
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Differential remodeling of the lipidome during cold acclimation in natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Plant J.
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Freezing injury is a major factor limiting the geographical distribution of plant species and the growth and yield of crop plants. Plants from temperate climates are able to increase their freezing tolerance during exposure to low but non-freezing temperatures in a process termed cold acclimation. Damage to cellular membranes is the major cause of freezing injury in plants, and membrane lipid composition is strongly modified during cold acclimation. Forward and reverse genetic approaches have been used to probe the role of specific lipid-modifying enzymes in the freezing tolerance of plants. In the present paper we describe an alternative ecological genomics approach that relies on the natural genetic variation within a species. Arabidopsis thaliana has a wide geographical range throughout the Northern Hemisphere with significant natural variation in freezing tolerance that was used for a comparative analysis of the lipidomes of 15 Arabidopsis accessions using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform mass spectrometry, allowing the detection of 180 lipid species. After 14?days of cold acclimation at 4°C the plants from most accessions had accumulated massive amounts of storage lipids, with most of the changes in long-chain unsaturated triacylglycerides, while the total amount of membrane lipids was only slightly changed. Nevertheless, major changes in the relative amounts of different membrane lipids were also evident. The relative abundance of several lipid species was highly correlated with the freezing tolerance of the accessions, allowing the identification of possible marker lipids for plant freezing tolerance.
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Proteaceae from severely phosphorus-impoverished soils extensively replace phospholipids with galactolipids and sulfolipids during leaf development to achieve a high photosynthetic phosphorus-use-efficiency.
New Phytol.
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Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on severely phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils. They have very low leaf P concentrations, but relatively fast rates of photosynthesis, thus exhibiting extremely high photosynthetic phosphorus-use-efficiency (PPUE). Although the mechanisms underpinning their high PPUE remain unknown, one possibility is that these species may be able to replace phospholipids with nonphospholipids during leaf development, without compromising photosynthesis. For six Proteaceae species, we measured soil and leaf P concentrations and rates of photosynthesis of both young expanding and mature leaves. We also assessed the investment in galactolipids, sulfolipids and phospholipids in young and mature leaves, and compared these results with those on Arabidopsis thaliana, grown under both P-sufficient and P-deficient conditions. In all Proteaceae species, phospholipid levels strongly decreased during leaf development, whereas those of galactolipids and sulfolipids strongly increased. Photosynthetic rates increased from young to mature leaves. This shows that these species extensively replace phospholipids with nonphospholipids during leaf development, without compromising photosynthesis. A considerably less pronounced shift was observed in A. thaliana. Our results clearly show that a low investment in phospholipids, relative to nonphospholipids, offers a partial explanation for a high photosynthetic rate per unit leaf P in Proteaceae adapted to P-impoverished soils.
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High-resolution plant metabolomics: from mass spectral features to metabolites and from whole-cell analysis to subcellular metabolite distributions.
Plant J.
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The main goal of metabolomics is the comprehensive qualitative and quantitative analysis of the time- and space-resolved distribution of all metabolites present in a given biological system. Because metabolite structures, in contrast to transcript and protein sequences, are not directly deducible from the genomic DNA sequence, the massive increase in genomic information is only indirectly of use to metabolomics, leaving compound annotation as a key problem to be solved by the available analytical techniques. Furthermore, as metabolites vary widely in both concentration and chemical behavior, there is no single analytical procedure allowing the unbiased and comprehensive structural elucidation and determination of all metabolites present in a given biological system. In this review the different approaches for targeted and non-targeted metabolomics analysis will be described with special emphasis on mass spectrometry-based techniques. Particular attention is given to approaches which can be employed for the annotation of unknown compounds. In the second part, the different experimental approaches aimed at tissue-specific or subcellular analysis of metabolites are discussed including a range of non-mass spectrometry based technologies.
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Arabidopsis poly(A) polymerase PAPS1 limits founder-cell recruitment to organ primordia and suppresses the salicylic acid-independent immune response downstream of EDS1/PAD4.
Plant J.
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Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs by poly(A) polymerase (PAPS) is a critical process in eukaryotic gene expression. Like in vertebrates, plant genomes encode several isoforms of canonical nuclear PAPS enzymes. In Arabidopsis thaliana these isoforms are functionally specialized, with PAPS1 affecting both organ growth and immune response, at least in part by the preferential polyadenylation of subsets of pre-mRNAs. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite effects of PAPS1 on leaf and flower growth reflect the different identities of these organs, identifying a role for PAPS1 in the elusive connection between organ-identity and growth patterns. The overgrowth of paps1 mutant petals is due to increased recruitment of founder cells into early organ primordia, suggesting that PAPS1 activity plays unique roles influencing organ growth. By contrast, the leaf phenotype of paps1 mutants is dominated by a constitutive immune response that leads to increased resistance to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis and reflects activation of the salicylic acid-independent signalling pathway downstream of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)/PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT4 (PAD4). These findings provide insight into the developmental and physiological basis of the functional specialization amongst plant PAPS isoforms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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