To identify novel stimulators of the innate immune system, we constructed a panel of eight HEK293 cell lines double positive for human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and an NF-?B-inducible reporter gene. Screening of a large variety of compounds and cellular extracts detected a TLR3-activating compound in a microsomal yeast extract. Fractionation of this extract identified an RNA molecule of 4.6 kb, named nucleic acid band 2 (NAB2), that was sufficient to confer the activation of TLR3. Digests with single- and double-strand-specific RNases showed the double-strand nature of this RNA, and its sequence was found to be identical to that of the genome of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) L-BC virus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A large-scale process of production and purification of this RNA was established on the basis of chemical cell lysis and dsRNA-specific chromatography. NAB2 complexed with the cationic lipid Lipofectin but neither NAB2 nor Lipofectin alone induced the secretion of interleukin-12(p70) [IL-12(p70)], alpha interferon, gamma interferon-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein 1?, or IL-6 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. While NAB2 activated TLR3, Lipofectin-stabilized NAB2 also signaled via the cytoplasmic sensor for RNA recognition MDA-5. A significant increase of RMA-MUC1 tumor rejection and survival was observed in C57BL/6 mice after prophylactic vaccination with MUC1-encoding modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and NAB2-Lipofectin. This combination of immunotherapies strongly increased at the injection sites the percentage of infiltrating natural killer (NK) cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), cell types which can modulate innate and adaptive immune responses.
Intracellular delivery of functionally active proteins into cells is emerging as a novel strategy for research and therapeutic applications. Here, we present the properties of a self-assembling pyridylthiourea-modified polyethylenimine (?PEI), which interacts with proteins and promotes their delivery into the cytosol of mammalian cells. In aqueous medium at pH7.4, self-association of ?PEI in the presence of green fluorescent proteins (GFP) leads to supramolecular protein-entrapped assemblies. These assemblies protect GFP from losing its fluorescence upon pH variation and assist delivery/translocation into the cytosol of mammalian cells via the endocytic pathway. The scope of application of this delivery system was extended to antibodies against intracellular targets as illustrated using a monoclonal antibody directed against the HPV-16 viral E6 oncoprotein and an antibody directed against the threonine-927 phosporylation site of the EG5 kinesin spindle protein. The ?PEI-mediated delivery of native anti-E6 antibodies or anti-E6 antibodies equipped with a nuclear localization signal (NLS), led to regeneration of the p53 tumor suppression protein in E6-transformed CaSki cells. Delivery of functionally active anti-EG5 antibodies, with the same polymer, reduced HeLa cell viability and appeared to perturb, as expected, chromosome segregation during mitosis. Altogether, these results provide an easy to use delivery system for extending the scope of application of antibodies for epitope recognition within living cells and may provide novel opportunities for selective interference of cell function by a steric hindrance modality.
Type 2A DNA topoisomerases (Topo2A) remodel DNA topology during replication, transcription and chromosome segregation. These multisubunit enzymes catalyze the transport of a double-stranded DNA through a transient break formed in another duplex. The bacterial DNA gyrase, a target for broad-spectrum antibiotics, is the sole Topo2A enzyme able to introduce negative supercoils. We reveal here for the first time the architecture of the full-length Thermus thermophilus DNA gyrase alone and in a cleavage complex with a 155 bp DNA duplex in the presence of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, using cryo-electron microscopy. The structural organization of the subunits of the full-length DNA gyrase points to a central role of the ATPase domain acting like a crossover trap that may help to sequester the DNA positive crossover before strand passage. Our structural data unveil how DNA is asymmetrically wrapped around the gyrase-specific C-terminal ?-pinwheel domains and guided to introduce negative supercoils through cooperativity between the ATPase and ?-pinwheel domains. The overall conformation of the drug-induced DNA binding-cleavage complex also suggests that ciprofloxacin traps a DNA pre-transport conformation.
Picking images of particles in cryo-electron micrographs is an important step in solving the 3D structures of large macromolecular assemblies. However, in order to achieve sub-nanometre resolution it is often necessary to capture and process many thousands or even several millions of 2D particle images. Thus, a computational bottleneck in reaching high resolution is the accurate and automatic picking of particles from raw cryo-electron micrographs.
Most essential functions in eukaryotic cells are catalyzed by complex molecular machines built of many subunits. To fully understand their biological function in health and disease, it is imperative to study these machines in their entirety. The provision of many essential multiprotein complexes of higher eukaryotes including humans, can be a considerable challenge, as low abundance and heterogeneity often rule out their extraction from native source material. The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), specifically tailored for multiprotein complex production, has proven itself to be uniquely suited for overcoming this impeding bottleneck. Here we highlight recent major achievements in multiprotein complex structure research that were catalyzed by this versatile recombinant complex expression tool.
The initiation of gene transcription by RNA polymerase II is regulated by a plethora of proteins in human cells. The first general transcription factor to bind gene promoters is transcription factor IID (TFIID). TFIID triggers pre-initiation complex formation, functions as a coactivator by interacting with transcriptional activators and reads epigenetic marks. TFIID is a megadalton-sized multiprotein complex composed of TATA-box-binding protein (TBP) and 13 TBP-associated factors (TAFs). Despite its crucial role, the detailed architecture and assembly mechanism of TFIID remain elusive. Histone fold domains are prevalent in TAFs, and histone-like tetramer and octamer structures have been proposed in TFIID. A functional core-TFIID subcomplex was revealed in Drosophila nuclei, consisting of a subset of TAFs (TAF4, TAF5, TAF6, TAF9 and TAF12). These core subunits are thought to be present in two copies in holo-TFIID, in contrast to TBP and other TAFs that are present in a single copy, conveying a transition from symmetry to asymmetry in the TFIID assembly pathway. Here we present the structure of human core-TFIID determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 11.6?Å resolution. Our structure reveals a two-fold symmetric, interlaced architecture, with pronounced protrusions, that accommodates all conserved structural features of the TAFs including the histone folds. We further demonstrate that binding of one TAF8-TAF10 complex breaks the original symmetry of core-TFIID. We propose that the resulting asymmetric structure serves as a functional scaffold to nucleate holo-TFIID assembly, by accreting one copy each of the remaining TAFs and TBP.
Integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into the human genome is catalyzed by the viral integrase (IN) protein. Several studies have shown the importance of cellular cofactors that interact with integrase and affect viral integration and infectivity. In this study, we produced a stable complex between HIV-1 integrase, viral U5 DNA, the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 and the integrase binding domain of INI1 (INI1-IBD), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor. The stoichiometry of the IN/LEDGF/INI1-IBD/DNA complex components was found to be 4/2/2/2 by mass spectrometry and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. Functional assays showed that INI1-IBD inhibits the 3 processing reaction but does not interfere with specific viral DNA binding. Integration assays demonstrate that INI1-IBD decreases the amount of integration events but inhibits by-product formation such as donor/donor or linear full site integration molecules. Cryo-electron microscopy locates INI1-IBD within the cellular DNA binding site of the IN/LEDGF complex, constraining the highly flexible integrase in a stable conformation. Taken together, our results suggest that INI1 could stabilize the PIC in the host cell, by maintaining integrase in a stable constrained conformation which prevents non-specific interactions and auto integration on the route to its integration site within nucleosomes, while LEDGF organizes and stabilizes an active integrase tetramer suitable for specific vDNA integration. Moreover, our results provide the basis for a novel type of integrase inhibitor (conformational inhibitor) representing a potential new strategy for use in human therapy.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in ataxin-7, a subunit of the SAGA coactivator, which leads to progressive neuronal dysfunction and cell death in cerebellum, brainstem and retina. Increased nuclear volume, chromatin decondensation and deregulated gene expression were reported in a SCA7 mouse model expressing mutant ataxin-7 in rod photoreceptors. We analyzed the SCA7-induced chromatin reorganization by immunogold labeling, stereology, electron tomography and showed that in SCA7 rods the most external heterochromatin ring, corresponding to facultative heterochromatin, becomes fragmented and decondensed. The amounts of acetylated histone H3 and H4 tails were found to be unchanged in nuclear extracts of SCA7 retinas and their cellular distribution appeared similar in wild-type and SCA7 mice in so far that in both cases acetylated histones are positioned at the interface between eu- and hetero-chromatin. We found that the amount of the linker histone H1c is strongly reduced in nuclear extracts of SCA7 retinas and that the cellular distribution of H1c is particularly altered in the facultative heterochromatin compartment. The decreased histone H1c content thus provides a coherent explanation for the chromatin decondensation observed in SCA7 rod photoreceptor nuclei.
Control of transcription allows the regulation of cell activity in response to external stimuli and research in the field has greatly benefited from efforts in structural biology. In this review, based on specific examples from the European SPINE2-COMPLEXES initiative, we illustrate the impact of structural proteomics on our understanding of the molecular basis of gene expression. While most atomic structures were obtained by X-ray crystallography, the impact of solution NMR and cryo-electron microscopy is far from being negligible. Here, we summarize some highlights and illustrate the importance of specific technologies on the structural biology of protein-protein or protein/DNA transcription complexes: structure/function analysis of components the eukaryotic basal and activated transcription machinery with focus on the TFIID and TFIIH multi-subunit complexes as well as transcription regulators such as members of the nuclear hormone receptor families. We also discuss molecular aspects of promoter recognition and epigenetic control of gene expression.
RNA polymerase I (Pol I) produces large ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). In this study, we show that the Rpa49 and Rpa34 Pol I subunits, which do not have counterparts in Pol II and Pol III complexes, are functionally conserved using heterospecific complementation of the human and Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologues in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of RPA49 leads to the disappearance of nucleolar structure, but nucleolar assembly can be restored by decreasing ribosomal gene copy number from 190 to 25. Statistical analysis of Miller spreads in the absence of Rpa49 demonstrates a fourfold decrease in Pol I loading rate per gene and decreased contact between adjacent Pol I complexes. Therefore, the Rpa34 and Rpa49 Pol I-specific subunits are essential for nucleolar assembly and for the high polymerase loading rate associated with frequent contact between adjacent enzymes. Together our data suggest that localized rRNA production results in spatially constrained rRNA production, which is instrumental for nucleolar assembly.
The general transcription factor IID is a key player in the early events of gene expression. TFIID is a multisubunit complex composed of the TATA binding protein and at least 13 TBP associated factors (TAfs) which recognize the promoter of protein coding genes in an activator dependant way. This review highlights recent findings on the molecular architecture and dynamics of TFIID. The structural analysis of functional transcription complexes formed by TFIID, TFIIA, activators and/or promoter DNA illuminates the faculty of TFIID to adjust to various promoter architectures and highlights its role as a platform for preinitiation complex assembly.
Muscle contraction relies on a highly organized intracellular network of membrane organelles and cytoskeleton proteins. Among the latter are the intermediate filaments (IFs), a large family of proteins mutated in more than 30 human diseases. For example, mutations in the DES gene, which encodes the IF desmin, lead to desmin-related myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Here, we demonstrate that myotubularin (MTM1), which is mutated in individuals with X-linked centronuclear myopathy (XLCNM; also known as myotubular myopathy), is a desmin-binding protein and provide evidence for direct regulation of desmin by MTM1 in vitro and in vivo. XLCNM-causing mutations in MTM1 disrupted the MTM1-desmin complex, resulting in abnormal IF assembly and architecture in muscle cells and both mouse and human skeletal muscles. Adeno-associated virus-mediated ectopic expression of WT MTM1 in Mtm1-KO muscle reestablished normal desmin expression and localization. In addition, decreased MTM1 expression and XLCNM-causing mutations induced abnormal mitochondrial positioning, shape, dynamics, and function. We therefore conclude that MTM1 is a major regulator of both the desmin cytoskeleton and mitochondria homeostasis, specifically in skeletal muscle. Defects in IF stabilization and mitochondrial dynamics appear as common physiopathological features of centronuclear myopathies and desmin-related myopathies.
Transcription of eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding genes by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is triggered by the binding of transactivating proteins to enhancer DNA, which stimulates the recruitment of general transcription factors (TFIIA, B, D, E, F, H) and Pol II on the cis-linked promoter, leading to pre-initiation complex formation and transcription. In TFIID-dependent activation pathways, this general transcription factor containing TATA-box-binding protein is first recruited on the promoter through interaction with activators and cooperates with TFIIA to form a committed pre-initiation complex. However, neither the mechanisms by which activation signals are communicated between these factors nor the structural organization of the activated pre-initiation complex are known. Here we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the architecture of nucleoprotein complexes composed of TFIID, TFIIA, the transcriptional activator Rap1 and yeast enhancer-promoter DNA. These structures revealed the mode of binding of Rap1 and TFIIA to TFIID, as well as a reorganization of TFIIA induced by its interaction with Rap1. We propose that this change in position increases the exposure of TATA-box-binding protein within TFIID, consequently enhancing its ability to interact with the promoter. A large Rap1-dependent DNA loop forms between the activator-binding site and the proximal promoter region. This loop is topologically locked by a TFIIA-Rap1 protein bridge that folds over the DNA. These results highlight the role of TFIIA in transcriptional activation, define a molecular mechanism for enhancer-promoter communication and provide structural insights into the pathways of intramolecular communication that convey transcription activation signals through the TFIID complex.
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a safe vector for high-level expression of proteins in mammalian cells. To simplify the molecular cloning procedures for shuttling genes into the MVA genome, we constructed generic destination plasmids that allow in vitro recombinational cloning (Gateway) and quick isolation of expression plasmids for any gene to be incorporated into the virus. Downstream purification steps were simplified by including N-terminal peptide tags (His, Strep, and Flag) in the generic plasmids. We demonstrate the ability to produce 10mg of beta-glucuronidase from 10(8) hamster cells and to purify tagged proteins with affinity gels.
Asporogenic and oligosporogenic Bacillus thuringiensis mutants having the ability to overproduce insecticidal crystal protein were generated by using nitrous acid (50 mg/ml), as chemical mutagenic agent. Insecticidal crystal proteins produced by asporogenic mutants remained encapsulated within the cells. Delta-endotoxin production by most of mutants was improved compared to the corresponding wild strains BNS3 and a mutant M26. The overproduction by asporogenic and oligosporogenic mutants was attributed to defect in genes involved in sporulation and to random mutations affecting cell metabolism at different pathways and delta-endotoxin synthesis. Sporeless bioinsecticides could be developed based on stable and environmentally safe Bacillus thuringiensis mutants.
The folding of genetic information into chromatin plays important regulatory roles in many nuclear processes and particularly in gene transcription. Post translational histone modifications are associated with specific chromatin condensation states and with distinct transcriptional activities. The peculiar chromatin organization of rod photoreceptor nuclei, with a large central domain of condensed chromatin surrounded by a thin border of extended chromatin was used as a model to correlate in vivo chromatin structure, histone modifications and transcriptional activity.
The study of 257 crystal-producing Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from bioinsecticide free soil samples collected from different sites in Tunisia, was performed by PCR amplification, using six primer pairs specific for cry1, cry2, cry3, cry4, and vip3A genes, by the investigation of strain plasmid pattern, crystal morphology and delta-endotoxin content and by the assessment of insecticidal activities against the lepidopteran insect Ephestia kuehniella. Based on plasmid pattern study, 11 representative strains of the different classes were subjected to morphological and molecular analyses. The comparison of the PFGE fingerprints confirmed the heterogeneity of these strains. B. thuringiensis kurstaki strains, harbouring at the same time the genes cry1A, cry2, cry1Ia, and vip3A, were the most abundant (65.4%). 33.34% of the new isolates showed particular delta-endotoxin profiles but no PCR products with the used primer sets. B. thuringiensis israelensis was shown to be also very rare among the Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolates diversity. These findings could have considerable impacts for the set up of new pest control biological agents.
The bundling state of several dry single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) samples is compared using isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). So as to get different dry samples with various bundling states, the pristine SWNTs were pretreated with a solution of an aromatic amphiphile with or without sonication, washed and dried before being studied by IMC. The bundling state of the different SWNT samples, which was first analyzed by TEM, was then correlated to the obtained IMC data thanks to the interpretation of the observed energy transfer phenomena. From our results, IMC appears to be an interesting technique for the surface probing of dry SWNT samples, and herein for the evaluation of the bundling state.
Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins bind and often provoke the degradation of many cellular proteins important for the control of cell proliferation and/or cell death. Structural studies on E6 proteins have long been hindered by the difficulties of obtaining highly concentrated samples of recombinant E6. Here, we show that recombinant E6 proteins from eight human papillomavirus strains and one bovine papillomavirus strain exist as oligomeric and multimeric species. These species were characterized using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques, including analytical gel filtration, activity assays, surface plasmon resonance, electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The characterization of E6 oligomers is facilitated by the fusion to the maltose binding protein, which slows the formation of higher-order multimeric species. The proportion of each oligomeric form varies depending on the viral strain considered. Oligomers appear to consist of folded units, which, in the case of high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus E6, retain binding to the ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein and the capacity to degrade the proapoptotic protein p53. In addition to the small-size oligomers, E6 proteins spontaneously assemble into large organized multimeric structures, a process that is accompanied by a significant increase in the beta-sheet secondary structure content. Finally, co-localisation experiments using E6 equipped with different tags further demonstrate the occurrence of E6 self-association in eukaryotic cells. The ensemble of these data suggests that self-association is a general property of E6 proteins that occurs both in vitro and in vivo and might therefore be functionally relevant.
Remarkably stable, water-soluble glyconanoring-coated SWCNTs were prepared by self organization and photopolymerization of neutral diacetylene-based glycolipids on the nanotube surface; the nanoconstructs are able to engage in specific ligand-lectin interactions in a similar way to glycoconjugates on cell membranes.
This method aims at providing structural information on protein or nucleoprotein complexes by high-resolution electron microscopy. The objective is to promote the self-assembly of the macromolecules into two-dimensional crystals in order to use electron crystallography methods. When combined with observations in the frozen hydrated states and dedicated image processing software these methods can provide detailed 3-D models of the complex. The 2-D crystals of soluble nucleoprotein complexes are formed on lipid monolayers spread at the air-water interface. The macromolecule of interest is targeted to the monolayer by either electrostatic or ligand-induced interactions with the hydrophilic head group of the lipid. Upon interaction with the lipids, the nucleoprotein complex is concentrated at the vicinity of the lipid layer whose in-plane mobility facilitates the contacts between macromolecules and the formation of ordered arrays.
Integration of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) cDNA into the human genome is catalysed by integrase. Several studies have shown the importance of the interaction of cellular cofactors with integrase for viral integration and infectivity. In this study, we produced a stable and functional complex between the wild-type full-length integrase (IN) and the cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 that shows enhanced in vitro integration activity compared with the integrase alone. Mass spectrometry analysis and the fitting of known atomic structures in cryo negatively stain electron microscopy (EM) maps revealed that the functional unit comprises two asymmetric integrase dimers and two LEDGF/p75 molecules. In the presence of DNA, EM revealed the DNA-binding sites and indicated that, in each asymmetric dimer, one integrase molecule performs the catalytic reaction, whereas the other one positions the viral DNA in the active site of the opposite dimer. The positions of the target and viral DNAs for the 3 processing and integration reaction shed light on the integration mechanism, a process with wide implications for the understanding of viral-induced pathologies.
The general transcription factor TFIID is a macromolecular complex comprising the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a set of 13-14 TBP associated factors (TAFs). This review discusses biochemical, genetic and electron microscopic data acquired over the past years that provide a model for the composition, organisation and assembly of TFIID. We also revisit ideas on how TFIID is recruited to the promoters of active and possibly repressed genes. Recent observations show that recognition of acetylated and methylated histone residues by structural domains in several TAFs plays an important role. Finally, we highlight several genetic studies suggesting that TFIID is required for initiation of transcription, but not for maintaining transcription once a promoter is in an active state.
Cry1Ac is one of the most-studied Bacillus thuringiensisdelta-endotoxins. Structurally, it is divided into two domains: the N-terminal half corresponding to the toxic component and the C-terminal half corresponding to the region responsible for the crystal formation. We engineered Cry1Ac delta-endotoxins modified in their N-terminal part and studied the effect of such modifications on crystallization and delta-endotoxin production. When expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain, Cry1Ac(*) and Cry1AcDelta, variants with four point mutations and a deletion, respectively, could not form crystals. However, when expressed in a crystalliferous strain, these altered proteins were shown to interact with the endogenous delta-endotoxins and cocrystallize with them, forming atypical crystals observed by electron microscopy. This cocrystallization of the altered delta-endotoxins with the endogenous ones led to a decrease in delta-endotoxin production (27%) by the corresponding recombinant B. thuringiensis strains. This ability of altered delta-endotoxins containing an intact C-terminal part to cocrystallize with native ones could be exploited to promote the crystallization of foreign proteins by fusing them with the C-terminal part of Cry1A delta-endotoxins.
The general transcription factor TFIID is a large multisubunit complex required for the transcription of most protein-encoding genes by RNA polymerase II. Taking advantage of a TFIID preparation partially depleted in the initiator-binding Taf2p subunit, we determined the conformational and biochemical variations of the complex by electron tomography and cryo-electron microscopy of single molecules. Image analysis revealed the extent of conformational flexibility of the complex and the selection of the most homogeneous TFIID subpopulation allowed us to determine an improved structural model at 23 Angstroms resolution. This study also identified two subpopulations of Taf2p-containing and Taf2p-depleted TFIID molecules. By comparing these two TFIID species we could infer the position of Taf2p, which was confirmed by immunolabeling using a subunit-specific antibody. Mapping the position of this crucial subunit in the vicinity of Taf1p and of TBP sheds new light on its role in promoter recognition.
Self-compartmentalizing proteases orchestrate protein turnover through an original architecture characterized by a central catalytic chamber. Here we report the first structure of an archaeal member of a new self-compartmentalizing protease family forming a cubic-shaped octamer with D(4) symmetry and referred to as CubicO. We solved the structure of the Pyrococcus abyssi Pab87 protein at 2.2 A resolution using the anomalous signal of the high-phasing-power lanthanide derivative Lu-HPDO3A. A 20 A wide channel runs through this supramolecular assembly of 0.4 MDa, giving access to a 60 A wide central chamber holding the eight active sites. Surprisingly, activity assays revealed that Pab87 degrades specifically d-amino acid containing peptides, which have never been observed in archaea. Genomic context of the Pab87 gene showed that it is surrounded by genes involved in the amino acid/peptide transport or metabolism. We propose that CubicO proteases are involved in the processing of d-peptides from environmental origins.
Eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis requires more than 150 auxiliary proteins, which transiently interact with pre-ribosomal particles. Previous studies suggest that several of these biogenesis factors function together as modules. Using a heterologous expression system, we show that the large ribosomal subunit (LSU) biogenesis factor Noc1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can simultaneously interact with the LSU biogenesis factor Noc2p and Rrp5p, a factor required for biogenesis of the large and the small ribosomal subunit. Proteome analysis of RNA polymerase-I-associated chromatin and chromatin immunopurification experiments indicated that all members of this protein module and a specific set of LSU biogenesis factors are co-transcriptionally recruited to nascent ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors in yeast cells. Further ex vivo analyses showed that all module members predominantly interact with early pre-LSU particles after the initial pre-rRNA processing events have occurred. In yeast strains depleted of Noc1p, Noc2p or Rrp5p, levels of the major LSU pre-rRNAs decreased and the respective other module members were associated with accumulating aberrant rRNA fragments. Therefore, we conclude that the module exhibits several binding interfaces with pre-ribosomes. Taken together, our results suggest a co- and post-transcriptional role of the yeast Rrp5p-Noc1p-Noc2p module in the structural organization of early LSU precursors protecting them from non-productive RNase activity.
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