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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Neurologic aspects of plasma cell disorders.
Handb Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Plasma cell disorders make up a broad spectrum of diseases that are characterized by the appearance of an abnormal clone of plasma cells, which typically manifests as a production of monoclonal immunoglobulin protein (monoclonal gammopathy). The overproduction of plasma cells and subsequent monoclonal gammopathy may be malignant or a premalignant process. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an example of a benign process with a malignant potential. Multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome, and AL amyloidosis (immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis) are examples of malignant plasma cell disorders which require treatment. Neurologic manifestations of an underlying plasma cell disorder can be variable and typically challenging to treat. They can range from mild symptoms resulting from therapy to treat the disorder to clinically significant and life-threatening complications related to the disease itself. The peripheral nervous system is more commonly affected than the central nervous system. Peripheral neuropathy is a frequent manifestation and is associated with all of the plasma cell disorders (MGUS, multiple myeloma, POEMS syndrome, Waldenström macroglobulinemia and AL amyloidosis) with notable differences in the signs and symptoms among the different groups. Examples of central nervous system manifestations include spinal cord pathology, such as spinal cord compression from vertebral collapse or plasmacytoma. Intracranial involvement is rare but can occur from brain parenchyma infiltration, leptomeningeal involvement, and tumor-like lesions, such as amyloidoma in AL amyloidosis and plasmacytoma in multiple myeloma. Encephalopathy can occur due to metabolic disturbances related to the underlying plasma cell disorder, including hypercalcemia and uremia in multiple myeloma and hyperviscosity in Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Included in this chapter is a detailed discussion of the various plasma cell disorders and their spectrum of neurologic manifestations.
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Clinical significance of MYC expression and/or "high-grade" morphology in non-Burkitt, diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas: a SWOG S9704 correlative study.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The clinicopathologic findings in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may show significant overlap, and MYC abnormalities, found in all BLs, also occur in a subset of DLBCL. The 2008 World Health Organization classification introduced the category of "B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL" (BCLU) in recognition of this overlap, but the clinical significance of BCLU (ie, "high-grade") morphology and the relationship between BCLU morphology and MYC abnormalities remains unclear. In this study, we identified 260 cases of non-Burkitt, diffuse aggressive B-cell lymphomas from SWOG S9704, a phase 3 randomized study of standard immunochemotherapy versus autologous stem cell transplantation. Of these, 31 cases (12%) showed BCLU morphology, and 229 (88%) showed typical DLBCL morphology. Of 198, 27 (14%) were positive for MYC by immunohistochemistry. BCLU morphology was associated with an increased incidence of MYC expression but otherwise was not associated with distinct clinicopathologic features or significantly decreased survival. MYC-positive cases were morphologically and phenotypically heterogenous and were associated with poor progression-free and overall survival in multivariate analysis. These findings confirm that BCLU does not represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity and demonstrate that BCLU morphology alone does not significantly impact survival compared with typical DLBCL. In contrast, MYC protein expression is a poor prognostic factor that may be associated with either BCLU or DLBCL morphology, and MYC immunohistochemistry is suggested for routine prognostic evaluation (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00004031).
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Donor cell myeloid sarcoma.
Case Rep Hematol
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium.
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Umbilical cord blood expansion with nicotinamide provides long-term multilineage engraftment.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Delayed hematopoietic recovery is a major drawback of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. Transplantation of ex vivo-expanded UCB shortens time to hematopoietic recovery, but long-term, robust engraftment by the expanded unit has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that a UCB-derived cell product consisting of stem cells expanded for 21 days in the presence of nicotinamide and a noncultured T cell fraction (NiCord) can accelerate hematopoietic recovery and provide long-term engraftment.
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Autologous transplantation as consolidation for aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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The efficacy of autologous stem-cell transplantation during the first remission in patients with diffuse, aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma classified as high-intermediate risk or high risk on the International Prognostic Index remains controversial and is untested in the rituximab era.
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Seven-year follow-up of allogeneic transplant using BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine and melphalan chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma after autograft failure: importance of minimal residual disease.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Allogeneic transplant using reduced intensity conditioning is a therapeutic option for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who relapse after an autograft. This was a prospective study of 31 consecutive eligible patients with HL who relapsed after an autograft and underwent an allograft using BEAM (BCNU, etoposide, cytarabine, melphalan) conditioning. At a median follow-up of 7 years the progression-free survival (PFS) was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19-54%) and overall survival (OS) was 42% (95% CI 23-59%). In multivariate analysis only residual disease at the time of transplant predicted outcome, with a 4-year PFS and OS of 62% and 75% for patients with minimal residual disease versus 8% and 8% for patients with gross residual disease, respectively (p = 0.005 and p = 0.001, respectively). This benefit seemed to be irrespective of chemosensitivity, with an OS for patients with chemorefractory yet minimal disease of 71% at 4 years. BEAM allogeneic transplant is effective in producing long-term remissions after autograft failure. Regardless of chemosensitivity, minimizing tumor burden pre-transplant may improve long-term outcome.
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Dendritic cell immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Ovarian cancer is one of the most frequent gynecological malignancies. However, as there is no effective screening method to detect early disease, it is usually only diagnosed when already widespread in the abdomen. The majority of patients diagnosed with advanced-stage disease will relapse and require additional therapy. In the search for additional effective treatments for the management of recurrent disease, researchers have focused on the potential usefulness of immunotherapeutic modulation by administering autologous immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), to stimulate antitumor host responses. With the ultimate goal of improved survival, this review addresses mechanisms in ovarian cancer that may limit the expansion of antitumor immunity, discusses the parameters to be considered for optimal DC immunotherapy, outlines evaluation methodology used to monitor the success of treatment regimens and reviews reported DC immunotherapy trials in ovarian cancer.
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Safety and efficacy of upfront plerixafor + G-CSF versus placebo + G-CSF for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients ?60 and <60 years of age with non-Hodgkins lymphoma or multiple myeloma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The efficacy and safety of plerixafor + G-CSF in enhancing hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and collection has been demonstrated in two phase III studies involving patients with NHL or MM. In these pivotal studies, plerixafor + G-CSF significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving target stem cell yields, compared to placebo + G-CSF. In this analysis, we compare the efficacy and safety of plerixafor + G-CSF versus placebo + G-CSF in patients enrolled in the two phase III studies, stratified by age: ?60 years of age and <60 years of age. The proportion of older patients who achieved target stem cell yields was significantly higher in the plerixafor group than in placebo group (NHL: 50.9 vs. 25.4%, P < 0.001; MM: 69.6 vs. 23.7%, P < 0.001). In this older cohort, the median times to neutrophil and to platelet engraftment following autologous stem cell transplant were comparable between the plerixafor and placebo groups. Similar efficacy findings were observed in the younger age group. The most common adverse events (all grades) reported among older patients in the plerixafor group included diarrhea (41.3%), nausea (38.9%), fatigue (30.2%), and injection-site reaction (29.4%). The frequency of adverse events was similar between the older and the younger age groups. Taken together, our subanalysis demonstrate that plerixafor + G-CSF can be safely and effectively used in adult patients of all ages, including those ?60 years, to support optimal stem cell mobilization for autologous stem cell transplantation. Am. J. Hematol. 88:1017-1023, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A phase 3 study of gemtuzumab ozogamicin during induction and postconsolidation therapy in younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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This randomized phase 3 clinical trial evaluated the potential benefit of the addition of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) to standard induction and postconsolidation therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive daunorubicin (45 mg/m(2) per day on days 1, 2, and 3), cytarabine (100 mg/m(2) per day by continuous infusion on days 1-7), and GO (6 mg/m(2) on day 4; DA+GO) vs standard induction therapy with daunorubicin (60 mg/m(2) per day on days 1, 2, and 3) and cytarabine alone (DA). Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received 3 courses of high-dose cytarabine. Those remaining in CR after consolidation were randomly assigned to receive either no additional therapy or 3 doses of GO (5 mg/m(2) every 28 days). From August 2004 until August 2009, 637 patients were registered for induction. The CR rate was 69% for DA+GO and 70% for DA (P = .59). Among those who achieved a CR, the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 43% in the DA+GO group and 42% in the DA group (P = .40). The 5-year overall survival rate was 46% in the DA+GO group and 50% in the DA group (P = .85). One hundred seventy-four patients in CR after consolidation underwent the postconsolidation randomization. Disease-free survival was not improved with postconsolidation GO (HR, 1.48; P = .97). In this study, the addition of GO to induction or postconsolidation therapy failed to show improvement in CR rate, disease-free survival, or overall survival.
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Plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA predicts outcome in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: correlative analysis from a large North American cooperative group trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and can be detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) of viral nucleic acid (EBER) in tumor cells. We sought to determine whether plasma EBV-DNA could serve as a surrogate for EBER-ISH and to explore its prognostic utility in HL. Specimens from the Cancer Cooperative Intergroup Trial E2496 were used to compare pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA quantification with EBV tumor status by EBER-ISH. A cutoff of >60 viral copies/100 µL plasma yielded 96% concordance with EBER-ISH. Pretreatment and month 6 plasma specimens were designated EBV(-) or EBV(+) by this cutoff. Patients with pretreatment EBV(+) plasma (n = 54) had inferior failure-free survival (FFS) compared with those with pretreatment EBV(-) plasma (n = 274), log-rank P = .009. By contrast, no difference in FFS was observed when patients were stratified by EBER-ISH. Pretreatment plasma EBV positivity was an independent predictor of treatment failure on multivariate analyses. At month 6, plasma EBV(+) patients (n = 7) had inferior FFS compared with plasma EBV(-) patients (n = 125), log-rank P = .007. These results confirm that plasma EBV-DNA is highly concordant with EBER-ISH in HL and suggest that it may have prognostic utility both at baseline and after therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003389.
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The efficacy and tolerability of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine and Stanford V in older Hodgkin lymphoma patients: a comprehensive analysis from the North American intergroup trial E2496.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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There is a lack of contemporary prospective data examining the adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) and Stanford V (SV; doxorubicin, vinblastine, mechlorethamine, vincristine, bleomycin, etoposide, prednisone) regimens in older Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Forty-four advanced-stage, older HL patients (aged ?60 years) were treated on the randomized study, E2496. Toxicities were mostly similar between chemotherapy regimens, although 24% of older patients developed bleomycin lung toxicity (BLT), which occurred mainly with ABVD (91%). Further, the BLT-related mortality rate was 18%. The overall treatment-related mortality for older HL patients was 9% vs. 0·3% for patients aged <60 years (P < 0·001). Among older patients, there were no survival differences between ABVD and SV. According to age, outcomes were significantly inferior for older versus younger patients (5-year failure-free survival: 48% vs. 74%, respectively, P = 0·002; 5-year overall survival: 58% and 90%, respectively, P < 0·0001), although time-to-progression (TTP) was not significantly different (5-year TTP: 68% vs. 78%, respectively, P = 0·37). Furthermore, considering progression and death without progression as competing risks, the risk of progression was not different between older and younger HL patients (5 years: 30% and 23%, respectively, P = 0·30); however, the incidence of death without progression was significantly increased for older HL patients (22% vs. 9%, respectively, P < 0·0001). Altogether, the marked HL age-dependent survival differences appeared attributable primarily to non-HL events.
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Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and low circulating peripheral blood CD34+ cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Many institutions have adopted algorithms based on preapheresis circulating CD34+ cell counts to optimize the use of plerixafor. However, a circulating peripheral blood CD34+ cell threshold that predicts mobilization failure has not been defined. The superiority of plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) over placebo + G-CSF for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and collection was shown for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a phase III, prospective, randomized, controlled study. The question remains as to which patients may benefit most from the use of plerixafor. In this post hoc retrospective analysis, mobilization outcomes were compared between the 2 treatment arms in patients stratified by peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (<5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 19, or ?20 cells/?L) obtained before study treatment and apheresis. Compared with placebo plus G-CSF, plerixafor plus G-CSF significantly increased the peripheral blood CD34+ cells/?L over prior day levels in all 5 stratified groups. The probability of subsequent transplantation without a rescue mobilization was far greater in the plerixafor-treated patients for the lowest initial (day 4) peripheral blood CD34+ cells/?L groups (<5, 5 to 9, or 10 to 14). Engraftment and durability were the same for the 2 treatment groups for all strata, but the effect in the lower strata could be altered by the addition of cells from rescue mobilizations. These findings may provide insight into the optimal use of plerixafor in all patients undergoing stem cell mobilization.
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Salvage second hematopoietic cell transplantation in myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) as initial therapy of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) improves survival. However, data to support this approach for relapsed/progressive disease after initial AHCT (AHCT1) are limited. Using Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research data, we report the outcomes of 187 patients who underwent a second AHCT (AHCT2) for the treatment of relapsed/progressive MM. Planned tandem AHCT was excluded. Median age at AHCT2 was 59 years (range, 28 to 72), and median patient follow-up was 47 months (range, 3 to 97). Nonrelapse mortality after AHCT2 was 2% at 1 year and 4% at 3 years. Median interval from AHCT1 to relapse/progression was 18 months, and median interval between transplantations was 32 months. After AHCT2, the incidence of relapse/progression at 1 and 3 years was 51% and 82%, respectively. At 3 years after AHCT2, progression-free survival was 13%, and overall survival was 46%. In multivariate analyses, those relapsing ?36 months after AHCT1 had superior progression-free (P = .045) and overall survival (P = .019). Patients who underwent AHCT2 after 2004 had superior survival (P = .026). AHCT2 is safe and feasible for disease progression after AHCT1. In this retrospective study, individuals relapsing ?36 months from AHCT1 derived greater benefit from AHCT2 compared with those with a shorter disease-free interval. Storage of an adequate graft before AHCT1 will ensure that the option of a second autologous transplantation is retained for patients with relapsed/progressive MM.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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A human thymic epithelial cell culture system for the promotion of lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic stem cells.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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A human thymic epithelial cell (TEC) line expressing human leukocyte antigen-ABC and human leukocyte antigen-DR was engineered to overexpress murine Delta-like 1 (TEC-Dl1) for the purpose of establishing a human culture system that supports T lymphopoiesis from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs).
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Southwest Oncology Group Study S0530: a phase 2 trial of clofarabine and cytarabine for relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2010
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Clofarabine and cytarabine target different steps in DNA synthesis and replication, are synergistic in vivo, and have non-overlapping toxicities, making this combination a potentially promising treatment for acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Thirty-seven patients were treated. The median age was 41 years, 44% of patients were either in ?2nd relapse or had refractory disease and 59% of patients had poor risk cytogenetics. Six out of 36 patients (17%) achieved a complete remission with or without complete count recovery; median overall survival was 3 months. Nucleoside transporter expression did not predict outcome. This regimen lacked sufficient activity to warrant further testing.
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Temsirolimus has activity in non-mantle cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma subtypes: The University of Chicago phase II consortium.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Despite high initial remission rates, most lymphomas relapse and require further therapy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a validated target in mantle cell lymphoma, but has not been extensively evaluated in other lymphomas.
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Transplanted CD34(+) cell dose is associated with long-term platelet count recovery following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an established treatment for patients with hematologic malignancies, yet the impact of transplanted CD34(+) cell dose on clinical outcomes is unresolved. We conducted post hoc analyses of transplanted CD34(+) cell dose and hematopoietic recovery following ASCT in 438 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or multiple myeloma (MM), using data from 2 multicenter phase 3 clinical studies that compared plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus placebo plus G-CSF as stem cell mobilization regimens. Days to engraftment and the proportion of patients who reached predetermined blood count thresholds were compared across 3 CD34(+) cell dose levels: 2-4 × 10(6) cells/kg, 4-6 × 10(6) cells/kg, and >6 × 10(6) cells/kg, regardless of mobilization treatment. Short-term neutrophil and platelet engraftment times were similar regardless of cell dose. A significant linear trend was observed between transplanted CD34(+) cell dose and the proportion of patients with platelet count >150 × 10(9)/L at 100 days (P < .001), 6 months (P = .026), and 12 months (P = .020) in patients with NHL, and at 100 days in patients with MM (P = .004). A linear trend was also observed between transplanted cell dose and the proportion of patients with platelet count >100 × 10(9)/L at 100 days (P < .001) and 6 months (P = .023) in patients with NHL. A higher cell dose was associated with a lower percentage of NHL patients requiring red blood cell transfusions (P = .006). Our analyses confirm previous findings that transplanted CD34(+) cell dose may be associated with better long-term platelet recovery after ASCT.
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Multicenter analysis of 80 solid organ transplantation recipients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease: outcomes and prognostic factors in the modern era.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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PURPOSE Adult post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) has a reported 3-year overall survival (OS) of 35% to 40%. The impact of rituximab on the outcome of PTLD is not well defined. METHODS We examined the clinical features and outcomes among a large cohort of solid organ transplantation (SOT) -related patients with PTLD who were recently treated at four Chicago institutions (from January 1998 to January 2008). Results Eighty patients with PTLD were identified who had a median SOT-to-PTLD time of 48 months (range, 1 to 216 months). All patients had reduction of immunosuppression as part of initial therapy, whereas 59 (74%) of 80 patients received concurrent first-line rituximab with or without chemotherapy. During 40-month median follow-up, 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) for all patients was 57%, and the 3-year overall survival (OS) rate was 62%. Patients who received rituximab-based therapy as part of initial treatment had 3-year PFS of 70% and OS 73% compared with 21% (P < .0001) and 33% (P = .0001), respectively, without rituximab. Notably, of all relapses, only 9% (4 of 34 patients) occurred beyond 12 months from PTLD diagnosis. On multivariate regression analysis, three factors were associated with progression and survival: CNS involvement (PFS, 4.70; P = .01; OS, 3.61; P = .04), bone marrow involvement (PFS, 2.95; P = .03; OS, 3.14; P = .03), and hypoalbuminemia (PFS, 2.96; P = .05; OS, 3.64; P = .04). Furthermore, a survival model by multivariate CART analysis that was based on number of adverse factors present (ie, 0, 1, > or = 2) was formed: 3-year PFS rates were 84%, 66%, 7%, respectively, and 3-year OS rates were 93%, 68%, 11%, respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSION This large, multicenter, retrospective analysis suggests significantly improved PFS and OS associated with early rituximab-based treatment in PTLD. In addition, clinical factors at diagnosis identified patients with markedly divergent outcomes.
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Randomized phase III trial of pegfilgrastim versus filgrastim after autologus peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Nonrandomized trials suggest that pegfilgrastim, a pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, could be used in lieu of filgrastim after autologus peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. This phase III, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial compared the efficacy, costs, and safety of single-dose pegfilgrastim (single 6 mg dose) versus daily filgrastim (5 microg/kg/day) for this indication. Seventy-eight patients, matched for age, sex, underlying disease, stage, and CD34/kg transplant dose were enrolled. Cytokines were started on day +1 posttransplant and continued to an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 5x10(9)/L for 3 days or 10x10(9)/L for 1 day. The median time to neutrophil engraftment (ANC >1.5x10(9)/L for 3 days or 5x10(9)/L for 1 day) was the same in both groups (12 days). No differences in platelet engraftment (11 versus 13 days), number of platelet transfusions (5 versus 4), percent with positive cultures for bacterial pathogens (23% versus 15%), days of fever (1 versus 2), deaths prior to engraftment (1 versus 1), or duration of hospital stay (19 versus 19 days) were seen between the pegfilgrastim and filgrastim groups, respectively. Using the average wholesale price for doses used in this trial, there was a per-patient savings of $961 for the pegfilgrastim group (P < .001). This phase III study failed to demonstrate a difference in time to neutrophil engraftment or any clinical sequelae between pegfilgrastim and filgrastim when given post-APBSCT, with pegfilgrastim achieving a cost savings over filgrastim.
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High-dose chemotherapy with blood or bone marrow transplants for rhabdomyosarcoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children, is cured with conventional therapy in 70%. However, the 5-year survival for those who relapse is about 30%, and drops to about 15% for those with unfavorable histologies (alveolar/undifferentiated subtypes). We describe outcomes of 62 subjects receiving autologous blood/bone marrow (BM) transplants for RMS between 1989 and 2003, and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research (CIBMTR). Histologic subtype was confirmed by reviewing pathology reports. Treatment-related mortality (TRM), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Overall, 73% of subjects were <20 years; 39% had cancer bulk >5 cm, 63% had metastasis at diagnosis, 55% had unfavorable histologies, 92% had cancer responsive to chemotherapy pretransplant, and 67% were in first remission. The 1-year TRM was 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1%-12%) and the 5-year PFS and OS were 29% (95% CI, 18%-41%) and 32% (95% CI, 21%-44%), respectively. There was only a 4% relapse rate after the first year. There were no differences in 5-year PFS or survival based on histological subtype, transplant in first remission versus relapse (36% versus 29%; P = .5), or transplantation for poor-risk histologies in first remission versus relapse (34% versus 33%; P = .9). Our data indicate that autotransplants for RMS disease are typically done in patients with disease responsive to chemotherapy pretransplant, with approximately one-third long-term survivors. Despite high-risk factors, we also found a low TRM, perhaps reflecting the migration from marrow to blood stem cells as the graft source. Even when performed after relapse for alveolar/undifferentiated histologies, long-term survivals were seen seemingly better than results with conventional therapies.
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Phase III prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for autologous stem-cell mobilization and transplantation for
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of plerixafor (AMD3100), a CXCR4 antagonist, in mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells for autologous stem-cell transplantation in non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) patients.
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Inverse relationship between dendritic cell CCR9 expression and maturation state.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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CCR9 has been identified on T cells as a chemokine receptor that directs these cells to migrate to the intestine. CCR9 has also been reported on different cell types in the intestine, thymus, liver and peripheral blood. Little is reported concerning the presence of or functional implications of this chemokine receptor on myeloid dendritic cells (DC). In the host, DC encounter a multiplicity of antigenic stimuli to which they mount immune responses. In addition to intracellular and functional changes on sensing antigen, maturation of DC is typically reflected in the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules on DC. However, alterations in other surface markers may also be an indicator of DC activation. Using bone marrow-propagated DC these studies investigated cellular maturation in the presence of microbial stimuli and analyzed the relationship of CCR9 expression with DC maturation. Fractionation of DC into CCR9(high) and CCR9(low)subsets revealed a distinct ability of each subset to induce division in naïve CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that DC expressing high levels of CCR9 are less activated/mature than DC expressing low levels of CCR9.
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Successful stem cell remobilization using plerixafor (mozobil) plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with non-hodgkin lymphoma: results from the plerixafor NHL phase 3 study rescue protocol.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2009
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In a phase 3 multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 298 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) plus plerixafor increased the proportion of patients who mobilized >or=5 x 10(6) CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)/kg compared with placebo plus G-CSF (P < .001). Patients in either study arm who failed mobilization (< 0.8 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg in 2 collections or <2 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg in 4 collections) were eligible to enter the opened-label rescue protocol. Following a 7-day minimum rest period, these patients received G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day) for 4 days, followed by daily plerixafor (0.24 mg/kg) plus G-CSF and apheresis for up to 4 days. Of the 68 patients failing initial mobilization (plerixafor, n = 11; placebo, n = 57), 62 patients (91%) entered the rescue procedure (plerixafor, n = 10; placebo, n = 52). Four of 10 patients (40%) from the plerixafor group and 33 of 52 (63%) from the placebo group mobilized sufficient CD34(+) cells (>or= 2 x 10(6) cells/kg) for transplantation from the rescue mobilization alone (P = .11). Engraftment of neutrophils (11 days) and platelets (20 days) was similar to that in patients who did not fail initial mobilization, and all patients had durable grafts at the 12-month follow-up. Common plerixafor-related adverse events (AEs) included mild gastrointestinal (GI) effects and injection site reactions. There were no drug-related serious AEs. These data support that plerixafor plus G-CSF can safely and effectively remobilize patients with NHL who have failed previous mobilization.
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Impact of pre-transplant rituximab on survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into front-line regimens to treat diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has resulted in improved survival. Despite this progress, however, many patients develop refractory or recurrent DLBCL and then undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AuHCT). It is unclear to what extent pre-transplant exposure to rituximab affects outcomes after AuHCT. Outcomes of 994 patients receiving AuHCT for DLBCL between 1996 and 2003 were analyzed according to whether rituximab was (n = 176; +R cohort) or was not (n = 818; -R cohort) administered with front-line or salvage therapy before AuHCT. The +R cohort had superior progression-free survival (PFS; 50% vs 38%; P = .008) and overall survival (OS; 57% vs 45%; P = .006) at 3 years. Platelet and neutrophil engraftment were not affected by exposure to rituximab. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, the +R cohort had improved PFS (relative risk of relapse/progression or death, 0.64; P < .001) and improved OS (relative risk of death, 0.74; P = .039). We conclude that pre-transplant rituximab is associated with a lower rate of progression and improved survival after AuHCT for DLBCL, with no evidence of impaired engraftment or increased NRM.
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c-Myc-mediated control of cell fate in megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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It has been found that c-Myc protein plays a critical role in controlling self-renewal versus differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells. We report that c-Myc also controls the fate of megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors through regulating the differentiation of erythroid and megakaryocytic progenitors. In addition to the significant reduction of granulocytes/macrophages and B and T lymphocytes because of the reduction of their corresponding progenitors, we found significantly increased numbers of megakaryocytic progenitors and mature megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleens of c-Myc-knockout (c-Myc(-/-)) mice. Differentiation of erythrocytes was blocked at the erythroid progenitor stage. This increased megakaryocytopoiesis is a cell-intrinsic defect of c-Myc-mutant hematopoietic stem cells, as shown by transplantation studies. Furthermore, we found that c-Myc is required for polyploidy formation but not for cytoplasmic maturation of megakaryocytes. Megakaryocytes from c-Myc(-/-) mice are significantly smaller in size and lower in ploidy than those of control mice; however, because of the dramatic increase in megakaryocyte number, although fewer platelets are produced by each megakaryocyte, a greater than 3-fold increase in platelet number was consistently observed in c-Myc(-/-) mice. Thus, c-Myc(-/-) mice develop a syndrome of severe thrombocytosis-anemia-leukopenia because of significant increases in megakaryocytopoiesis and concomitant blockage of erythrocyte differentiation and reductions in myelolymphopoiesis.
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Plerixafor and G-CSF versus placebo and G-CSF to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells for autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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This phase 3, multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the safety and efficacy of plerixafor with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells in patients with multiple myeloma. Patients received G-CSF (10 microg/kg) subcutaneously daily for up to 8 days. Beginning on day 4 and continuing daily for up to 4 days, patients received either plerixafor (240 microg/kg) or placebo subcutaneously. Starting on day 5, patients began daily apheresis for up to 4 days or until more than or equal to 6 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg were collected. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who collected more than or equal to 6 x 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg in less than or equal to 2 aphereses. A total of 106 of 148 (71.6%) patients in the plerixafor group and 53 of 154 (34.4%) patients in the placebo group met the primary endpoint (P < .001). A total of 54% of plerixafor-treated patients reached target after one apheresis, whereas 56% of the placebo-treated patients required 4 aphereses to reach target. The most common adverse events related to plerixafor were gastrointestinal disorders and injection site reactions. Plerixafor and G-CSF were well tolerated, and significantly more patients collected the optimal CD34(+) cell/kg target for transplantation earlier compared with G-CSF alone. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00103662.
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Phase II studies of gemcitabine and cisplatin in heavily and minimally pretreated metastatic breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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Cisplatin and gemcitabine have single-agent activity in metastatic breast cancer, and preclinical data support synergy of the combination. Two parallel, phase II trials were conducted to evaluate the response rate, response duration, and toxicities of the combination. Genetic polymorphisms were analyzed for correlation with outcomes.
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Treatment with plerixafor in non-Hodgkins lymphoma and multiple myeloma patients to increase the number of peripheral blood stem cells when given a mobilizing regimen of G-CSF: implications for the heavily pretreated patient.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of combining granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) at standard doses with plerixafor, a CXCR4 inhibitor, to mobilize stem cells in patients with non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM). Patients with NHL and MM underwent mobilization with G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day) for up to 9 days and plerixafor (240 microg/kg/day), which started on the evening of day 4. Apheresis began on day 5 and continued daily until either >or= 5 x 10(6) CD34/kg were collected or to a maximum of 5 aphereses. Toxicities, increase in circulating CD34 cells/microL before and after the first dose of plerixafor, percentage of patients collecting >or= 5 x 10(6) CD34/kg, total CD34 cells/kg collected, engraftment, and exploratory efficacy analyses in heavily pretreated patients were examined. Six sites enrolled 49 patients (NHL, 23; MM, 26). All completed mobilization and 47 of 49 (96%) underwent transplant. Circulating CD34 cells/microL increased by 2.5-fold (1.3-6.0-fold) after the first plerixafor dose. The median CD34 cells/kg collected was 5.9 x 10(6) (1.5-22.5) in 2 (1-5) days of aphereses. Median days to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 11 (8-16) and 14.5 (7-39) days, respectively. Adverse events primarily were mild nausea and diarrhea (n=24). Twenty-eight (57%) were identified as heavily pretreated patients. Their median fold increase in circulating CD34 cells/microL was 2.5 (1.4-5.0) after plerixafor, similar to minimally pretreated patients. Plerixafor and G-CSF increased circulating CD34 cells/microL and led to the adequate collection of stem cells for autotransplant in 96% of the patients. This combination may have particular value in heavily pretreated patients.
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Randomized phase III trial of ABVD versus Stanford V with or without radiation therapy in locally extensive and advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: an intergroup study coordinated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E2496).
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Although ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) has been established as the standard of care in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, newer regimens have been investigated, which have appeared superior in early phase II studies. Our aim was to determine if failure-free survival was superior in patients treated with the Stanford V regimen compared with ABVD.
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Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with stem cell transplant: results of a prospective, randomized trial of aprepitant used with highly emetogenic preparative regimens.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Uncontrolled delayed nausea and vomiting remains a problem after high-dose preparative regimens used for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants. Recently, aprepitant was approved for highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, and, in particular, is effective for decreasing delayed emesis. To evaluate its safety and efficacy in the transplantation setting, we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of aprepitant in combination with ondansetron and dexamethasone in patients treated with ablative preparative regimens. Patients were randomized to receive oral aprepitant or placebo daily with oral ondansetron and dexamethasone during and for 3 days after the completion of the preparative regimen in this prospective randomized, double-blind study. The primary objective was complete response (CR) rate, defined as no emesis with no or mild nausea. Other endpoints included number of emetic episodes, nausea severity assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS), the need for rescue antiemetics, and transplantation outcome, including regimen-related toxicity. One hundred eighty-one patients were randomized and 179 patients were eligible for analysis. Overall, CR rates were 81.9% for the aprepitant and 65.8% for the placebo arms (P < .001). Percentages of patients with no emesis all days were 73.3% for aprepitant and 22.5% placebo (P < .001). Mean VAS scores were 16.6 mm aprepitant and 16.9 mm placebo (NS), and there were no differences in the amount of rescue antiemetics used, regimen related toxicity, engraftment, or transplantation outcome. Aprepitant in combination with dexamethasone and ondansetron significantly decreased emesis and significant nausea, whereas not increasing RRT or affecting short-term survival but had no significant impact on the use of PRN antiemetics, or overall VAS nausea scores.
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Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells in patients with multiple myeloma and low peripheral blood CD34(+) cell count: results of
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Preapheresis peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cell count is a strong predictor of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization and is routinely used to optimize the timing, cost, and success of HSC collection in patients with multiple myeloma. However, a uniform PB CD34(+) cell count that predicts mobilization failure has not been defined, resulting in the development of institute-specific algorithms for mobilization, particularly regarding the decision of when to use the novel stem cell mobilization agent plerixafor. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated the mobilization efficacy of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus placebo plus G-CSF in patients with multiple myeloma, stratified by preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell count: <10, <15, <20, and ?20 cells/?L. Regardless of the PB CD34(+) cell count, the total yield of CD34(+) cells from apheresis was significantly higher in the plerixafor group than in the placebo group, and significantly more patients in the plerixafor group collected the minimum (?2 × 10(6) cells/kg) and optimum (?6 × 10(6) cells/kg) stem cell yields on each day of apheresis. As a corollary, the greater stem cell collection in plerixafor-treated patients resulted in the need for significantly fewer days of apheresis to reach minimum and optimum cell doses across all cell count groups. For all CD34(+) cell count groups, the proportion of patients proceeding to transplantation and the median time to platelet and neutrophil engraftment were similar in the plerixafor and placebo groups. Our findings demonstrate that in patients with multiple myeloma who might be predicted to fail mobilization based on low PB CD34(+) cell count, the addition of plerixafor to G-CSF allows for collection of the minimal and optimal cell doses in a greater proportion of patients compared with G-CSF alone. In addition, plerixafor plus G-CSF significantly improves the likelihood of optimal HSC collection in patients with higher preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell counts (?20 cells/?L) compared with placebo plus G-CSF. Collectively, this analysis of predicted poor mobilizers validates the superiority of plerixafor plus G-CSF compared with G-CSF alone, which had been demonstrated previously in the overall patient population.
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TNF-inhibition with etanercept for graft-versus-host disease prevention in high-risk HCT: lower TNFR1 levels correlate with better outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) causes most non-relapse mortality (NRM) after alternative donor (unrelated and mismatched related) hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). We previously showed that increases in day +7 TNF-receptor-1 (TNFR1) ratios (posttransplantation day +7/pretransplantation baseline) after myeloablative HCT correlate with outcomes including GVHD, NRM, and survival. Therefore, we conducted a phase II trial at 2 centers, testing whether the addition of the TNF-inhibitor etanercept (25 mg twice weekly from start of conditioning to day +56) to standard GVHD prophylaxis would lower TNFR1 levels, reduce GVHD rates, and improve NRM and survival. Patients underwent myeloablative HCT from a matched unrelated donor (URD; N = 71), 1-antigen mismatched URD (N = 26), or 1-antigen mismatched related donor (N = 3) using either total body irradiation (TBI)-based conditioning (N = 29) or non-TBI-based conditioning (N = 71). Compared to historical controls, the increase in posttransplantation day +7 TNFR1 ratios was not altered in patients who received TBI-based conditioning, but was 40% lower in patients receiving non-TBI-based conditioning. The latter group experienced relatively low rates of severe grade 3 to 4 GVHD (14%), 1-year NRM (16%), and high 1-year survival (69%). These findings suggest that (1) the effectiveness of TNF-inhibition with etanercept may depend on the conditioning regimen, and (2) attenuating the expected rise in TNFR1 levels early posttransplantation correlates with good outcomes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.