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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Phosphorylation of protein kinase C sites Ser42/44 decreases Ca(2+)-sensitivity and blunts enhanced length-dependent activation in response to protein kinase A in human cardiomyocytes.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) at Ser42/44 is increased in heart failure. While studies in rodents demonstrated that PKC-mediated Ser42/44 phosphorylation decreases maximal force and ATPase activity, PKC incubation of human cardiomyocytes did not affect maximal force. We investigated whether Ser42/44 pseudo-phosphorylation affects force development and ATPase activity using troponin exchange in human myocardium. Additionally, we studied if pseudo-phosphorylated Ser42/44 modulates length-dependent activation of force, which is regulated by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cTnI-Ser23/24 phosphorylation. Isometric force was measured in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes exchanged with human recombinant wild-type troponin or troponin mutated at Ser42/44 or Ser23/24 into aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. In troponin-exchanged donor cardiomyocytes experiments were repeated after PKA incubation. ATPase activity was measured in troponin-exchanged cardiac muscle strips. Compared to wild-type, 42D/44D decreased Ca(2+)-sensitivity without affecting maximal force in failing and donor cardiomyocytes. In donor myocardium, 42D/44D did not affect maximal ATPase activity or tension cost. Interestingly, 42D/44D blunted the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+)-sensitivity induced upon PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Since the drop in Ca(2+)-sensitivity at physiological Ca(2+)-concentrations is relatively large phosphorylation of Ser42/44 may result in a decrease of force and associated ATP utilization in the human heart.
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Length-dependent activation is modulated by cardiac troponin I bisphosphorylation at Ser23 and Ser24 but not by Thr143 phosphorylation.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Frank-Starling's law reflects the ability of the heart to adjust the force of its contraction to changes in ventricular filling, a property based on length-dependent myofilament activation (LDA). The threonine at amino acid 143 of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is prerequisite for the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity. Thr143 is a known target of protein kinase C (PKC) whose activity is increased in cardiac disease. Thr143 phosphorylation may modulate length-dependent myofilament activation in failing hearts. Therefore, we investigated if pseudo-phosphorylation at Thr143 modulates length dependence of force using troponin exchange experiments in human cardiomyocytes. In addition, we studied effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated cTnI phosphorylation at Ser23/24, which has been reported to modulate LDA. Isometric force was measured at various Ca(2+) concentrations in membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes exchanged with recombinant wild-type (WT) troponin or troponin mutated at the PKC site Thr143 or Ser23/24 into aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. In troponin-exchanged donor cardiomyocytes experiments were repeated after incubation with exogenous PKA. Pseudo-phosphorylation of Thr143 increased myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity compared with WT without affecting LDA in failing and donor cardiomyocytes. Subsequent PKA treatment enhanced the length-dependent shift in Ca(2+) sensitivity after WT and 143D exchange. Exchange with Ser23/24 variants demonstrated that pseudo-phosphorylation of both Ser23 and Ser24 is needed to enhance the length-dependent increase in Ca(2+) sensitivity. cTnI pseudo-phosphorylation did not alter length-dependent changes in maximal force. Thus phosphorylation at Thr143 enhances myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity without affecting LDA, while Ser23/24 bisphosphorylation is needed to enhance the length-dependent increase in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity.
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Perturbed length-dependent activation in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with missense sarcomeric gene mutations.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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High-myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity has been proposed as a trigger of disease pathogenesis in familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) on the basis of in vitro and transgenic mice studies. However, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity depends on protein phosphorylation and muscle length, and at present, data in humans are scarce.
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GSK3? phosphorylates newly identified site in the proline-alanine-rich region of cardiac myosin-binding protein C and alters cross-bridge cycling kinetics in human: short communication.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) regulates cross-bridge cycling kinetics and, thereby, fine-tunes the rate of cardiac muscle contraction and relaxation. Its effects on cardiac kinetics are modified by phosphorylation. Three phosphorylation sites (Ser275, Ser284, and Ser304) have been identified in vivo, all located in the cardiac-specific M-domain of cMyBP-C. However, recent work has shown that up to 4 phosphate groups are present in human cMyBP-C.
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PKC?-specific phosphorylation of the troponin complex in human myocardium: a functional and proteomics analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Protein kinase C? (PKC?) is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKC? is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile function in human myocardium are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PKC? phosphorylation of cardiac troponin (cTn) on myofilament function in human failing cardiomyocytes and to resolve the potential targets involved.
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Protein phosphatase 2A affects myofilament contractility in non-failing but not in failing human myocardium.
J. Muscle Res. Cell. Motil.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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Protein phosphatase (PP) type 2A is a multifunctional serine/threonine phosphatase that is involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. The PP2A core enzyme is a dimer, consisting of a catalytic C and a scaffolding A subunit, which is targeted to several cardiac proteins by a regulatory B subunit. At present, it is controversial whether PP2A and its subunits play a critical role in end-stage human heart failure. Here we report that the application of purified PP2AC significantly increased the Ca2+-sensitivity (?pCa50=0.05±0.01) of the contractile apparatus in isolated skinned myocytes of non-failing (NF) hearts. A higher phosphorylation of troponin I (cTnI) was found at protein kinase A sites (Ser23/24) in NF compared to failing myocardium. The basal Ca2+-responsiveness of myofilaments was enhanced in myocytes of ischemic (ICM, ?pCa50=0.10±0.03) and dilated (DCM, ?pCa50=0.06±0.04) cardiomyopathy compared to NF. However, in contrast to NF myocytes the treatment with PP2AC did not shift force-pCa relationships in failing myocytes. The higher basal Ca2+-sensitivity in failing myocytes coincided with a reduced protein expression of PP2AC in left ventricular tissue from patients suffering from ICM and DCM (by 50 and 56% compared to NF, respectively). However, PP2A activity was unchanged in failing hearts despite an increase of both total PP and PP1 activity. The expression of PP2AB56? was also decreased by 51 and 62% in ICM and DCM compared to NF, respectively. The phosphorylation of cTnI at Ser23/24 was reduced by 66 and 49% in ICM and DCM compared to NF hearts, respectively. Our results demonstrate that PP2A increases myofilament Ca2+-sensitivity in NF human hearts, most likely via cTnI dephosphorylation. This effect is not present in failing hearts, probably due to the lower baseline cTnI phosphorylation in failing compared to non-failing hearts.
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NOX2, p22phox and p47phox are targeted to the nuclear pore complex in ischemic cardiomyocytes colocalizing with local reactive oxygen species.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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NADPH oxidases play an essential role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-based signaling in the heart. Previously, we have demonstrated that (peri)nuclear expression of the catalytic NADPH oxidase subunit NOX2 in stressed cardiomyocytes, e.g. under ischemia or high concentrations of homocysteine, is an important step in the induction of apoptosis in these cells. Here this ischemia-induced nuclear targeting and activation of NOX2 was specified in cardiomyocytes.
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Impact of site-specific phosphorylation of protein kinase A sites Ser23 and Ser24 of cardiac troponin I in human cardiomyocytes.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
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PKA-mediated phosphorylation of contractile proteins upon ?-adrenergic stimulation plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac performance. Phosphorylation of the PKA sites (Ser(23)/Ser(24)) of cardiac troponin (cTn)I results in a decrease in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and an increase in the rate of relaxation. However, the relation between the level of phosphorylation of the sites and the functional effects in the human myocardium is unknown. Therefore, site-directed mutagenesis was used to study the effects of phosphorylation at Ser(23) and Ser(24) of cTnI on myofilament function in human cardiac tissue. Serines were replaced by aspartic acid (D) or alanine (A) to mimic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. cTnI-DD mimics both sites phosphorylated, cTnI-AD mimics Ser(23) unphosphorylated and Ser(24) phosphorylated, cTnI-DA mimics Ser(23) phosphorylated and Ser(24) unphosphorylated, and cTnI-AA mimics both sites unphosphorylated. Force development was measured at various Ca(2+) concentrations in permeabilized cardiomyocytes in which the endogenous troponin complex was exchanged with these recombinant human troponin complexes. In donor cardiomyocytes, myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity (pCa(50)) was significantly lower in cTnI-DD (pCa(50): 5.39 ± 0.01) compared with cTnI-AA (pCa(50): 5.50 ± 0.01), cTnI-AD (pCa(50): 5.48 ± 0.01), and cTnI-DA (pCa(50): 5.51 ± 0.01) at ~70% cTn exchange. No effects were observed on the rate of tension redevelopment. In cardiomyocytes from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathic tissue, a linear decline in pCa(50) with cTnI-DD content was observed, saturating at ~55% bisphosphorylation. Our data suggest that in the human myocardium, phosphorylation of both PKA sites on cTnI is required to reduce myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity, which is maximal at ~55% bisphosphorylated cTnI. The implications for in vivo cardiac function in health and disease are detailed in the DISCUSSION in this article.
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Triggering of the dsRNA sensors TLR3, MDA5, and RIG-I induces CD55 expression in synovial fibroblasts.
PLoS ONE
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CD55 (decay-accelerating factor) is a complement-regulatory protein highly expressed on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). CD55 is also a ligand for CD97, an adhesion-type G protein-coupled receptor abundantly present on leukocytes. Little is known regarding the regulation of CD55 expression in FLS.
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