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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge for bio-oil production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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In this study, fast microwave-assisted catalytic pyrolysis of sewage sludge was investigated for bio-oil production, with HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Pyrolysis temperature and catalyst to feed ratio were examined for their effects on bio-oil yield and composition. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for sewage sludge pyrolysis. Temperature has great influence on the pyrolysis process. The maximum bio-oil yield and the lowest proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds in the bio-oil were obtained at 550°C. The oil yield decreased when catalyst was used, but the proportions of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing compounds were significantly reduced when the catalyst to feed ratio increased from 1:1 to 2:1. Essential mineral elements were concentrated in the bio-char after pyrolysis, which could be used as a soil amendment in place of fertilizer. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that HZSM-5 catalyst exhibited good stability during the microwave-assisted pyrolysis of sewage sludge.
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Diffuse liver uptake on (99m)Tc-MDP bone scan secondary to severe hepatic failure.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Hepatic uptake on an MDP bone scan is a non-specific finding. When present, the etiology needs to be determined. The differential diagnosis depends on the pattern of uptake. Metastatic breast and colon cancer are frequent causes of focal faint uptake. Diffuse uptake is rare, but can be seen with hepatitis, amyloid, and IV gadolinium administration. In addition, aluminum breakthrough from the molybdenum generator can cause colloid formation and subsequent diffuse hepatic uptake. We present a case of diffuse uptake in a patient with acute hepatic failure. The etiology of the failure was extensive thrombosis of the inferior vena cava (IVC).
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Stem Cells of the Apical Papilla Regulate Trigeminal Neurite Outgrowth and Targeting through a BDNF-Dependent Mechanism.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Regenerative endodontic procedures have become a valuable alternative for the treatment of immature teeth with pulp necrosis. In addition to resolution of periradicular pathosis and promotion of continued root development, positive vitality testing has been observed in some regenerative clinical cases. Importantly, the positive response to electric stimulation of the regenerated tissue requires targeting of periradicular axons into the previously empty root canal space. However, the mechanism by which this process occurs is largely unknown. Since stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAP) have been proposed to populate the root canal following regenerative endodontic procedures, we hypothesized that SCAP regulate neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. To test this hypothesis, we established primary co-cultures of human SCAP and rat trigeminal neurons, and performed neurite outgrowth assays using ELISA and confocal microscopy to determine the effect of increasing concentration of SCAP on the total neurite outgrowth and axonal targeting. In addition, we evaluated whether SCAP evoked axonal targeting in vivo using a matrigel subcutaneous implant assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Bonferroni's post hoc test, and significance was set at p<0.05. The results demonstrated that SCAP release a soluble factor that regulates neurite outgrowth from cultured trigeminal neurons. Next, we demonstrated that this effect is completely abolished by pretreatment with a neutralizing antibody to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but not by antibodies to other neurotrophins. Further, SCAP release BDNF in a concentration-dependent manner as detected by ELISA, and trigger directed axonal targeting both in vitro and in vivo as demonstrated by microfluidic and matrigel implant experiments, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that SCAP may be responsible for the chemical signal driving axons to target regenerated tissue via a BDNF-dependent mechanism.
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Parosteal osteosarcoma.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Parosteal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant bone tumor arising from the bone cortical surface. It most commonly occurs in young women over the metaphyseal region, especially the long bones near the knee joint. Patients usually report a slow-growing mass for years. The tumor is characterized by its bland microscopic morphology, prone to be misdiagnosed as other benign tumors. In the absence of dedifferentiation, the prognosis is generally better than that of conventional osteosarcoma. Recent studies demonstrated distinctive cytogenetic abnormality resulting in amplification of the CDK4 and MDM2 genes, which may serve as markers for molecular diagnosis. In this article, we review the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features of parosteal osteosarcoma and identify some diagnostic pitfalls, discuss the prognostic variables, and update recent molecular advances and their application in the diagnosis.
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Experience of Pediatric Osteosarcoma of the Extremity at a Single Institution in Taiwan: Prognostic Factors and Impact on Survival.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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To identify the prognostic factors and evaluate the impact of chemotherapy regimens on the outcomes of pediatric osteosarcoma of the extremities.
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Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing HPV16 E6E7 dramatically improves ischemic limb.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to secrete cytokines and growth factors required for angiogenesis. Previously, we demonstrated that MSCs expressing HPV16 E6E7 mRNA (E6E7-MSCs) increase life span and differentiation potential and maintain without neoplastic transformation. Whether E6E7-MSCs are sources of molecules for enhancing angiogenesis is unknown. We demonstrated that E6E7-MSC-derived conditioned medium (E6E7-CM) enhanced endothelial cell migration and tube formation compared to primary MSC-derived conditioned medium (primary-CM). Moreover, E6E7-MSCs increased AKT activation and enhanced the release of Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Neutralization of E6E7-CM with antibodies against IL-1? or VEGFA abrogated its effect in enhancing endothelial migration and tube formation. Primary-CM, added with IL-1? and VEGFA, enhanced its ability to increase endothelial migration and tube formation. E6E7-CM was shown to increase the ability to improve blood perfusion in a mouse limb ischemia model. Histological analysis revealed that E6E7-CM prohibited muscle loss or fibrosis and increased endothelial cell counts compared to primary-CM. Similarly, the effects of E6E7-CM in improving perfusion in ischemic limb were also contributed by the increase of IL-1? or VEGFA levels. These results suggest that E6E7-MSCs increase the ability to secrete angiogenic factors via AKT activation, and E6E7-CM is abundant in IL-1? and VEGFA levels and thereby increases the ability to improve blood perfusion and prohibit muscle loss or fibrosis in a mouse limb ischemia model.
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Fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of microalgae using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of a microwave absorbent (SiC) and catalyst (HZSM-5) was tested on a Chlorella sp. strain and on a Nannochloropsis strain. The liquid products were characterized, and the effects of temperature and catalyst:biomass ratio were analyzed. For Chlorella sp., a temperature of 550 °C, with no catalyst were the optimal conditions, resulting in a maximum bio-oil yield of 57 wt.%. For Nannochloropsis, a temperature of 500 °C, with 0.5 of catalyst ratio were shown to be the optimal condition, resulting in a maximum bio-oil yield of 59 wt.%. These results show that the use of microwave absorbents in fMAP increased bio-oil yields and quality, and it is a promising technology to improve the commercial application and economic outlook of microwave pyrolysis technology. Additionally, the use of a different catalyst needs to be considered to improve the bio-oil characteristics.
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"Chemical nose" for the visual identification of emerging ocular pathogens using gold nanostars.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Ocular pathogens can cause serious damages in the eye leading to severe vision loss and even blindness if left untreated. Identification of pathogens is crucial for administering the appropriate antibiotics in order to gain effective control over ocular infection. Herein, we report a gold nanostar based "chemical nose" for visually identifying ocular pathogens. Using a spectrophotometer and nanostars of different sizes and degrees of branching, we show that the "chemical nose" is capable of identifying the following clinically relevant ocular pathogens with an accuracy of 99%: S. aureus, A. xylosoxidans, D. acidovorans and S. maltophilia. The differential colorimetric response is due to electrostatic aggregation of cationic gold nanostars around bacteria without the use of biomolecule ligands such as aptamers or antibodies. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the number of gold nanostars aggregated around each bacterium correlates closely with the colorimetric response. Thus, gold nanostars serve as a promising platform for rapid visual identification of ocular pathogens with application in point-of-care diagnostics.
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Evaluation of triple antibiotic paste removal by different irrigation procedures.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Regenerative endodontics aims to re-establish a functional pulp-dentin complex. First, the root canal system is disinfected primarily by irrigants and medicaments. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP), a commonly used intracanal medicament, has been shown to be directly toxic to stem cells at concentrations greater than 0.1 g/mL. Thus, its complete removal is a crucial step in regenerative endodontic procedures. We hypothesized that currently used irrigation techniques do not completely remove TAP from root canal system.
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Effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal in wastewater-based algae cultivation system.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Centrate, a type of nutrient-rich municipal wastewater was used to determine the effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal efficiency in this study. The characteristics of algal and bacterial growth profiles, wastewater nutrient removal and effect of initial algal inoculums were systematically examined. The results showed that initial algal concentration had apparent effect on bacterial growth, and the presence of bacteria had a significant influence on algal growth pattern, suggesting symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria at the initial stage of algae cultivation. The maximum algal biomass of 2.01 g/L with 0.1g/L initial algal inoculums concentration can be obtained during algae cultivation in raw centrate medium. The synergistic effect of centrate-borne bacteria and microalgae on algae growth and nutrient removal performance at initial fast growth stage has great potential to be applied to pilot-scale wastewater-based algae wastewater system cultivated in continuous or semi-continuous mode.
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Cytotoxic effects of 15d-PGJ2 against osteosarcoma through ROS-mediated AKT and cell cycle inhibition.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a critical cell cycle regulator, has been identified as a potential target in osteosarcoma (OS). 15-deoxy-?12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a prostaglandin derivative, has shown its anti-tumor activity by inducing apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated inactivation of v-akt, a murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog, (AKT) in cancer cells. In the study analyzing its effects on arthritis, 15d-PGJ2 mediated shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis via protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent regulation of PLK1. In this study, the cytotoxic effect and mechanism underlying 15d-PGJ2 effects against OS were explored using OS cell lines. 15d-PGJ2 induced significant G2/M arrest, and exerted time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects against all OS cell lines. Western blot analysis showed that both AKT and PKA-PLK1 were down-regulated in OS cell lines after treatment with 15d-PGJ2. In addition, transfection of constitutively active AKT or PLK1 partially rescued cells from 15d-PGJ2-induced apoptosis, suggesting crucial roles for both pathways in the anti-cancer effects of 15d-PGJ2. Moreover, ROS generation was found treatment with 15d-PGJ2, and its cytotoxic effect could be reversed with N-acetyl-l-cysteine. Furthermore, inhibition of JNK partially rescued 15d-PGJ2 cytotoxicity. Thus, ROS-mediated JNK activation may contribute to apoptosis through down-regulation of the p-Akt and PKA-PLK1 pathways. 15d-PGJ2 is a potential therapeutic agent for OS, exerting cytotoxicity mediated through both AKT and PKA-PLK1 inhibition, and these results form the basis for further analysis of its role in animal studies and clinical applications.
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Performance of an optimized Zr-based nanoparticle-embedded PSF blend hollow fiber membrane in treatment of fluoride contaminated water.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Consumption of water that has excessive fluoride can cause adverse health impacts on human beings. A Zr-based nanoparticle-embedded PSF blend hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared and optimized for removal of fluoride from the aqueous solution. Both static and dynamic adsorption of fluoride on the membrane was investigated. It was showed that the membrane could effectively remove fluoride within a wide pH ranging from 3 to 10. At neutral pH, the adsorption equilibrium was reached within 24 h. The maximum adsorption capacity of the optimized membrane was 60.65 mg/g, much higher than many commercial adsorbents. The presence of NO3(-), SiO3(2-) or HA has insignificant effects on the fluoride removal. However, the removal was retarded as the concentration of HCO3(-) or PO4(3-) was increased. Furthermore, the membrane could remove fluoride efficiently through the continuous filtration, even in presence of natural organic matters. The spent membrane could be regenerated and then reused for the removal of fluoride with great efficiency. The adsorption history could be well described by an intraparticle diffusion model. The XPS analysis showed that the adsorption of fluoride was mainly associated with the ion-exchange between SO4(2-) and F(-) ions. Finally, the toxicity analysis revealed that the treated water was safe for human consumption.
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Micro-a-fluidics ELISA for rapid CD4 cell count at the point-of-care.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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HIV has become one of the most devastating pathogens in human history. Despite fast progress in HIV-related basic research, antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains the most effective method to save AIDS patients' lives. Unfortunately, ART cannot be universally accessed, especially in developing countries, due to the lack of effective treatment monitoring diagnostics. Here, we present an inexpensive, rapid and portable micro-a-fluidic platform, which can streamline the process of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a fully automated manner for CD4 cell count. The micro-a-fluidic CD4 cell count is achieved by eliminating operational fluid flow via "moving the substrate", as opposed to "flowing liquid" in traditional ELISA or microfluidic methods. This is the first demonstration of capturing and detecting cells from unprocessed whole blood using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic channel. Combined with cell phone imaging, the presented micro-a-fluidic ELISA platform holds great promise for offering rapid CD4 cell count to scale up much needed ART in resource-constrained settings. The developed system can be extended to multiple areas for ELISA-related assays.
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Direct effect of endodontic sealers on trigeminal neuronal activity.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Endodontic sealers are selected on the basis of their antimicrobial properties and ability to provide a tight seal. Sealer extrusions, whether intentional or unintentional, are common during obturation procedures. Such events have been correlated with increased postoperative discomfort and persistent pain states. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are largely unknown. Thus, we sought to evaluate the effect of commonly used endodontic sealers on peripheral nociceptors. We hypothesized that endodontic sealers can directly activate trigeminal nociceptors in a concentration-dependent manner, resulting in release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent modulator of neurogenic inflammation.
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Incidence patterns of primary bone cancer in taiwan (2003-2010): a population-based study.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Primary bone cancer (BC) incidence by age has not been surveyed in Asia.
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A comprehensive review on biosorption of heavy metals by algal biomass: materials, performances, chemistry, and modeling simulation tools.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Heavy metals contamination has become a global issue of concern due to their higher toxicities, nature of non-biodegradability, high capabilities in bioaccumulation in human body and food chain, and carcinogenicities to humans. A series of researches demonstrate that biosorption is a promising technology for removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Algae serve as good biosorbents due to their abundance in seawater and fresh water, cost-effectiveness, reusability and high metal sorption capacities. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent findings on performances, applications and chemistry of algae (e.g., brown, green and red algae, modified algae and the derivatives) for sequestration of heavy metals. Biosorption kinetics and equilibrium models are reviewed. The mechanisms for biosorption are presented. Biosorption is a complicated process involving ion-exchange, complexation and coordination. Finally the theoretical simulation tools for biosorption equilibrium and kinetics are presented so that the readers can use them for further studies.
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Fast microwave-assisted catalytic gasification of biomass for syngas production and tar removal.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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In the present study, a microwave-assisted biomass gasification system was developed for syngas production. Three catalysts including Fe, Co and Ni with Al2O3 support were examined and compared for their effects on syngas production and tar removal. Experimental results showed that microwave is an effective heating method for biomass gasification. Ni/Al2O3 was found to be the most effective catalyst for syngas production and tar removal. The gas yield reached above 80% and the composition of tar was the simplest when Ni/Al2O3 catalyst was used. The optimal ratio of catalyst to biomass was determined to be 1:5-1:3. The addition of steam was found to be able to improve the gas production and syngas quality. Results of XRD analyses demonstrated that Ni/Al2O3 catalyst has good stability during gasification process. Finally, a new concept of microwave-assisted dual fluidized bed gasifier was put forward for the first time in this study.
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Fast microwave assisted pyrolysis of biomass using microwave absorbent.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A novel concept of fast microwave assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) in the presence of microwave absorbents was presented and examined. Wood sawdust and corn stover were pyrolyzed by means of microwave heating and silicon carbide (SiC) as microwave absorbent. The bio-oil was characterized, and the effects of temperature, feedstock loading, particle sizes, and vacuum degree were analyzed. For wood sawdust, a temperature of 480°C, 50 grit SiC, with 2g/min of biomass feeding, were the optimal conditions, with a maximum bio-oil yield of 65 wt.%. For corn stover, temperatures ranging from 490°C to 560°C, biomass particle sizes from 0.9mm to 1.9mm, and vacuum degree lower than 100mmHg obtained a maximum bio-oil yield of 64 wt.%. This study shows that the use of microwave absorbents for fMAP is feasible and a promising technology to improve the practical values and commercial application outlook of microwave based pyrolysis.
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Manipulation therapy prior to diagnosis induced primary osteosarcoma metastasis--from clinical to basic research.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Osteosarcoma (OS) patients who suffer manipulation therapy (MT) prior to diagnosis resulted in poor prognosis with increasing metastasis or recurrence rate. The aim of the study is to establish an in vivo model to identify the effects of MT on OS. The enrolled 235 OS patients were followed up in this study. In vivo nude mice model with tibia injection of GFP-labeled human OS cells were randomly allocated into MT(+) that with repeated massage on tumor site twice a week and no treatment as MT(-) group. The five-year survival, metastasis and recurrence rates were recorded in clinical subjects. X-ray plainfilm, micro-PET/CT scan, histopathology, serum metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) level and human kinase domain insert receptor (KDR) pattern were assayed in mice model. The results showed that patient with MT decreased 5-year survival and higher recurrence or metastasis rate. Compatible with clinical findings, the decreased body weight (30.5 ± 0.65 g) and an increased tumor volume (8.3 ± 1.18 mm3) in MT(+) mice were observed. The increasing signal intensity over lymph node region of hind limb by micro-PET/CT and the tumor cells were detected in lung and bilateral lymph nodes only in MT(+) group. MMP2 (214 ± 9.8 ng/ml) and MMP9 (25.5 ± 1.81 ng/ml) were higher in MT(+) group than in MT(-) group (165 ± 7.8 ng/ml and 16.9 ± 1.40 ng/ml, individually) as well as KDR expression. Taking clinical observations and in vivo evidence together, MT treatment leads to poor prognosis of primary osteosarcoma; physicians should pay more attention on patients who seek MT before diagnosis.
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Decreasing the dose of radioiodine for remnant ablation does not increase structural recurrence rates in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Our aim was to compare the rate of structural recurrence between patients who had lesser doses of radioactive iodine (RAI) and those who had traditional greater doses for remnant ablation after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
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VACTERL Association Complicated with Right-sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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We describe a neonate with VACTERL association and right-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Such coexistence is rare. The lack of symptoms during the early neonatal period, the absence of bowel loops herniated into the right thoracic cavity, and an unfinished surgery led to clinical and radiological diagnostic difficulties. Respiratory distress occurred when the patient was 2 months old. Chest radiology plain film revealed typical findings of right-sided CDH. The diagnosis was confirmed after surgical exploration.
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A zirconium-based nanoparticle: Essential factors for sustainable application in treatment of fluoride containing water.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Excessive intake of fluoride can cause a severe threat on human beings. In this study, a zirconium-based nano-particles (NPs) was synthesized for effective defluoridation from aqueous solution. The pH effect, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and effect of co-existing substances on the fluoride uptake were investigated. The results showed that the sorbent had a high adsorption capacity for fluoride within a wide pH ranging from 3 to 10. The optimal pH for the adsorption was around 4. The study of adsorption kinetics revealed that most uptake of fluoride occurred in the first 1h, and the adsorption equilibrium was established within 4h. Langmuir equation well described the adsorption isotherm data; the maximum adsorption capacities of 97.48 and 78.56mg/g were found at optimal pH and neutral pH, respectively. The presence of PO4(3-), NO3(-) and natural organic matters did not significantly inhibit the fluoride removal. However, both HCO3(-) and SiO2(3-) retarded the removal. The regeneration revealed that the sorbent possessed a high reusability for defluoridation. The intraparticle surface diffusion model well described the adsorption kinetics. The FTIR and XPS analysis demonstrated that the adsorption of fluoride was mainly associated with the ion-exchange between sulfate and fluoride ions.
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Bone health in children and adolescents: risk factors for low bone density.
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Osteoporosis is a common disease that is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD). Decreased BMD is associated with increased fracture risk. In adults, normal BMD results from the balance between accrual of peak bone mass (PBM) at the end of adolescence, and subsequent bone loss with age. Although environmental factors play a role, hereditary factors are the major contributors (up to 80%) to the variability in PBM. This review examines the effects of genetics, physical activity and immobilization, smoking, chronic diseases and medications, vitamin D, calcium, and various other dietary factors on bone integrity in children, adolescents, and adults.
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Oil crop biomass residue-based media for enhanced algal lipid production.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of hydrolysates from acid hydrolysis of four different oil crop biomass residues (OCBR) as low cost culture media for algae growth. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to design a series of experiments to optimize the acid hydrolysis conditions through examining the total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, and ammonia nitrogen in the hydrolysates. The optimal conditions were found to be using 3% sulfuric acid and hydrolyzing residues at 90 °C for 20 h. The hydrolysates (OCBR media) produced under the optimal conditions were used to cultivate the two algae strains, namely UM258 and UM268. The results from 5 days of cultivation showed that the OCBR media supported faster algae growth with maximal algal biomass yield of 2.7 and 3 g/L, respectively. Moreover, the total lipids for UM258 and UM268 were 54 and 35%, respectively, after 5 days of cultivation, which suggested that the OCBR media allowed the algae strains to accumulate higher lipids probably due to high C/N ratio. Furthermore, over 3% of omega-3 fatty acid (EPA) was produced for the two algae strains. In conclusion, OCBR media are excellent alternative for algae growth and have a great potential for large-scale production of algae-based ingredients for biodiesel as well as high-value food and pharmaceutical products.
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Swine Manure-Based Pilot-Scale Algal Biomass Production System for Fuel Production and Wastewater Treatment-a Case Study.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Integration of wastewater treatment with algae cultivation is one of the promising ways to achieve an economically viable and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel production on a commercial scale. This study focused on pilot-scale algal biomass production system development, cultivation process optimization, and integration with swine manure wastewater treatment. The areal algal biomass productivity for the cultivation system that we developed ranged from 8.08 to 14.59 and 19.15-23.19 g/m(2)?×?day, based on ash-free dry weight and total suspended solid (TSS), respectively, which were higher than or comparable with those in literature. The harvested algal biomass had lipid content about 1.77-3.55 %, which was relatively low, but could be converted to bio-oil via fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis system developed in our lab. The lipids in the harvested algal biomass had a significantly higher percentage of total unsaturated fatty acids than those grown in lab conditions, which may be attributed to the observed temperature and light fluctuations. The nutrient removal rate was highly correlated to the biomass productivity. The NH3-N, TN, COD, and PO4-P reduction rates for the north-located photo-bioreactor (PBR-N) in July were 2.65, 3.19, 7.21, and 0.067 g/m(2)?×?day, respectively, which were higher than those in other studies. The cultivation system had advantages of high mixotrophic growth rate, low operating cost, as well as reduced land footprint due to the stacked-tray bioreactor design used in the study.
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?-Amyloid impairs the regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by glycogen synthase kinase 3.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a multifunctional kinase implicated in Alzheimers disease (AD). However, the synaptic actions of GSK-3 in AD conditions are largely unknown. In this study, we examined the impact of GSK-3 on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channels, the major mediator of synaptic plasticity. Application of GSK-3 inhibitors or knockdown of GSK-3 caused a significant reduction of NMDAR-mediated ionic and synaptic current in cortical neurons, whereas this effect of GSK-3 was impaired in cortical neurons treated with ?-amyloid (A?) or from transgenic mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein. GSK-3 activity was elevated by A?, and GSK-3 inhibitors failed to decrease the surface expression of NMDA receptor NR1 (NR1) and NR1/postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) interaction in amyloid precursor protein mice, which was associated with the diminished GSK-3 regulation of Rab5 activity that mediates NMDAR internalization. Consequently, GSK-3 inhibitor lost the capability of protecting neurons against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced excitotoxicity in A?-treated neurons. These results have provided a novel mechanism underlying the involvement of GSK-3 in AD.
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Gorhams disease: the disappearing bone.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Gorhams disease is a rare disorder characterized by proliferation of vascular channels. The clinical presentation of Gorhams disease is variable and depends on the site of involvement. A high index of clinical suspicion is needed for accurate diagnosis, and recognition of distinctive radiologic and histopathologic features can help facilitate and expedite diagnosis. The subsequent images were obtained from a 31-year-old male patient. Nuclear scintigraphy and computed tomography identified active bone destruction in the lower thoracic and upper lumbar spine in addition to the absence of the left lower rib cage. Gorhams disease was subsequently confirmed by biopsy.
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Risk factors survey for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy-induced renal hematoma.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) is a widely used treatment for patients with renal and ureteral stones because of its noninvasive approach. Although minor complications occur in most patients, a relative severe complication, perirenal or subcapsular hematoma, may also occur. We evaluate the possible risk factors for perirenal hematoma after SWL.
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Production of aromatic hydrocarbons by catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae with zeolites: catalyst screening in a pyroprobe.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites was investigated to evaluate the performance of different zeolites for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons. Three zeolites with different structures (H-Y, H-Beta and H-ZSM5) were used to study the effect of catalyst type on the aromatic yield. All three catalysts significantly increased the aromatic yields from pyrolysis of microalgae and egg whites compared with non-catalytic runs, and H-ZSM5 was most effective with a yield of 18.13%. Three H-ZSM5 with silica-to-alumina ratios of 30, 80 and 280 were used to study the effect of Si/Al ratio on the aromatic yield. The maximum yield was achieved at the Si/Al ratio of 80, which provides moderate acidity to achieve high aromatic production and reduce coke formation simultaneously. Aromatic production increased with the incorporation of copper or gallium to HZSM-5. However, other studied metals either had no significant influence or led to a lower aromatic yield.
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Professional development is enhanced by serving as a mini-CEX preceptor.
J Contin Educ Health Prof
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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The mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is widely used for the evaluation of medical trainees clinical competence. To our knowledge, no study has examined the effect of mini-CEX on the preceptors. Based on the principle of "to teach is to learn twice," we hypothesized that the act of precepting a mini-CEX would enhance preceptors own learning and performance.
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An unusual fatal penetrating coronary artery injury with effective perioperative management.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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We report here an uncommon anterior chest trauma with an unusual fatal penetrating coronary artery injury by pneumatic nail gun with effective perioperative management. While doing upholstery, a 32-year-old male patient accidentally stabbed by a pneumatic nail gun with injury to the anterior chest was brought to the emergency room of our hospital. Persistent chest pain with unstable vital signs and no external injury except for a faint ecchymosis on anterior chest were noted at arrival. Sixty-four-slice computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a foreign body completely embedded in the chest wall penetrating the left ventricle, with the coronary artery also suspected of being involved because of ST-T changes of V2 to V6 on electrocardiography. Three-dimensional reconstructive CT scans showed a penetrating injury to the left anterior descending coronary artery without complete transection. Thereafter, we performed the operation of nail removal with direct repair of coronary artery that was scheduled based on the image findings preoperatively, and the operation was smoothly performed without coronary artery cardiopulmonary bypass and grafting bypass effectively and simply. He was discharged uneventfully 14 days later. Another CT scan was performed which showed patency of repaired coronary artery 3 months later.
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Concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters for percutaneous retrieval of dislodged central venous port catheter.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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The purpose of this study was to report our experience of percutaneous retrieval of dislodged port catheters with concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters. During a 5-year period at our institute (June 2005 to July 2010), a total of 23 dislodged port catheters were retrieved. The interval between port catheter implantation and dislodged catheter retrieval ranged from 43 days to 1,414 days (mean 586.7 days). The time of delayed retrieval ranged from 1 day to 45 days (mean 4.6 days). All dislodged catheters were retrieved with the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters via femoral venous route. The prevalence of port catheter dislodgement at our institute was 3.4%. All dislodged port catheters were removed successfully with pigtail and loop snare catheters together. No procedure-related complications were encountered, except for transient arrhythmia in two patients, which required no medication. In conclusion, the concurrent use of pigtail and loop snare catheters is a feasible and easy way for percutaneous retrieval of a dislodged central venous port catheter.
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Integration of algae cultivation as biodiesel production feedstock with municipal wastewater treatment: strains screening and significance evaluation of environmental factors.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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The objectives of this study are to find the robust strains for the centrate cultivation system and to evaluate the effect of environmental factors including light intensity, light-dark cycle, and exogenous CO2 concentration on biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrient removal and biodiesel production. The results showed that all 14 algae strains from the genus of Chlorella, Haematococcus, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, and Chloroccum were able to grow on centrate. The highest net biomass accumulation (2.01 g/L) was observed with Chlorella kessleri followed by Chlorella protothecoides (1.31 g/L), and both of them were proved to be capable of mixotrophic growth when cultivated on centrate. Environmental factors had significant effect on algal biomass accumulation, wastewater nutrients removal and biodiesel production. Higher light intensity and exogenous CO2 concentration with longer lighting period promote biomass accumulation, biodiesel production, as well as the removal of chemical oxygen demand and nitrogen, while, lower exogenous CO2 concentration promotes phosphorus removal.
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Calcifications in thyroid nodules identified on preoperative computed tomography: patterns and clinical significance.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patterns and clinical importance of calcifications in thyroid nodules identified on preoperative computed tomography (CT).
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Removal of methylated arsenic using a nanostructured zirconia-based sorbent: process performance and adsorption chemistry.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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A readily prepared nanostructured zirconia-based sorbent was developed and demonstrated to be effective on adsorption of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) from water with a capacity of 1.43 mmol MMA/g sorbent, which is much higher than that of sorbents reported. It was found that the MMA uptake is highly pH-dependent. Better adsorption is obtained at lower pH, and the optimal pH is from 2.5 to 3.5. Most of the MMA uptake occurs rapidly in the first 48 h, followed by a relatively slow process. The adsorption kinetics and isotherm can be well described by pseudo-first order rate model and Langmuir equation, respectively. The temperature does not great influence on the adsorption isotherm. The MMA adsorption is independent on background electrolyte concentration, which implies the MMA forms inner-sphere complexes on the sorbent. The presence of humic acid does not pose noticeable effect on the adsorption. The coexisting HCO(3)(-) or F(-) obviously hinders the adsorption of MMA; however, the existence of PO(4)(3-) slightly enhances the adsorption. FTIR and XPS analyses demonstrated that hydroxyl and sulfur-containing functional groups are involved in the uptake of MMA. Based on the adsorption experimental results and spectroscopic analysis, an anion exchange mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of MMA.
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Functionalization of regenerated cellulose membrane via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for boron removal from aqueous solution.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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In this study, an adsorptive membrane was prepared for efficient boron removal. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate) was grafted on the surfaces of the regenerated cellulose (RC) membrane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization, and N-methylglucamine was used to further react with epoxide rings to introduce polyhydroxyl functional groups, which served as the major binding sites for boron. The pristine and modified membranes were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), dynamic water contact angle measurement, and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the designed functional groups were successfully grafted onto the RC membrane, and surface modification contributed to higher boron binding capability. The optimal pH range for boron adsorption was 4-8. Under a neutral pH condition, the maximum adsorption capacity of the modified membrane was determined to be 0.75 mmol/g, which was comparable with those of commercial resins. Studies of electrolyte influence indicated the formation of inner-sphere surface complexes on the membrane surface. The ATR-FTIR and XPS analyses showed that secondary alcohol and tertiary amine groups were mainly involved in boron adsorption, and tetrahedral boron complexes were found on the membrane surface.
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Cultivating Chlorella sp. in a pilot-scale photobioreactor using centrate wastewater for microalgae biomass production and wastewater nutrient removal.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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This study is concerned with a novel mass microalgae production system which, for the first time, uses "centrate", a concentrated wastewater stream, to produce microalgal biomass for energy production. Centrate contains a high level of nutrients that support algal growth. The objective of this study was to investigate the growth characteristics of a locally isolated microalgae strain Chlorella sp. in centrate and its ability to remove nutrients from centrate. A pilot-scale photobioreactor (PBR) was constructed at a local wastewater treatment plant. The system was tested under different harvesting rates and exogenous CO(2) levels with the local strain of Chlorella sp. Under low light conditions (25 ?mol·m(-2)s(-1)) the system can produce 34.6 and 17.7 g·m(-2)day(-1) biomass in terms of total suspended solids and volatile suspended solids, respectively. At a one fourth harvesting rate, reduction of chemical oxygen demand, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and soluble total phosphorus were 70%, 61%, and 61%, respectively. The addition of CO(2) to the system did not exhibit a positive effect on biomass productivity or nutrient removal in centrate which is an organic carbon rich medium. The unique PBR system is highly scalable and provides a great opportunity for biomass production coupled with wastewater treatment.
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Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of Ewing sarcoma: a clinical analysis of 12 patients in Taiwan.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Ewing sarcoma is extremely rare in people from East and Southeast Asia.
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Brain, the last fortress of sarcoma: similar dismal outcome but discrepancy of timing of brain metastasis in bone and soft tissue sarcoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Brain metastasis is a rare but dismal event in sarcomas. However, the pattern of occurrence and the prognostic factors associated with post-brain metastasis survival (PBMS) are not yet well-characterized.
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Local bioprospecting for high-lipid producing microalgal strains to be grown on concentrated municipal wastewater for biofuel production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Mass cultivation of microalgae for biofuel production depends heavily on the performance of the microalgae strains used. In this study, 60 algae-like microorganisms collected from different sampling sites in Minnesota were examined using multi-step screening and acclimation procedures to select high-lipid producing facultative heterotrophic microalgae strains capable of growing on concentrated municipal wastewater (CMW) for simultaneous energy crop production and wastewater treatment. Twenty-seven facultative heterotrophic microalgae strains were found, among which 17 strains were proved to be tolerant to CMW. These 17 top-performing strains were identified through morphological observation and DNA sequencing as Chlorella sp., Heynigia sp., Hindakia sp., Micractinium sp., and Scenedesmus sp. Five strains were chosen for other studies because of their ability to adapt to CMW, high growth rates (0.455-0.498 d(-1)) and higher lipid productivities (74.5-77.8 mg L(-1)d(-1)). These strains are considered highly promising compared with other strains reported in the literature.
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Electrochemical disinfection for ballast water management: technology development and risk assessment.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Ballast water is essential in maintaining the balance and structural integrity of ships during voyage. However, it has created biological invasion threats to the ocean environment. An innovative electrochemical technology was developed in this study. The microorganisms regulated by the International Maritime Organization (D2) were used as the target organisms. It was found that the required energy to meet the D2 was below 0.006 kWh/m3. The size of disinfector (m3) was about 0.5% of treatment flow rate (m3/h). The complete disappearance of chlorine in seawater was achieved after three days. The ballast tank corrosion was not worsened due to the application of technology. The ecotoxicity studies showed no toxic effect on fish, invertebrate, and algae. Finally, the environmental risk assessment showed the treated water did not pose threats to the environment. It can therefore be concluded that the technology provides a cost-effective and environmental friendly solution to ballast water management.
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Characterization of a microalga Chlorella sp. well adapted to highly concentrated municipal wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The feasibility of growing Chlorella sp. in the centrate, a highly concentrated municipal wastewater stream generated from activated sludge thickening process, for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy production was tested. The characteristics of algal growth, biodiesel production, wastewater nutrient removal and the viability of scale-up and the stability of continuous operation were examined. Two culture media, namely autoclaved centrate (AC) and raw centrate (RC) were used for comparison. The results showed that by the end of a 14-day batch culture, algae could remove ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 93.9%, 89.1%, 80.9%, and 90.8%, respectively from raw centrate, and the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content was 11.04% of dry biomass providing a biodiesel yield of 0.12 g-biodiesel/L-algae culture solution. The system could be successfully scaled up, and continuously operated at 50% daily harvesting rate, providing a net biomass productivity of 0.92 g-algae/(L day).
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Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of microalgae for biofuel production.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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The pyrolysis of Chlorella sp. was carried out in a microwave oven with char as microwave reception enhancer. The results indicated that the maximum bio-oil yield of 28.6% was achieved under the microwave power of 750 W. The bio-oil properties were characterized with elemental, GC-MS, GPC, FTIR, and thermogravimetric analysis. The algal bio-oil had a density of 0.98 kg/L, a viscosity of 61.2 cSt, and a higher heating value (HHV) of 30.7 MJ/kg. The GC-MS results showed that the bio-oils were mainly composed of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, long chain fatty acids and nitrogenated compounds, among which aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons (account for 22.18% of the total GC-MS spectrum area) are highly desirable compounds as those in crude oil, gasoline and diesel. The results in this study indicate that fast growing algae are a promising source of feedstock for advanced renewable fuel production via microwave-assisted pyrolysis (MAP).
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Prevalence and prognostic influence of genomic changes of EGFR pathway markers in synovial sarcoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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We aimed to study the prevalence and prognostic influence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream effectors in synovial sarcoma (SS).
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PML protein as a prognostic molecular marker for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas receiving primary surgery.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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We evaluated the clinicopathological associations and prognostic implications of promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) expressions in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) receiving primary surgery.
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Design and fabrication of an innovative and environmental friendly adsorbent for boron removal.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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Boron can pose adverse effects on human beings and plants species. It exists in various water environments and is difficult to be removed by conventional technologies. In this study, an efficient and environmental friendly sorbent was fabricated by the functionalization of a natural biopolymer, chitosan, with N-methylglucamine through atom transfer radical polymerization. The SEM and BET studies revealed that the sorbent had a rougher surface and a more porous structure than the chitosan. At the optimum neutral pH, the maximum sorption capacity was as high as 3.25 mmol/g, much higher than the commercial boron selective resins (e.g., Amberlite IRA-743) and many other synthesized sorbents. Almost 90% of boron sorption occurred within 8 h and the equilibrium was established in 12 h, which was well described by an intraparticle surface diffusion model. The presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate had no effect on the boron removal. The boron concentration in seawater could be reduced to less than 0.5 mg/L from 4.8 mg/L when a sorbent dosage of 1.2 g/L was used. It was therefore concluded that the sorption technology from this study could be promising for boron removal from aqueous solutions.
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Uptake of methylated arsenic by a polymeric adsorbent: process performance and adsorption chemistry.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Methylated arsenic in groundwater has caused a series of health problems to human beings. A N-methylglucamine modified chitosan polymeric adsorbent was successfully developed for efficient adsorption of methylated arsenic from water solution. Adsorption behaviors of two common methylated arsenic species, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), onto the adsorbent were investigated in this paper. The surface modification increased the adsorption capabilities for the arsenic. The uptake of MMA was higher than that of DMA throughout all pH values. The maximum adsorption capacities were 15.4 mg/g for MMA and 7.1 mg/g for DMA, exhibiting competitive advantages with other reported materials. The affinity of these arsenic species for the adsorbent followed a pattern of MMA > DMA. The adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 20 h. The uptake of MMA and DMA was dependent upon the concentration of background electrolytes, indicating the formation of outer-sphere complexes of both organoarsenic species with the adsorbent during the adsorption. The existence of natural organic matter and competitive anions cause decrease in the uptake of both arsenic species. Furthermore, the simultaneous uptake of organic contaminants such as humic acid was observed. The spectroscopic analysis demonstrated the strong attachment of both organic arsenic species onto the amine functional group of the adsorbent.
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Adsorptive removal of arsenic from water by an iron-zirconium binary oxide adsorbent.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Arsenate and arsenite may exist simultaneously in groundwater and have led to a greater risk to human health. In this study, an iron-zirconium (Fe-Zr) binary oxide adsorbent for both arsenate and arsenite removal was prepared by a coprecipitation method. The adsorbent was amorphous with a specific surface area of 339 m(2)/g. It was effective for both As(V) and As(III) removal; the maximum adsorption capacities were 46.1 and 120.0 mg/g at pH 7.0, respectively, much higher than for many reported adsorbents. Both As(V) and As(III) adsorption occurred rapidly and achieved equilibrium within 25 h, which were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation. Competitive anions hindered the sorption according to the sequence PO(4)(3-)>SiO(3)(2-)>CO(3)(2-)>SO(4)(2-). The ionic strength effect experiment, measurement of zeta potential, and FTIR study indicate that As(V) forms inner-sphere surface complexes, while As(III) forms both inner- and outer-sphere surface complexes at the water/Fe-Zr binary oxide interface. The high uptake capability and good stability of the Fe-Zr binary oxide make it a potentially attractive adsorbent for the removal of both As(V) and As(III) from water.
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Real-time MR-guided retrieval of inferior vena cava filters: an in vitro and animal model study.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
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To develop interventional magnetic resonance (MR) guidance techniques for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter retrieval in vitro and demonstrate feasibility in vivo.
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Dominant expression of survival signals of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Hodgkin lymphoma.
Cancer Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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The accumulation of viral proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) may cause ER stress responses and lead to either apoptosis or survival depending on the driving signals. The strong expression of latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cells raises the question whether LMP1-induced ER stress response is associated with the characteristic tumor biology in HL. In this study, we investigated the expression of ER stress signals (glucose-regulated protein 78 [GRP78], X-box binding protein 1 [XBP1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], CCAAT enhance-binding protein homologous protein [CHOP] and phospho-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 [pASK1]) on 156 cases of HL. Furthermore, LMP1 transfection on EBV-negative HL cell lines was used to explore the regulation of ER stress signals by EBV-LMP1. Interestingly, we demonstrated that the survival signals of ER stress response (GRP78, 62%; XBP1u [unspliced], 55%; XBP1s [spliced], 38%; ATF6, 91%) were dominantly expressed over the ER death signals (CHOP, 10%; pASK1, 7%) in all histological subtypes of HL with a similar level in both EBV-positive and EBV-negative cases. However, expression of ER signals did not bear prognostic significance. In vitro, LMP1 transfection increased the expression of GRP78 and XBP1, but attenuated the expression of death signals, CHOP and pASK1. These data indicate that EBV-LMP1 may play a role in shifting EBV-infected cells towards the survival pathway in the presence of ER stress in EBV-positive HL cases.
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Characterization of hexavalent chromium interaction with Sargassum by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Hexavalent chromium represents higher toxicity in aqueous solutions. It can be removed by such low-cost biosorbents as Sargassum sp. In this study, X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry (QC) calculation were used to study the interactions between hexavalent chromium and Sargassum sp. during the biosorption. It was found that most of the adsorbed Cr(VI) ions were reduced to Cr(III) after the biosorption. The electrons for the reduction of Cr(VI) were possibly supplied from the Sargassum biomass, some organic compounds of which were oxidized. Cr(III) ions were coordinated with the oxygen atoms from either carboxyl or hydroxyl functional groups to form an octahedral structural metal complex. The coordination numbers of the formed Cr complex were 4-6, and bond length of Cr-O was 1.98Å. QC calculation proved the possible formation of the Cr(III) metal complex, and revealed that carboxyl from biomass could be strongly bound with Cr(III). A three-step removal mechanism of Cr(VI) by Sargassum was proposed.
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Enhanced adsorption of arsenate onto a natural polymer-based sorbent by surface atom transfer radical polymerization.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2010
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Arsenic contamination in water, especially in groundwater, has been recognized as an important issue of concern because of its high mobility and toxicity. In this study, N-methylglucamine was immobilized onto crosslinked chitosan beads via atom transfer radical polymerization for an efficient adsorption of arsenic. It was demonstrated that the immobilization significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity. The uptake onto the adsorbent was highly pH dependent, and a maximum adsorption capacity as high as 69.28 mg/g was obtained at the optimum pH of 5. Most of arsenate was rapidly adsorbed in the first 5h, and the adsorption equilibrium was established in 16 h, which was well described by an intraparticle diffusion model. The adsorbent exhibited a great uptake of the humic acid, which led to a decrease in the adsorption of arsenate. The effects of competitive anions on the adsorption exhibited the following descending sequence: sulfate ? phosphate>fluoride (negligible effect). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the arsenic adsorption resulted from the presence of tertiary amine and hydroxyl functional groups grafted on the crosslinked chitosan.
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Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-Visible spectroscopy and kinetic modeling for elucidation of adsorption chemistry in uptake of tetracycline by zeolite beta.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2010
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Extensive usage of tetracycline has resulted in its contamination in surface water and groundwater. The adsorption of tetracycline on zeolite beta was systematically investigated for the decontamination of the antibiotic polluted water in this study. Ninety percent of uptake by the zeolite beta occured in 0.25h, and the adsorption equilibrium was obtained within 3h, which was well described by an intraparticle diffusion model. The adsorption generally increased when pH was increased from 4.0 to 5.0, and then decreased significantly as the pH was further increased, which was caused by the pH-dependent speciation of tetracycline and surface charge of zeolite beta. Both Freundlich and Langmuir equations well described the adsorption isotherm. A thermodynamic analysis showed that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic. Aluminum atoms in the zeolite played a crucial role in the uptake; the adsorption increased with the increasing aluminum content in zeolite. The UV-Visible spectroscopy study showed that the spectra of tetracycline changed upon the interaction with zeolite beta, which could be ascribed to the formation of complexes of tetracycline and aluminum atoms in the zeolite surface. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy study further confirmed the participation of Al in the tetracycline adsorption. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies showed that the amino functional groups in tetracycline were involved in the complexation with the zeolite surface.
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A zirconium based nanoparticle for significantly enhanced adsorption of arsenate: Synthesis, characterization and performance.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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In this study, a zirconium nanoparticle sorbent for significantly enhanced adsorption of arsenate (As(V)) was successfully synthesized. The characterization of the zirconium nanoparticle sorbent and its adsorption behavior for arsenate were investigated. The HRTEM micrographs showed that the sorbent was nanoscale with particle sizes ranging from 60 to 90nm. The thermal gravimetric and elemental analyses indicated that the sorbent had a molecular formula of Zr(2)(OH)(6)SO(4)·3H(2)O. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that the sorbent was amorphous. The potentiometric titration study demonstrated the surface charge density of the sorbent decreased with an increase in solution pH, and the pH of zero point charge of the sorbent was around 2.85. The kinetics study showed that most of the uptake took place in the first 6h, and the adsorption equilibrium was obtained within 12h. The optimal pH for As(V) adsorption was between 2.5 and 3.5. The Langmuir equation well described the adsorption isotherm; the maximum adsorption capacity of 256.4mg As/g was found at the optimal pH, better than most of sorbents available in the market. The presence of fluoride or nitrate did not obviously affect the adsorption of As(V) onto the sorbent; however, the existence of humic acid, phosphate or silicate in aqueous solution significantly reduced the uptake of As(V). The humic acid did not cause the reduction of the As(V). The FTIR and XPS spectroscopic analyses revealed that surface hydroxyl and sulfur-containing groups played important roles in the adsorption.
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Control of misincorporation of serine for asparagine during antibody production using CHO cells.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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A recombinant monoclonal antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell fed-batch culture was found to have amino acid sequence misincorporation upon analysis by intact mass and peptide mapping mass spectrometry. A detailed analysis revealed multiple sites for asparagine were being randomly substituted by serine, pointing to mistranslation as the likely source. Results from time-course analysis of cell culture suggest that misincorporation was occurring midway through the fed-batch process and was correlated to asparagine reduction to below detectable levels in the culture. Separate shake flask experiments were carried out that confirmed starvation of asparagine and not excess of serine in the medium as the root cause of the phenomenon. Reduction in serine concentration under asparagine starvation conditions helped reduce extent of misincorporation. Supplementation with glutamine also helped reduce extent of misincorporation. Maintenance of asparagine at low levels in 2 L bench-scale culture via controlled supplementation of asparagine-containing feed eliminated the occurrence of misincorporation. This strategy was implemented in a clinical manufacturing process and scaled up successfully to the 200 and 2,000 L bioreactor scales.
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Preparation and characterization of chitosan encapsulated Sargassum sp. biosorbent for nickel ions sorption.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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A new biosorbent -Sargassum sp. encapsulated with epichlorohydrin (ECH) cross-linked chitosan (CS) was investigated for nickel ions removal. The prepared biosorbent with Sargassum sp. to cross-linked chitosan of 3 (weight ratio) had the highest sorption capacity. The biosorption kinetics can be well fitted by the diffusion-controlled model. The organic leaching of CS was 77-88% less than that of algae at different pH. The biosorption capacity of nickel on CS was much higher than that of cross-linked chitosan (CLC) bead and lower than that of raw algae due to encapsulation. In addition, the reusability of CS was further evaluated and confirmed through five adsorption-desorption cycles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated that the nickel ions sequestration mechanism included ion exchange and nickel complexation with the carboxyl, amino, alcoholic and ether groups in CS.
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Semi-continuous cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris for treating undigested and digested dairy manures.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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The present study, based on a previous batch-wise experiment, investigated a lab-scale semi-continuous cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714), as a useful means for nutrient reduction as well as production of algal biomass which can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuel and other commodities, on 20 x diluted dairy manures. Both undigested and digested samples were applied in parallel experiments for comparison regarding the requirements of hydraulic retention times (HRTs), removal efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), biomass productivities, and CO? sequestration abilities. It was demonstrated that algae grown in undigested dairy manure achieved removal rates of 99.7%, 89.5%, 92.0%, and 75.5% for NH?+--N, TN, TP, and COD, respectively, under a 5-day HRT, while the HRT had to extend to 20 days in order to achieve 100.0% removal of NH?+--N in digested one with simultaneous removals of 93.6% of TN, 89.2% of TP, and 55.4% of COD. The higher organic carbon contained in undigested dairy manure helped boost the growth of mixotrophic Chlorella, thus resulting in a much shorter HRT needed for complete removal of NH?+--N. Moreover, algae grown in digested dairy manure provided more penitential than those grown in undigested one in CO? sequestration per milligram of harvested dried biomass (1.68 mg CO?/mg dry weight (DW) vs 0.99 mg CO?/mg DW), but did not surpass in total the amount of CO? sequestered on a 15-day period basis because of the better productivity gained in undigested dairy manure.
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Improvement of metal adsorption onto chitosan/Sargassum sp. composite sorbent by an innovative ion-imprint technology.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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Technology for immobilization of biomass has attracted a great interest due to the high sorption capacity of biomass for sequestration of toxic metals from industrial effluents. However, the currently practiced immobilization methods normally reduce the metal sorption capacities. In this study, an innovative ion-imprint technology was developed to overcome the drawback. Copper ion was first imprinted onto the functional groups of chitosan that formed a pellet-typed sorbent through the granulation with Sargassum sp.; the imprinted copper ion was chemically detached from the sorbent, leading to the formation of a novel copper ion-imprinted chitosan/Sargassum sp. (CICS) composite adsorbent. The copper sorption on CICS was found to be highly pH-dependent and the maximum uptake capacity was achieved at pH 4.7-5.5. The adsorption isotherm study showed the maximum sorption capacity of CICS of 1.08 mmol/g, much higher than the non-imprinted chitosan/Sargassum sp. sorbent (NICS) (0.49 mmol/g). The used sorbent was reusable after being regenerated through desorption. The FTIR and XPS studies revealed that the greater sorption of heavy metal was attributed to the large number of primary amine groups available on the surfaces of the ion-imprinted chitosan and the abundant carboxyl groups on Sargassum sp. Finally, an intraparticle surface diffusion controlled model well described the sorption history of the sorbents.
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Acupuncture-induced popliteal arteriovenous fistula successfully treated with percutaneous endovascular intervention.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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A 39-year-old female visited our cardiovascular outpatient department with paresthesia and soreness around the right popliteal fossa, where thrill was palpable. There was no history of trauma, apart from her having undergone acupuncture several years previously. An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) was diagnosed by vascular ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Angiography confirmed the presence of an AVF fed by the medial geniculate artery. Transarterial embolization was performed to close the AVF using coils and tissue adhesive. To the best of our knowledge, acupuncture-induced AVF has not been previously reported. We present a case demonstrating the merits of percutaneous endovascular intervention for treating this rare complication. The additional administration of a tissue adhesive can achieve complete closure of the AVF in the event of an unsatisfactory result following coil embolization. Doctors should be aware of the potential vascular complications of acupuncture, and of the management options.
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Soft tissue sarcoma of extremities: the prognostic significance of adequate surgical margins in primary operation and reoperation after recurrence.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS) of extremities are prone to recurrence despite apparently complete resection. This study aimed to explore the impact of clinicopathological factors on outcome and to define an "oncological safe margin" in these patients.
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Relapsed acute pancreatitis as the initial presentation of pancreatic cancer in a young man: a case report.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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In this report, we describe a 31-year-old man in whom acute pancreatitis was the initial feature of a subsequently diagnosed pancreatic adenocarcinoma with multiple metastases. He initially presented at our hospital with acute pancreatitis. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mildly dilated pancreatic duct and an enlarged pancreatic head. Although a follow-up abdominal ultrasonography revealed a progressively dilated pancreatic duct and a progressively enlarged pancreatic head, he refused further investigation and was lost to follow-up. Four months later, he returned to our hospital with relapsed acute pancreatitis. Obstructive jaundice was noted and drainage was performed. Because choledochoplasty with multiple balloon catheters was not fully effective, biliary tract bypass surgery was carried out. Intraoperative biopsy confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinoma with multiple metastases. The patient died of massive gastrointestinal bleeding a few weeks later. To our knowledge, this is the youngest case of pancreatic cancer with the uncommon initial presentation of acute pancreatitis reported in the literature. For a patient with acute pancreatitis, particularly recurrent episodes, but with no known risk factors for pancreatitis, a pancreatic neoplasm should be considered as a potential underlying cause, even in a young man.
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Primary hyperparathyroidism with brown tumor mimicking metastatic bone malignancy.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Bone and joint pain are commonly encountered conditions in daily practice. In the elderly, when osteolytic lesions are identified in imaging studies, metastatic bone tumor is the first impression that comes to the clinicians mind. Although the worst-case scenario should be ruled in, other differential diagnoses such as metabolic bone disease should be considered as well. We report a case of brown tumor caused by parathyroid adenoma. The patient had initial presentation of diffuse bone pain and multiple osteolytic lesions on imaging studies similar to metastatic bone tumor. With a systematic approach and awareness of metabolic bone disease, an accurate diagnosis was finally reached. Appropriate treatments, including preventive internal fixation of the impending femoral fracture and surgical excision of the parathyroid adenoma were performed accordingly. The key treatment for the condition was surgical excision of the parathyroid adenoma. After normalization of serum intact-parathyroid hormone level, the bony lesions resolved and required no further orthopedic surgery. The patient is now symptom-free. In addition to suspecting malignancy, the clinician should be highly alert to other possible causes of bony lesions. Brown tumor should be kept in mind during daily practice.
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The relationship between human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus infections in relation to age of patients with cervical adenocarcinoma.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2009
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To examine the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections in relation to age of patients with cervical adenocarcinoma.
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Identification of chromosomal aberrations associated with disease progression and a novel 3q13.31 deletion involving LSAMP gene in osteosarcoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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Five osteosarcoma (OS) cell lines, 37 OS tumors and 9 corresponding non-neoplastic samples were genotyped by Affymetrix 10 K 2.0 SNP array. Regions of high level amplification and homozygous deletion were identified and validated by quantitative PCR and FISH. Certain recurrent cytogenetic alterations were more frequent in recurrent/metastatic than in primary OS. These included deletion of 6q14.1, 6q16.2-q22.31, and 8p23.2-p12, amplification of 8q21.12, 8q22.3-q24.3 and 17p12, and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at 2q24.3-q31.2, 5q11.2, 6p21.31-p21.1, 6q14.1-q16.2, 8p22-p12, 9q22.1, 10q21.1-q22.1, 10q23.31-q24.1, 12q15-q21.1 and 21q21.2-q21.3. Most of the LOH calls were associated with deletion, but a subset of them was associated with normal or increased copy number (CN). A consensus 3q13.31 deletion localized to a region within the limbic system-associated membrane protein (LSAMP) gene was also identified. The FISH evaluations demonstrated highly-localized homozygous or heterozygous LSAMP deletions in 6 of 11 primary OS. qRT-PCR evaluations of the two major alternative LSAMP transcripts demonstrated reduced expression of 1b isoform transcript in each of three OS with LSAMP exon 1b deletion. Further, the 1a isoform transcripts in these same OS had either reduced expression or a premature termination codon in LSAMP exon 2. This SNP genotyping study identified chromosomal aberrations associated with disease progression in OS and disclosed LSAMP as a novel tumor suppressor gene in OS. The study also demonstrated that CN and LOH analyses were able to detect distinct subsets of genetic abnormalities in OS.
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Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.
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An XPS study for mechanisms of arsenate adsorption onto a magnetite-doped activated carbon fiber.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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The surface and bulk structures of a newly developed carbon-based iron-containing adsorbent for As(V) adsorption were investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD patterns of the adsorbents indicated that the modified activated carbon fiber (MACF) was a simple mixture of the raw activated carbon fiber (RACF) and magnetite. After modification, a porous film was formed on the surface of the MACF with nano-sized magnetite on it. The As(V) uptake on the MACF was highly pH dependent and was facilitated in acidic solutions. XPS studies demonstrated that the surface oxygen-containing functional groups were involved in the adsorption and that magnetite played a key role in As(V) uptake. The dominance of HAsO(4)(2-) in surface complexes and the pH effect on As(V) uptake demonstrated that the monoprotonated bidentate complexes were dominant on the surface of the MACF. No reduction of As(V) was observed on the surface of the ACFs.
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Systematic study of synergistic and antagonistic effects on adsorption of tetracycline and copper onto a chitosan.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2009
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Sorption of tetracycline and copper onto chitosan is systematically investigated in this study. The sorption of tetracycline and copper occurs rapidly in the first few hours and 90% of completed uptake occurs in the first 11-12 and 6 h, respectively. The sorption equilibrium of both contaminants is established in 24 h. The solution pH largely affects the sorption of both contaminants. The tetracycline uptake increases as pH is increased from 2.8 to 5.6, and 2.5 to 7 in the absence and the presence of copper, respectively. The presence of copper significantly improves the tetracycline adsorption likely due to the formation of cationic bridging of copper between tetracycline and chitosan. The maximum adsorption capacity and the adsorption affinity constant for tetracycline dramatically increase from 53.82 to 93.04 mmol kg(-1) and from 1.22 to 10.20 L mmol(-1) as the copper concentration is increased from 0 to 0.5 mmol L(-1). The uptake of copper increases with an increase in pH from around 3.5-6.0 in the absence and the presence of tetracycline. The presence of tetracycline decreases the copper adsorption, which may be ascribed to the competition of tetracycline with copper ions for the adsorption sites at the chitosan surface. The adsorption isothermal data of both tetracycline and copper are fit well by the Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption capacity and adsorption affinity constant of copper ions decrease from 1856.06 to 1486.20 mmol kg(-1) and from 1.80 to 1.68 L mmol(-1) in the absence and the presence of tetracycline. FTIR and XPS studies reveal that amino, hydroxyl, and ether groups in the chitosan are involved in the adsorption of tetracycline and copper.
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Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment.
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Ultrasonographic and MR findings of alveolar soft part sarcoma.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma, commonly occurring in children and adolescents. The tumor mostly involves the lower extremities. The prognosis of the patient depends on whether there is metastasis. We present a 19-year-old female with ASPS in her right lower leg. Grayscale and color Doppler ultrasound showed a well-defined hypoechoic lesion with hypervascularity and very low resistive index (RI). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed iso signal intensity to muscle on T1-weighted images, high signal intensity to muscle on T2-weighted images with signal voids, and good enhancement after gadolinium administration. In a mass with hypervascularity and very low RI on sonography and hypervascularity with flow voids on magnetic resonance imaging, ASPS should be considered.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.