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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells.
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Lipopolysaccharide, immune activation, and liver abnormalities in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV)-coinfected individuals receiving HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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We investigated the relationship between microbial translocation, immune activation, and liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), soluble CD14, CXCL10, and CCL-2 levels were elevated in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection. Levels of LPS, soluble CD14, and CCL-2 declined following receipt of HBV-active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but the CXCL10 level remained elevated. No markers were associated with liver disease severity on liver biopsy (n = 96), but CXCL10, interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor ?, and interferon ? (IFN-?) were all associated with elevated liver enzyme levels during receipt of HBV-active cART. Stimulation of hepatocyte cell lines in vitro with IFN-? and LPS induced a profound synergistic increase in the production of CXCL10. LPS may contribute to liver disease via stimulating persistent production of CXCL10.
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Ex Vivo Response to Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Inhibitors of the HIV Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) Derived from HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) can induce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription from the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR). However, ex vivo and in vivo responses to HDACi are variable and the activity of HDACi in cells other than T-cells have not been well characterised. Here, we developed a novel assay to determine the activity of HDACi on patient-derived HIV LTRs in different cell types. HIV LTRs from integrated virus were amplified using triple-nested Alu-PCR from total memory CD4+ T-cells (CD45RO+) isolated from HIV-infected patients prior to and following suppressive antiretroviral therapy. NL4-3 or patient-derived HIV LTRs were cloned into the chromatin forming episomal vector pCEP4, and the effect of HDACi investigated in the astrocyte and epithelial cell lines SVG and HeLa, respectively. There were no significant differences in the sequence of the HIV LTRs isolated from CD4+ T-cells prior to and after 18 months of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We found that in both cell lines, the HDACi panobinostat, trichostatin A, vorinostat and entinostat activated patient-derived HIV LTRs to similar levels seen with NL4-3 and all patient derived isolates had similar sensitivity to maximum HDACi stimulation. We observed a marked difference in the maximum fold induction of luciferase by HDACi in HeLa and SVG, suggesting that the effect of HDACi may be influenced by the cellular environment. Finally, we observed significant synergy in activation of the LTR with vorinostat and the viral protein Tat. Together, our results suggest that the LTR sequence of integrated virus is not a major determinant of a functional response to an HDACi.
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Myeloid Dendritic Cells Induce HIV-1 Latency in Non-proliferating CD4(+) T Cells.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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Latently infected resting CD4(+) T cells are a major barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how latency is established, maintained and reversed is critical to identifying novel strategies to eliminate latently infected cells. We demonstrate here that co-culture of resting CD4(+) T cells and syngeneic myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) can dramatically increase the frequency of HIV DNA integration and latent HIV infection in non-proliferating memory, but not naïve, CD4(+) T cells. Latency was eliminated when cell-to-cell contact was prevented in the mDC-T cell co-cultures and reduced when clustering was minimised in the mDC-T cell co-cultures. Supernatants from infected mDC-T cell co-cultures did not facilitate the establishment of latency, consistent with cell-cell contact and not a soluble factor being critical for mediating latent infection of resting CD4(+) T cells. Gene expression in non-proliferating CD4(+) T cells, enriched for latent infection, showed significant changes in the expression of genes involved in cellular activation and interferon regulated pathways, including the down-regulation of genes controlling both NF-?B and cell cycle. We conclude that mDC play a key role in the establishment of HIV latency in resting memory CD4(+) T cells, which is predominantly mediated through signalling during DC-T cell contact.
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Entinostat is a histone deacetylase inhibitor selective for class 1 histone deacetylases and activates HIV production from latently infected primary T cells.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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To compare the potency, toxicity and mechanism of action of multiple histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) in activating HIV production from latency.
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IMGT/HighV QUEST paradigm for T cell receptor IMGT clonotype diversity and next generation repertoire immunoprofiling.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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T cell repertoire diversity and clonotype follow-up in vaccination, cancer, infectious and immune diseases represent a major challenge owing to the enormous complexity of the data generated. Here we describe a next generation methodology, which combines 5RACE PCR, 454 sequencing and, for analysis, IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (IMGT), IMGT/HighV-QUEST web portal and IMGT-ONTOLOGY concepts. The approach is validated in a human case study of T cell receptor beta (TRB) repertoire, by chronologically tracking the effects of influenza vaccination on conventional and regulatory T cell subpopulations. The IMGT/HighV-QUEST paradigm defines standards for genotype/haplotype analysis and characterization of IMGT clonotypes for clonal diversity and expression and achieves a degree of resolution for next generation sequencing verifiable by the user at the sequence level, while providing a normalized reference immunoprofile for human TRB.
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Tissue dendritic cells as portals for HIV entry.
Rev. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are found at the portals of pathogen entry such as the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genital tracts where they represent the first line of contact between the immune system and the foreign invaders. They are found throughout the body in multiple subsets where they express unique combinations of C-type lectin receptors to best aid them in detection of pathogens associated with their anatomical location. DCs are important in the establishment in HIV infection for two reasons. Firstly, they are one of the first cells to encounter the virus, and the specific interaction that occurs between these cells and HIV is critical to HIV establishing a foothold infection. Secondly and most importantly, HIV is able to efficiently transfer the virus to its primary target cell, the CD4(+) T lymphocyte, in which it replicates explosively. Infection of CD4(+) T lymphocytes via DCs is far more efficient than direct infection. This review surveys the various DCs subsets found within the human sexual mucosa and their interactions with HIV. Mechanisms of HIV uptake are discussed as well as how the virus then traffics through the DC and is transferred to T cells. Until recently, most research has focussed on vaginal transmission despite the increased transmission rate associated with anal intercourse. Here, we also discuss recent advances in our understanding of HIV transmission in the colon.
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Characterization of tetraspanins CD9, CD53, CD63, and CD81 in monocytes and macrophages in HIV-1 infection.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Tetraspanins are a family of membrane-organizing proteins that mediate diverse functions. Little is known of their expression or function in myeloid cells. Here, expression of CD9, CD53, CD63, and CD81, tetraspanins that have been implicated in HIV-1 pathogenesis, were characterized in normal monocyte subsets, in MDM, and in HIV-1-infected donors. We show that tetraspanins are expressed differentially by monocyte subsets, with higher CD9 and CD63 and lower CD53 and CD81 levels on CD14++CD16- monocytes compared with CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ subsets. Maturation of monocytes resulted in increased CD9 expression and apparent relocation of CD63 and CD53 from surface to intracellular membranes. Expression was modulated by cytokines, and CD9 was a marker of anti-inflammatory and CD53 a marker of proinflammatory MDM. Tetraspanin expression on monocyte subsets from HIV-1-infected donors receiving antiretroviral therapy was unchanged compared with that in uninfected donors. However, CD53 expression was inversely correlated with viral load in HIV-1-infected donors not on therapy. This study is the first to comprehensively characterize tetraspanin expression on monocyte subsets and macrophages in health and during HIV-1 infection. It demonstrates regulation of tetraspanin expression by cytokines, and CD53 expression as a novel correlate of a proinflammatory phenotype. This paper characterizes tetraspanins in myeloid cells and shows that tetraspanins are expressed differentially in monocyte subsets and are modified in inflammatory conditions.
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The search for an HIV cure: tackling latent infection.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Strategies to eliminate infectious HIV that persists despite present treatments and with the potential to cure HIV infection are of great interest. One patient seems to have been cured of HIV infection after receiving a bone marrow transplant with cells resistant to the virus, although this strategy is not viable for large numbers of infected people. Several clinical trials are underway in which drugs are being used to activate cells that harbour latent HIV. In a recent study, investigators showed that activation of latent HIV infection in patients on antiretroviral therapy could be achieved with a single dose of vorinostat, a licensed anticancer drug that inhibits histone deacetylase. Although far from a cure, such studies provide some guidance towards the logical next steps for research. Clinical studies that use a longer duration of drug dosing, alternative agents, combination approaches, gene therapy, and immune-modulation approaches are all underway.
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Inhibition of telomerase activity by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors: a potential factor contributing to HIV-associated accelerated aging.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on combination active antiretroviral therapy (cART) are at increased risk of age-related complications. We hypothesized that nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may contribute to accelerated aging in HIV-infected individuals on cART via inhibition of telomerase activity.
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Targeting antigen to bone marrow stromal cell-2 expressed by conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells elicits efficient antigen presentation.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Bone marrow stromal cell-2 (BST-2) has major roles in viral tethering and modulation of interferon production. Here we investigate BST-2 as a receptor for the delivery of antigen to dendritic cells (DCs). We show that BST-2 is expressed by a panel of mouse and human DC subsets, particularly under inflammatory conditions. The outcome of delivering antigen to BST-2 expressed by steady state and activated plasmacytoid DC (pDC) or conventional CD8(+) and CD8(-) DCs was determined. T-cell responses were measured for both MHC class I (MHCI) and MHC class II (MHCII) antigen presentation pathways in vitro. Delivering antigen via BST-2 was compared with that via receptors DEC205 or Siglec-H. We show that despite a higher antigen load and faster receptor internalisation, when antigen is delivered to steady state or activated pDC via BST-2, BST-2-targeted activated conventional DCs present antigen more efficiently. Relative to DEC205, BST-2 was inferior in its capacity to deliver antigen to the MHCI cross-presentation pathway. In contrast, BST-2 was superior to Siglec-H at initiating either MHCI or MHCII antigen presentation. In summary, BST-2 is a useful receptor to target with antigen, given its broad expression pattern and ability to access both MHCI and MHCII presentation pathways with relative efficiency.
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Do beta-blockers alter dyspnea and fatigue in advanced lung cancer? A retrospective analysis.
Palliat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Dyspnea is common in lung cancer and may be partially attributable to increased ventilatory drive due to muscle weakness. The sympathetic component of this pathway might be mitigated by ?-blockers.
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Expression and reactivation of HIV in a chemokine induced model of HIV latency in primary resting CD4+ T cells.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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We recently described that HIV latent infection can be established in vitro following incubation of resting CD4+ T-cells with chemokines that bind to CCR7. The main aim of this study was to fully define the post-integration blocks to virus replication in this model of CCL19-induced HIV latency.
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Splenectomy associated changes in IgM memory B cells in an adult spleen registry cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Asplenic patients have a lifelong risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection and have been reported to have low numbers of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. The clinical value of quantitation of memory B cells as an indicator of splenic abnormality or risk of infection has been unclear. To assess changes in B cell sub-populations after splenectomy we studied patients recruited to a spleen registry (n = 591). A subset of 209 adult asplenic or hyposplenic subjects, and normal controls (n = 140) were tested for IgM memory B cells. We also determined a) changes in IgM memory B cells with time after splenectomy using the cross-sectional data from patients on the registry and b) the kinetics of changes in haematological markers associated with splenectomy(n = 45). Total B cells in splenectomy patients did not differ from controls, but memory B cells, IgM memory B cells and switched B cells were significantly (p<0.001) reduced. The reduction was similar for different indications for splenectomy. Changes of asplenia in routine blood films including presence of Howell-Jolly bodies (HJB), occurred early (median 25 days) and splenectomy associated thrombocytosis and lymphocytosis peaked by 50 days. There was a more gradual decrease in IgM memory B cells reaching a stable level within 6 months after splenectomy. IgM memory B cells as proportion of B cells was the best discriminator between splenectomized patients and normal controls and at the optimal cut-off of 4.53, showed a true positive rate of 95% and false positive rate of 20%. In a survey of 152 registry patients stratified by IgM memory B cells around this cut-off there was no association with minor infections and no registry patients experienced OPSI during the study. Despite significant changes after splenectomy, conventional measures of IgM memory cells have limited clinical utility in this population.
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The role of naïve T-cells in HIV-1 pathogenesis: an emerging key player.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Functional naïve T-cells are critical for an effective immune response to multiple pathogens. HIV leads to a significant reduction in CD4+ naïve T-cell number and impaired function and there is incomplete recovery following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we review the basic homeostatic mechanisms that maintain naïve CD4+ T-cells and discuss recent developments in understanding the impact of HIV infection on naïve CD4+ T-cells. Finally we review therapeutic interventions in HIV-infected individuals aimed at specifically enhancing recovery of naïve CD4+ T-cells.
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Thymic plasmacytoid dendritic cells are susceptible to productive HIV-1 infection and efficiently transfer R5 HIV-1 to thymocytes in vitro.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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HIV-1 infection of the thymus contributes to the defective regeneration and loss of CD4+ T cells in HIV-1-infected individuals. As thymic dendritic cells (DC) are permissive to infection by HIV-1, we examined the ability of thymic DC to enhance infection of thymocytes which may contribute to the overall depletion of CD4+ T cells. We compared productive infection in isolated human thymic and blood CD11c+ myeloid DC (mDC) and CD123+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) CCR5 (R5)-tropic NL(AD8) and CXCR4 (X4)-tropic NL4-3 HIV-1 reporter viruses. Transfer of productive HIV-1 infection from thymic mDC and pDC was determined by culturing these DC subsets either alone or with sorted thymocytes.
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Clinical predictors of immune reconstitution following combination antiretroviral therapy in patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2011
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A small but significant number of patients do not achieve CD4 T-cell counts >500 cells/µl despite years of suppressive cART. These patients remain at risk of AIDS and non-AIDS defining illnesses. The aim of this study was to identify clinical factors associated with CD4 T-cell recovery following long-term cART.
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Differential expression of CD163 on monocyte subsets in healthy and HIV-1 infected individuals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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CD163, a haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) scavenger receptor, expressed by monocytes and macrophages, is important in resolution of inflammation. Age-related non-AIDS co-morbidities in HIV-infected individuals, particularly dementia and cardiovascular disease, result in part from effects of HIV-1 infection on monocyte and macrophage biology. CD163 co-expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes has been proposed as a useful biomarker for HIV-1 disease progression and the presence of HIV associated dementia. Here we investigated CD163 expression on monocyte subsets ex vivo, on cultured macrophages, and soluble in plasma, in the setting of HIV-1 infection. Whole blood immunophenotyping revealed CD163 expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes but not on CD14+CD16++ monocytes (P?=?0.004), supported by CD163 mRNA levels. Incubation with M-CSF induced CD163 protein expression on CD14+CD16++ monocytes to the same extent as CD14++CD16- monocytes. CD163 expression on CD14++CD16+ monocytes from HIV-infected subjects was significantly higher than from uninfected individuals, with a trend towards increased expression on CD14++CD16- monocytes (P?=?0.019 and 0.069 respectively), which is accounted for by HIV-1 therapy including protease inhibitors. Shedding of CD163 was shown to predominantly occur from the CD14++CD16- subset after Ficoll isolation and LPS stimulation. Soluble CD163 concentration in plasma from HIV-1 infected donors was similar to HIV-1 uninfected donors. Monocyte CD163 expression in HIV-1 infected patients showed a complicated relationship with classical measures of disease progression. Our findings clarify technical issues regarding CD163 expression on monocyte subsets and further elucidates its role in HIV-associated inflammation by demonstrating that CD163 is readily lost from CD14++CD16- monocytes and induced in pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16++ monocytes by M-CSF. Our data show that all monocyte subsets are potentially capable of differentiating into CD163-expressing anti-inflammatory macrophages given appropriate stimuli. Levels of CD163 expression on monocytes may be a potential biomarker reflecting efforts by the immune system to resolve immune activation and inflammation in HIV-infected individuals.
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Early events of HIV-1 infection: can signaling be the next therapeutic target?
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Intracellular signaling events are signposts of biological processes, which govern the direction and action of biological activities. Through millions of years of evolution, pathogens, such as viruses, have evolved to hijack host cell machinery to infect their targets and are therefore dependent on host cell signaling for replication. This review will detail our current understanding of the signaling events that are important for the early steps of HIV-1 replication. More specifically, the therapeutic potential of signaling events associated with chemokine coreceptors, virus entry, viral synapses, and post-entry processes will be discussed. We argue that these pathways may represent novel targets for antiviral therapy.
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Both CD31(+) and CD31? naive CD4(+) T cells are persistent HIV type 1-infected reservoirs in individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Naive T cell recovery is critical for successful immune reconstitution after antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the relative contribution of CD31(+) and CD31? naive T cells to immune reconstitution and viral persistence is unknown.
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HIV inhibits early signal transduction events triggered by CD16 cross-linking on NK cells, which are important for antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Measurement of NK cell cytolytic activity in the setting of chronic viral infection is important for determining viral pathogenicity. Mobilization of LAMP-1 (CD107a) to the NK cell surface is a surrogate marker for cytotoxic granule release and hence, NK cell cytotoxicity. We have developed a convenient, rapid, whole blood flow cytometric assay for measuring CD107a mobilization in response to CD16 cross-linking, a surrogate for NK cell ADCC activity ex vivo, which can be performed using small volumes of patient whole blood. Using this assay, we show that CD107a mobilization, in response to CD16 cross-linking, is triggered in CD56(dim) but not CD56(bright) NK cells, requiring Syk/Zap70 tyrosine kinase activity, and that there is a significant correlation between CD107a mobilization and pSyk/Zap70 in response to CD16 cross-linking. We compared whole blood from treatment-naïve, HIV-infected patients with age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected control subjects and found a significant reduction in CD16-dependent pSyk/Zap70 (median=32.7% compared with 67.8%; P=0.0002) and CD107a mobilization (median=9.72% compared with 32.9%; P=0.046) in NK cells. Reduction of both correlated strongly with reduced CD16 surface expression on NK cells of HIV-infected individuals (P<0.01). These data suggest that ADCC is inhibited in NK cells from therapy-naïve, HIV-infected individuals at the level of early events in CD16 signal transduction, associated with low CD16R expression, and our method is a useful and reliable tool to detect pathological defects in NK cell degranulation.
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Establishment of HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells depends on chemokine-induced changes in the actin cytoskeleton.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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Eradication of HIV-1 with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is not possible due to the persistence of long-lived, latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells. We now show that HIV-1 latency can be established in resting CD4(+) T cells infected with HIV-1 after exposure to ligands for CCR7 (CCL19), CXCR3 (CXCL9 and CXCL10), and CCR6 (CCL20) but not in unactivated CD4(+) T cells. The mechanism did not involve cell activation or significant changes in gene expression, but was associated with rapid dephosphorylation of cofilin and changes in filamentous actin. Incubation with chemokine before infection led to efficient HIV-1 nuclear localization and integration and this was inhibited by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide. We propose a unique pathway for establishment of latency by direct HIV-1 infection of resting CD4(+) T cells during normal chemokine-directed recirculation of CD4(+) T cells between blood and tissue.
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Biological determinants of immune reconstitution in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy: the role of interleukin 7 and interleukin 7 receptor ? and microbial translocation.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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Multiple host factors may influence CD4(+) T cell reconstitution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients after suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that residual immune activation and polymorphisms in the interleukin 7 (IL-7) receptor ? (IL-7R?) gene were important for immune recovery.
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Genetic modulation of TLR8 response following bacterial phagocytosis.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Human Toll-like receptors (TLRs) TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 are important immune sensors of foreign nucleic acids encountered by phagocytes. Although there is growing evidence implicating TLR7 and TLR9 in the detection of intracellular pathogenic bacteria, characterization of such a role for TLR8 is currently lacking. A recent genetic study has correlated the presence of a TLR8 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3764880:A>G; p.Met1Val) with the development of active tuberculosis, suggesting a role for TLR8 in the detection of phagosomal bacteria. Here we provide the first direct evidence that TLR8 sensing is activated in human monocytic cells following Helicobacter pylori phagocytosis. In addition, we show that rs3764880 fine tunes translation of the two TLR8 main isoforms, without affecting protein function. Although we show that TLR8 variant 2 (TLR8v2) is the prevalent form of TLR8 contributing to TLR8 function, we also uncover a role for the TLR8 long isoform (TLR8v1) in the positive regulation of TLR8 function in CD16(+)CD14(+) differentiated monocytes. Thus, TLR8 sensing can be activated following bacterial phagocytosis, and rs3764880 may play a role in the modulation of TLR8-dependent microbicidal response of infected macrophages.
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Postsplenectomy infection - strategies for prevention in general practice.
Aust Fam Physician
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The spleen plays a crucial role in human defence against infection. Patients who are asplenic or hyposplenic are at increased risk of severe sepsis due to specific organisms. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) has a mortality rate of up to 50%.
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Coinfection of hepatic cell lines with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus leads to an increase in intracellular hepatitis B surface antigen.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Liver-related mortality is increased in the setting of HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection. However, interactions between HIV and HBV to explain this observation have not been described. We hypothesized that HIV infection of hepatocytes directly affects the life cycle of HBV. We infected human hepatic cell lines expressing HBV (Hep3B and AD38 cells) or not expressing HBV (Huh7, HepG2, and AD43 cells) with laboratory strains of HIV (NL4-3 and AD8), as well as a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-pseudotyped HIV expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Following HIV infection with NL4-3 or AD8 in hepatic cell lines, we observed a significant increase in HIV reverse transcriptase activity which was infectious. Despite no detection of surface CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 by flow cytometry, AD8 infection of AD38 cells was inhibited by maraviroc and NL4-3 was inhibited by AMD3100, demonstrating that HIV enters AD38 hepatic cell lines via CCR5 or CXCR4. High-level infection of AD38 cells (50%) was achieved using VSV-pseudotyped HIV. Coinfection of the AD38 cell line with HIV did not alter the HBV DNA amount or species as determined by Southern blotting or nucleic acid signal amplification. However, coinfection with HIV was associated with a significant increase in intracellular HBsAg when measured by Western blotting, quantitative HBsAg, and fluorescence microscopy. We conclude that HIV infection of HBV-infected hepatic cell lines significantly increased intracellular HBsAg but not HBV DNA synthesis and that increased intrahepatic HBsAg secondary to direct infection by HIV may contribute to accelerated liver disease in HIV-HBV-coinfected individuals.
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A novel, rapid method to detect infectious HIV-1 from plasma of persons infected with HIV-1.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Efficient isolation of replication-competent virus from plasma of patients infected with HIV-1 is needed to characterize important clinical parameters of virus. However, addition of plasma to in vitro cultures results in clot formation. Blood from HIV-1 infected patients was collected in the presence of three commonly used anticoagulants (ACD, heparin and EDTA) and plasma was isolated. Plasma was then used to infect HIV-1 indicator cell lines (TZM-bl and GHOST) with spinoculation in the presence or absence of additional heparin and positively charged polymers. The presence of additional heparin during inoculation significantly reduced clot formation without affecting the sensitivity of HIV-1 infection in the GHOST cell line. However, heparin reduced the frequency of HIV-1 infection of the TZM-bl cell line. Using plasma from patients with HIV RNA>1000 copies/ml (n=58), the frequency of HIV-1 isolation was 92% in GHOST (n=51) and 54% in TZM-bl (n=26) cell lines. A sensitive method was developed for rapid isolation of infectious HIV-1 from plasma of patients with HIV RNA>1000 copies/ml that includes spinoculation and the addition of heparin during infection of GHOST cells. This technique could be used for rapid evaluation of viral fitness, co-receptor usage or drug resistance without the need for viral amplification.
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Gay fathers effects on children: a review.
Psychol Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Extrapolating results from studies of lesbians children to gays children and assertions of "no risk to children as a result of growing up in a family with 1 or more gay parents" are questioned. A review of 9 studies gave evidence that gays children were (a) more apt to adopt homosexual interests and activities, (b) more apt to report sexual confusion, (c) more apt to be socially disturbed, (d) more apt to abuse substances, (e) less apt to get married, (f) more apt to have difficulty in attachment and loving relationships, (g) less religious and more unconventionally religious, (h) more apt to have emotional difficulties, (i) more frequently exposed to parental molestation, and (j) prone to more frequent sexual acting out.
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The novel histone deacetylase inhibitors metacept-1 and metacept-3 potently increase HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cells.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2009
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We investigated the ability of several novel class I histone deacetylase inhibitors to activate HIV-1 transcription in latently infected cell lines. Oxamflatin, metacept-1 and metacept-3 induced high levels of HIV-1 transcription in latently infected T cell and monocytic cells lines, were potent inhibitors of histone deacetylase activity and caused preferential cell death in transcriptionally active cells. Although these compounds had potent in-vitro activity, their cytotoxicity may limit their use in patients.
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Differential dynamics of donor DC and non-DC peripheral blood mononuclear cell microchimerism in lung transplantation.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2009
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Donor cell microchimerism induces tolerance in animal models and may increase graft survival in man. Since dendritic cells (DC) are critical for induction of both tolerance and alloreactivity we developed a method to quantitate microchimerism in donor DC and non-DC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after lung transplantation. Longitudinal analysis of donor cell microchimerism in eleven sex mismatched lung transplant recipients (LTR) up to 12 months post-transplant used Y chromosome based real-time PCR on sorted cells. Total DC or a proportion of DC subsets in PBMC did not change but there were heterogeneous and dynamic changes in microchimerism in DC and non-DC. Analysis of changes in DC using a mixed model analysis showed significantly less reduction in DC compared to non-DC over time (0.49, p=0.001). Preferential DC persistence compared to non-DC may indicate tolerance induction but future studies are required to determine if DC microchimerism after transplantation affects clinical outcomes.
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Impaired quality of the hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T-cell response in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-HBV coinfection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific T cells play a key role both in the control of HBV replication and in the pathogenesis of liver disease. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) coinfection and the presence or absence of HBV e (precore) antigen (HBeAg) significantly alter the natural history of chronic HBV infection. We examined the HBV-specific T-cell responses in treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative HIV-1-HBV-coinfected (n = 24) and HBV-monoinfected (n = 39) Asian patients. Peripheral blood was stimulated with an overlapping peptide library for the whole HBV genome, and tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon cytokine expression in CD8+ T cells was measured by intracellular cytokine staining and flow cytometry. There was no difference in the overall magnitude of the HBV-specific T-cell responses, but the quality of the response was significantly impaired in HIV-1-HBV-coinfected patients compared with monoinfected patients. In coinfected patients, HBV-specific T cells rarely produced more than one cytokine and responded to fewer HBV proteins than in monoinfected patients. Overall, the frequency and quality of the HBV-specific T-cell responses increased with a higher CD4+ T-cell count (P = 0.018 and 0.032, respectively). There was no relationship between circulating HBV-specific T cells and liver damage as measured by activity and fibrosis scores, and the HBV-specific T-cell responses were not significantly different in patients with either HBeAg-positive or HBeAg-negative disease. The quality of the HBV-specific T-cell response is impaired in the setting of HIV-1-HBV coinfection and is related to the CD4+ T-cell count.
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Development and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in an HIV-infected man with hepatitis C and B co-infection following interferon therapy: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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The association of human immunodeficiency virus and immune dysfunction leading to development of autoimmune markers is well described, but human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively protective for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, development of systemic lupus erythematosus with hepatitis C and with interferon therapy is well described in a number of case reports. We here describe the first case of systemic lupus erythematosus developing in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infection where the onset seems to have been temporally related to interferon therapy.
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Identification of lineage relationships and novel markers of blood and skin human dendritic cells.
J. Immunol.
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The lineage relationships and fate of human dendritic cells (DCs) have significance for a number of diseases including HIV where both blood and tissue DCs may be infected. We used gene expression profiling of human monocyte and DC subpopulations sorted directly from blood and skin to define the lineage relationships. We also compared these with monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs) and MUTZ3 Langerhans cells (LCs) to investigate their relevance as model skin DCs. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that myeloid DCs clustered according to anatomical origin rather than putative lineage. Plasmacytoid DCs formed the most discrete cluster, but ex vivo myeloid cells formed separate clusters of cells both in blood and in skin. Separate and specific DC populations could be determined within skin, and the proportion of CD14(+) dermal DCs (DDCs) was reduced and CD1a(+) DDCs increased during culture, suggesting conversion to CD1a(+)-expressing cells in situ. This is consistent with origin of the CD1a(+) DDCs from a local precursor rather than directly from circulating blood DCs or monocyte precursors. Consistent with their use as model skin DCs, the in vitro-derived MDDC and MUTZ3 LC populations grouped within the skin DC cluster. MDDCs clustered most closely to CD14(+) DDCs; furthermore, common unique patterns of C-type lectin receptor expression were identified between these two cell types. MUTZ3 LCs, however, did not cluster closely with ex vivo-derived LCs. We identified differential expression of novel genes in monocyte and DC subsets including genes related to DC surface receptors (including C-type lectin receptors, TLRs, and galectins).
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HIV persistence: chemokines and their signalling pathways.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.
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Latently infected resting CD4+ T cells are the major barrier to curing HIV. We have recently demonstrated that chemokines, which bind to the chemokine receptors CCR7, CXCR3 and CCR6, facilitate efficient HIV nuclear localisation and integration in resting CD4+ T cells, leading to latency. As latently infected cells are enriched in lymphoid tissues, where chemokines are highly concentrated, this may provide a mechanism for the generation of latently infected cells in vivo. Here we review the role of chemokines in HIV persistence; the main signalling pathways that are involved; and how these pathways may be exploited to develop novel strategies to reduce or eliminate latently infected cells.
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Virologically suppressed HIV patients show activation of NK cells and persistent innate immune activation.
J. Immunol.
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FcR? is an ITAM-containing adaptor required for CD16 signaling and function in NK cells. We have previously shown that NK cells from HIV patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) have decreased FcR? expression, but the factors causing this are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of cART-naive viremic patients (ART(-)), virologically suppressed patients receiving cART (ART(+)), and HIV-uninfected controls. CD8(+) T cells were activated, as assessed by CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) expression, in ART(-) patients (p < 0.0001), which was significantly reduced in ART(+) patients (p = 0.0005). In contrast, CD38(+)HLA-DR(+) NK cells were elevated in ART(-) patients (p = 0.0001) but did not decrease in ART(+) patients (p = 0.88). NK cells from both ART(-) and ART(+) patients showed high levels of spontaneous degranulation in ex vivo whole blood assays as well as decreased CD16 expression (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0025, respectively), FcR? mRNA (p < 0.0001 for both groups), FcR? protein expression (p = 0.0016 and p < 0.0001, respectively), and CD16-dependent Syk phosphorylation (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.003, respectively). HIV-infected subjects showed alterations in NK activation, degranulation, CD16 expression and signaling, and elevated plasma markers of inflammation and macrophage activation, that is, neopterin and sCD14, which remained elevated in ART(+) patients. Alterations in NK cell measures did not correlate with viral load or CD4 counts. These data show that in HIV patients who achieve viral suppression following cART, NK cell activation persists. This suggests that NK cells respond to factors different from those driving T cell activation, but which are associated with inflammation in HIV patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.