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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Distal 22q11.2 microduplication combined with typical 22q11.2 proximal deletion: A case report.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The 22q11 chromosomal region contains low copy repeats (LCRs) sequences that mediate non-allelic homologous recombination, which predisposes to copy number variations (CNVs) at this locus. Hemizygous deletions of the proximal 22q11.2 region result in the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2 DS). In addition, 22q11.2 duplications involving the distal LCR22s have been reported. This article describes a patient presenting a 2.5-Mb de novo deletion at proximal 22q11.21 region (between LCRs A-D), combined with a 1.3-Mb maternally inherited duplication at distal 22q11.23 region (between LCRs F-H). The presence of concomitant chromosomal imbalances found in this patient has not been reported previously. Clinical and molecular data were compared with literature, in order to contribute to genotype-phenotype correlation. These findings exemplify the complexity and genetic heterogeneity observed in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and highlights the difficulty to make genetic counseling and predict phenotypic consequences in these situations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Prediction of anticancer activity of diterpenes isolated from the paraiban flora through a PLS model and molecular surfaces.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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The aim of this work was to predict the anticancer potential of 3 atisane, and 3 trachylobane diterpene compounds extracted from the roots of Xylopia langsdorffiana. The prediction of anticancer activity as expressed against PC-3 tumor cells was made using a PLS model built with 26 diterpenes in the training set. Significant statistical measures were obtained. The six investigated diterpenes were applied to the model and their activities against PC-3 cells were calculated. All the diterpenes were active, with atisane diterpenes showing the higher pICso values. In human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, the apoptosis mechanism is related to an inhibition of IKK/NF-KB. Antioxidant potential implies a greater electronic molecular atmosphere (increased donor electron capacity), which can reduce radical reactivity, and facilitate post donation charge accommodation. Molecular surfaces indicated a much greater electronic cloud over atisane diterpenes.
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Toward lithium ion batteries with enhanced thermal conductivity.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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As batteries become more powerful and utilized in diverse applications, thermal management becomes one of the central problems in their application. We report the results on thermal properties of a set of different Li-ion battery electrodes enhanced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Our measurements reveal that the highest in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities achieved in the carbon-nanotube-enhanced electrodes reached up to 141 and 3.6 W/mK, respectively. The values for in-plane thermal conductivity are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those for conventional electrodes based on carbon black. The electrodes were synthesized via an inexpensive scalable filtration method, and we demonstrate that our approach can be extended to commercial electrode-active materials. The best performing electrodes contained a layer of ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes sandwiched between two layers of carbon nanotubes and had in-plane and cross-plane thermal conductivities of ?50 and 3 W/mK, respectively, at room temperature. The obtained results are important for thermal management in Li-ion and other high-power-density batteries.
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[The use of FISH on buccal smear to investigate mosaicism with a 45,X cell line: study on healthy men and patients with disorders of sex development].
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To verify whether fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of cells from the buccal epithelium could be employed to detect cryptomosaicism with a 45,X lineage in 46,XY patients.
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Air pollution and respiratory allergic diseases in schoolchildren.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Study on the prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases in schoolchildren between six and seven years old, associated with indicators of air pollution. A questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood was administered to parents of students from public schools, located in urban areas with differing vehicle flows. There was a positive correlation between monthly frequency of rhinitis and concentration of pollutants, and negative with relative air humidity. Even with levels of air pollutants below that allowed by law, the prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and associated symptoms tended to be higher in the central region school, where there is heavy vehicular traffic.
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Redispersible liposomal-N-acetylcysteine powder for pulmonary administration: Development, in vitro characterization and antioxidant activity.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Liposomal dry powders of N-acetylcysteine (SD-NAC-Lip) were developed for pulmonary administration. Liposomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation and spray dried using lactose (10%, w/w) as drying adjuvant. The powders were characterized according to process yield, drug content, residual water content, particle size distribution, morphology and redispersion behavior. In vitro aerosol performance was evaluated using an eight-stage Andersen Cascade Impactor. Moreover, in vitro antioxidant activity was determined by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) present in the lungs of healthy Wistar rats after induction of oxidation by iron/EDTA. The spray-drying process had a high yield (71%±2), drug content (mg/g) according to the expected value, moisture content below 9%, geometric mean diameter under 3?m with span value lower than 1. Spherical particles were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Liposomal dry-powders were able to recover the nanometric size of the original dispersion after their redispersion in aqueous medium, as shown by laser diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the powders presented aerodynamic diameter of about 7?m and respirable fraction above 30%, indicating suitable properties for pulmonary use. The encapsulation of N-acetylcysteine in liposomes was essential to maintain its in vitro antioxidant activity after the drying process. In addition, the powder containing the encapsulated drug had better in vitro antioxidant activity than the liquid and solid formulations containing the non-encapsulated drug, which makes it a good candidate for the treatment of pulmonary diseases associated with oxidative stress.
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The influence of trait anxiety on the elevation of arterial pressure induced by l-NAME in rats.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Due to the high prevalence of anxiety disorders and hypertension comorbidity in the general population, the establishment of anxiety as a risk factor for elevated blood pressure, or the reverse, is of great relevance. In this context, animal models can be of great scientific value, as they permit the control of several variables. Bearing this in mind, the influence of anxiety, not as a state, but as a personality trait (trait anxiety), on blood pressure elevation and vice versa were investigated for the first time in rats, using the free-exploratory paradigm (FEP). Sixty adult male Wistar rats were evaluated on FEP and categorized according to their levels of anxiety. From this sample, 24 animals with high (n=12) and low (n=12) trait anxiety were allocated to two treatment groups: (1) l-NAME (N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 20mg/kg, p.o., for 7 days to increase blood pressure; n=6/anxiety category); (2) CTRL (tap water, p.o., for 7 days; n=6/anxiety category). During treatment, measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) were taken daily. After treatment, the animals were again tested on FEP. SBP and trait anxiety levels were compared pre- and post-treatment. Additionally, correlations between trait anxiety levels and SBP increases (l-NAME group) were analyzed. The results showed that l-NAME was able to induce significant SBP elevation, but only for the high-anxious animals, while SBP elevation did not significantly interfere with anxiety levels. A significant correlation between anxiety levels and SBP peaks in response to l-NAME was also shown. No differences were observed between the levels of anxiety before and after treatment. These findings suggest that individuals with high trait anxiety are more susceptible to increases in blood pressure, but that high blood pressure does not affect the levels of trait anxiety.
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Gene homozygosis and mitotic recombination induced by camptothecin and irinotecan in Aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Mitotic recombination is a process involved in carcinogenesis which can lead to genetic loss through the loss of heterozygosity. The recombinogenic potentials of two anticancer drugs topoisomerase I inhibitors, camptothecin (CPT) and irinotecan (CPT-11), were evaluated in the present study. The homozygotization assay, which assess the induction of mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis, as well as the heterozygous A757//UT448 diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans were employed. The three non-cytotoxic concentrations of CPT (3.5 ng mL-1, 10.5 ng mL-1 and 17.4 ng mL-1) were found to induce both mitotic recombination and gene homozygosis. CPT treatment produced three diploids homozygous, for nutritional and conidia color genes, and Homozygotization Indices (HI) significantly different from negative control. On the other hand, only the highest CPT-11 concentration tested (18 µg mL-1), corresponding to the maximal single chemotherapeutic dose, produced HI values higher than 2.0 and significantly different from negative control HI values. The recombinogenic effects of both topoisomerase I blockers were associated with the recombinational repair of DNA strand breaks induced by CPT and CPT-11. The anticancer drugs CPT and CPT-11 may be characterized as secondary malignancies promoters in cancer patients after chemotherapy treatment.
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In situ optical and structural studies on photoluminesence quenching in CdSe/CdS/Au heterostructures.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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We report here detailed in situ studies of nucleation and growth of Au on CdSe/CdS nanorods using synchrotron SAXS technique and time-resolved spectroscopy. We examine structural and optical properties of CdSe/CdS/Au heterostructures formed under UV illumination. We compare the results for CdSe/CdS/Au heterostructures with the results of control experiments on CdSe/CdS nanorods exposed to gold precursor under conditions when no such heterostructures are formed (no UV illumination). Our data indicate similar photoluminescence (PL) quenching and PL decay profiles in both types of samples. Via transient absorption and PL, we show that such behavior is consistent with rapid (faster than 3 ps) hole trapping by gold-sulfur sites at the surface of semiconductor nanoparticles. This dominant process was overlooked in previous end-point studies on semiconductor/metal heterostructures.
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In house reverse membrane hybridisation assay versus GenoType MTBDRplus and their performance to detect mutations in the genes rpoB, katG and inhA.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens global TB control and is a major public health concern in several countries. We therefore developed a multiplex assay (LINE-TB/MDR) that is able to identify the most frequent mutations related to rifampicin (RMP) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. The assay is based on multiplex polymerase chain reaction, membrane hybridisation and colorimetric detection targeting of rpoB and katG genes, as well as the inhA promoter, which are all known to carry specific mutations associated with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay was validated on a reference panel of 108 M. tuberculosis isolates that were characterised by the proportion method and by DNA sequencing of the targets. When comparing the performance of LINE-TB/MDR with DNA sequencing, the sensitivity, specificity and agreement were 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, for RMP and 77.6%, 90.6% and 88.9%, respectively, for INH. Using drug sensibility testing as a reference standard, the performance of LINE-TB/MDR regarding sensitivity, specificity and agreement was 100%, 100% and 100% (95%), respectively, for RMP and 77%, 100% and 88.7% (82.2-95.1), respectively, for INH. LINE-TB/MDR was compared with GenoType MTBDRplus for 65 isolates, resulting in an agreement of 93.6% (86.7-97.5) for RIF and 87.4% (84.3-96.2) for INH. LINE-TB/MDR warrants further clinical validation and may be an affordable alternative for MDR-TB diagnosis.
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Photolysis of atrazine in aqueous solution: role of process variables and reactive oxygen species.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Photochemical advanced oxidation processes have been considered for the treatment of water and wastewater containing the herbicide atrazine (ATZ), a possible human carcinogen and endocrine disruptor. In this study, we investigated the effects of the photon emission rate and initial concentration on ATZ photolysis at 254 nm, an issue not usually detailed in literature. Moreover, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed. Photon emission rates in the range 0.87?×?10(18)-3.6?×?10(18) photons L(-1) s(-1) and [ATZ]0?=?5 and 20 mg L(-1) were used. The results showed more than 65 % of ATZ removal after 30 min. ATZ photolysis followed apparent first-order kinetics with k values and percent removals decreasing with increasing herbicide initial concentration. A fivefold linear increase in specific degradation rate constants with photon emission rate was observed. Also, regardless the presence of persistent degradation products, toxicity was efficiently removed after 60-min exposure to UV radiation. Experiments confirmed a noticeable contribution of singlet oxygen and radical species to atrazine degradation during photolysis. These results may help understand the behavior of atrazine in different UV-driven photochemical degradation treatment processes.
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Relaxant effect of Ent-7?-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid, a trachylobane diterpene from Xylopia langsdorfiana A. St-Hil. & Tul., on tracheal smooth muscle.
J Smooth Muscle Res
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Ent-7?-hydroxytrachyloban-18-oic acid, a trachylobane diterpene from Xylopia langsdorfiana, has previously been shown to relax the guinea-pig trachea in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this action and so contribute to the discovery of natural products with therapeutic potential. A possible interaction between diterpene and the Ca(2+)-calmodulin complex was eliminated as chlorpromazine (10(-6) M), a calmodulin inhibitor, did not significantly alter the diterpene-induced relaxation (pD2 = 4.38 ± 0.07 and 4.25 ± 0.07; mean ± S.E.M., n=5). Trachylobane-318 showed a higher relaxant potency when the trachea was contracted by 18 mM KCl than it did with 60 mM KCl (pD2 = 4.90 ± 0.25 and 3.88 ± 0.01, n=5), suggesting the possible activation of K(+) channels. This was confirmed, as in the presence of 10 mM TEA(+) (a non-selective K(+) channel blocker), diterpene relaxation potency was significantly reduced (pD2 = 4.38 ± 0.07 to 4.01 ± 0.06, n=5). Furthermore, K(+) channel subtypes KATP, KV, SKCa and BKCa seem to be modulated positively by trachylobane-318 (pD2 = 3.91 ± 0.003, 4.00 ± 0.06, 3.45 ± 0.14 and 3.80 ± 0.05, n=5) but not the Kir subtype channel (pD2 = 4.15 ± 0.10, n=5). Cyclic nucleotides were not involved as the relaxation due to aminophylline (pD2 = 4.27 ± 0.09, n=5) was not altered in the presence of 3 × 10(-5) M trachylobane-318 (pD2 = 4.46 ± 0.08, n=5). Thus, at a functional level, trachylobane-318 seems to relax the guinea-pig trachea by positive modulation of K(+) channels, particularly the KATP, KV, SKCa and BKCa subtypes.
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Atypical copy number abnormalities in 22q11.2 region: report of three cases.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans, with a highly variable phenotype. This chromosomal region contains low copy repeat (LCR) sequences that mediate non-allelic homologous recombination which predispose to copy number abnormalities at this locus. This article describes three patients investigated for suspicion of 22q11.2DS presenting atypical copy number abnormalities overlapping or not with the common ?3 Mb deletion. They were investigated by G-banding karyotype, Multiplex-ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and array Genomic Hibridization (aGH). Clinical and molecular data were compared with literature, in order to contribute to genotype-phenotype correlation. Atypical chromosomal abnormalities were detected: 3.6 Mb deletion at 22q11.21-q11.23 between LCRs B-F in patient 1 and approximately 1.5 Mb deletion at 22q11.21-q11.22 between LCRs D-E in patients 2 and 3. The breakpoints detected in patient 1 have not been previously described. These findings exemplify the complexity and genetic heterogeneity observed in 22q11.2 region and corroborates the idea that genetic modifiers contribute to the phenotypic variability observed in proximal and distal 22q11.2 deletion syndromes.
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Voltammetric determination of cocaine in confiscated samples using a carbon paste electrode modified with different [UO2(X-MeOsalen)(H2O)] · H2O complexes.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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A fast and non-destructive voltammetric method to detect cocaine in confiscated samples based on carbon paste electrode modified with methoxy-substituted N,N-ethylene-bis(salcylideneiminato)uranyl(VI)complexes, [UO2(X-MeOSalen)(H2O)] · H2O, where X corresponds to the positions 3, 4 or 5 of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring, is described. The electrochemical behavior of the modified electrode and the electrochemical detection of cocaine were investigated using cyclic voltammetry. Using 0.1 mol · L(-1) KCl as supporting-electrolyte, a concentration-dependent, well-defined peak current for cocaine at 0.62 V, with an amperometric sensitivity of 6.25 × 104 ?A · mol · L(-1) for cocaine concentrations ranging between 1.0 × 10(-7) and 1.3 × 10(-6) mol · L-1 was obtained. Chemical interference studies using lidocaine and procaine were performed. The position of the methoxy group affects the results, with the 3-methoxy derivative being the most sensitive.
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Screening of Y chromosome microdeletions in 46,XY partial gonadal dysgenesis and in patients with a 45,X/46,XY karyotype or its variants.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Partial and mixed gonadal dysgenesis (PGD and MGD) are characterized by genital ambiguity and the finding of either a streak gonad and a dysgenetic testis or two dysgenetic testes. The karyotype in PGD is 46,XY, whereas a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or its variants (more than two lineages and/or structural abnormalities of the Y chromosome) is generally found in MGD. Such mosaics are also compatible with female phenotype and Turner syndrome, ovotesticular disorder of sex development, and infertility in men with normal external genitalia. During the last few years, evidences of a linkage between Y microdeletions and 45,X mosaicism have been reported. There are also indications that the instability caused by such deletions might be more significant in germ cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Y chromosome microdeletions in individuals with PGD and in those with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism or its variants and variable phenotypes.
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Biochemical and hematological analysis in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP): a case report.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Acute intermittent porphyria is the most common acute porphyria caused by a decrease in hepatic porphobilinogen deaminase activity, resulting in an accumulation of delta-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen. This disease shows nonspecific signs and symptoms that can be confused with other diseases, thereby making the diagnosis difficult. We report a case of acute intermittent porphyria, reviewing clinical and laboratory aspects, highlighting the hematological and biochemical parameters during and after the crisis. A female patient, aged 28 years, suffered two crises, both presenting gastrointestinal disorders. The second presented neuropsychiatric symptoms. The analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters during the second crisis showed anemia, leukocytosis, hyponatremia, mild hypokalemia, uremia and elevated C-reactive protein. The initial treatment included glucose infusion, a diet rich in carbohydrates and interruption of porphyrinogenic drugs. Subsequently, treatment was maintained with oral contraceptive use. According to the observed data, signs and symptoms of gastrointestinal, neurological and psychiatric disorders, associated with laboratory results presented in this paper can be applied to screen acute porphyria, contributing to early diagnosis.
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Structural elucidation and NMR assignments of a new pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Crotalaria vitellina Ker Gawl.
Magn Reson Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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A new pyrrolizidine alkaloid, named crotavitelin, was isolated from fruits of Crotalaria vitellina, Fabaceae (Papilionoideae). The structure was established by spectroscopic techniques such as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR, IR, and MS.
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Postconceptional age at the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in inborn and referred preterm infants from the same institution.
Arq Bras Oftalmol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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The outcomes of the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) seem to be better in inborn patients than in those patients who were referred for ROP treatment. This study aims to investigate the timing of treatment and the outcomes in inborn patients and in patients referred for treatment to the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil.
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[Nursing and healthcare for workers: the experience of the immunization action at Fiocruz/Manguinhos].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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The worker, while doing his activities in contact with pathogenic agents, is exposed to the risk of getting diseases that could result in death. The immunization appears as one of the ways to preserve and protect against this contamination. This article presents an experience of workers immunization during the period of 2005 to 2008, by the implantation of the project Nursing Integral Actions of Workers Health Vigilance at Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Manguinhos campus, Rio de Janeiro. This is a descriptive, explorative and quantitative study, using primary data from the construction of the project. During the project 12.904 doses of different vaccines were applied in a population with a variety of job activities and ages. Civil construction, security, gardening, maintenance and clearing service teams were the most mobilized and receptive to the activities. With this experience it was possible the installation of the vaccination room at CST/DIREH/Fiocruz, the implantation of campaigns at the unities, specific immunization actions to the workers and operative groups and lectures focused in health education.
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Inconsistencies in recommendations on oral hygiene practices for children by professional dental and paediatric organisations in ten countries.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Some of the basic dental health practices that are recommended to the public by professionals are not evidence based. Incorrect oral health messages may adversely affect childrens oral health behaviours.
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Fine needle aspiration biopsy in the oral cavity and head and neck region.
Braz Oral Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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The objective of the current study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of submucous nodules from the oral cavity and head and neck region as an auxiliary diagnostic tool. Fifty patients with nodule lesions in the oral cavity and the head and neck region were selected. All of them were submitted to FNAB and to either incisional or excisional biopsy. The diagnoses from the FNABs were compared with the biopsy diagnosis as the gold standard. All the cases of FNAB were analyzed by a single oral pathologist prior to the biopsy diagnosis. The results showed that the sensitivity of FNAB was 75%, its specificity was 96% and its accuracy was 58.8%. The false positive and false negative rates were 6.7% and 13.3%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 86% and the negative predictive value was 93%. The inconclusive rate was 16/50. FNAB displayed a high success rate for identifying both malignant and benign lesions, but a low accuracy for making a final diagnosis.
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Genome sequence of the emerging pathogen Aeromonas caviae.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2010
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Aeromonas caviae is a Gram-negative, motile and rod-shaped facultative anaerobe that is increasingly being recognized as a cause of diarrhea in children. Here we present the first genome sequence of an A. caviae strain that was isolated as the sole pathogen from a child with profuse diarrhea.
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Expression of the zinc transporters genes and metallothionein in obese women.
Biol Trace Elem Res
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2010
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Research has investigated the participation of zinc transport proteins and metallothionein in the metabolism of this mineral. However, studies about the genetic expression of these proteins in obese patients are scarce. The study determined the expression of zinc transporter protein codifying genes (ZnT-1, Zip-1 and Zip-3) and of metallothionein in 55 obese women, aged between 20 and 56 years. The assessment of body composition was carried out using anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical impedance. Zinc intake was obtained by recording diet over a 3-day period, and the nutritional analysis was carried out using NutWin software version 1.5. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (?=213. 9 nm). The determination of mRNA expression of the zinc transporter proteins and metallothionein was carried out using blood, using the RT-PCR method. The mean values of body mass index were 37.9±5.5 kg/m2. The average intake of zinc was 9.4±2.3 mg/day. The analysis of the zinc plasma concentrations showed values of 58.4±10.9 ?g/dL. The mean values of zinc in the erythroytes were 38.7±9.1 ?g/g Hb. The metallothionein gene had a higher expression in the blood, when compared to zinc transporters ZnT-1, Zip-1, and Zip-3 (p=0.01). The study shows that there are alterations in the biochemical parameters of zinc in obese patients assessed, as well as higher expression of the codifying gene metallothionein, when compared to the investigated zinc transporters.
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Risk factors for metabolic bone disease in Crohns disease patients.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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The aim was to evaluate the presence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) in patients with Crohns disease (CD) and to identify potential etiologic factors.
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Survey of Brazilian governmental health agencies shows conflicting recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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The aims of this study were to detect whether recommendations concerning oral hygiene practices for children among Brazilian health agencies are consistent and to verify whether possible inconsistencies in these recommendations might be associated with an apparent gap in the scientific evidence. Fifty-four Brazilian health agencies were contacted by mail or electronic mail and were asked to send any material containing recommendations on oral hygiene practices aimed at children. A search was subsequently carried out on the Cochrane Oral Health Review Group and PubMed-Clinical Queries websites in order to assess the scientific evidence available on this subject. Forty (74%) agencies answered and 21 materials containing oral hygiene recommendations were obtained. Eleven pertinent systematic reviews were identified. This preliminary study detected some conflicting and not evidence-based oral hygiene messages, which emphasizes the need to carry out and disseminate systematic reviews on these controversial issues in order to bridge the gap between knowledge and practice.
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[Cardiovascular repercussion of lodenafil carbonate, a new PDE5 inhibitor, with and without alcohol consumption].
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Millions of men around the world suffer from erectile dysfunction, for which phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE-5 inhibitors) are currently the first treatment option. Sexual activity and alcohol consumption are closely related, and the simultaneous use of alcohol and PDE-5 inhibitors can happen. Lodenafil carbonate is a new PDE-5 inhibitor, developed by a Brazilian pharmaceutical company.
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[Quality of life, work management, and career planning as a primary care technology in the Unified National Health System in São Paulo State, Brazil].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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This article discusses the concept of quality of life in and at work, linked to health work management based on the evaluation of a work management instrument: the Career, Job, and Wage Plan. The aim was to analyze the plan as a work management technology in primary care in the Unified National Health System (SUS). The article discusses the plan in three municipalities in São Paulo State, Brazil: São Paulo, Guarulhos, and Campinas, in compliance with guidelines issued by the National Health Council in 2006, and using a qualitative survey conducted in 2007-2008. The study presents the findings from research in eight municipalities, based on interviews with managers, users (represented by Health Councils), and health workers and health sector trade unionists. The article concludes that this is still an incipient public management policy issue, with limited command by users, trade unionists, and health workers in the target municipalities, heavily populated hub cities in the health regions.
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Rat brain endothelial cells are a target of manganese toxicity.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal; however, exposure to high Mn levels can result in neurodegenerative changes resembling Parkinsons disease (PD). Information on Mns effects on endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is lacking. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that BBB endothelial cells are a primary target for Mn-induced neurotoxicity. The studies were conducted in an in vitro BBB model of immortalized rat brain endothelial (RBE4) cells. ROS production was determined by F(2)-isoprostane (F(2)-IsoPs) measurement. The relationship between Mn toxicity and redox status was investigated upon intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion with diethylmaleate (DEM) or L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Mn exposure (200 or 800 microM MnCl(2) or MnSO(4)) for 4 or 24h led to significant decrease in cell viability vs. controls. DEM or BSO pre-treatment led to further enhancement in cytotoxicity vs. exposure to Mn alone, with more pronounced cell death after 24-h DEM pre-treatment. F(2)-IsoPs levels in cells exposed to MnCl(2) (200 or 800 microM) were significantly increased after 4h and remained elevated 24h after exposure compared with controls. Consistent with the effects on cell viability and F(2)-IsoPs, treatment with MnCl(2) (200 or 800 microM) was also associated with a significant decrease in membrane potential. This effect was more pronounced in cells exposed to DEM plus MnCl(2) vs. cells exposed to Mn alone. We conclude that Mn induces direct injury to mitochondria in RBE4 cells. The ensuing impairment in energy metabolism and redox status may modify the restrictive properties of the BBB compromising its function.
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[Study of epidemiological surveillance of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in surgical specialties of a school tertiary referral hospital].
Arq Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Postoperative venous thromboembolism is a frequent and severe disease that can lead to pulmonary embolism and post thrombotic syndrome. Although the venous thromboembolism prophylaxis is a proven strategy, an unsuitable indication is observed.
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[Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) as vectors for bacteria in two hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, State of Minas Gerais].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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The presence of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in hospital environments may constitute a public health problem, especially since they are mechanical vectors for pathogenic organisms. This study aimed to survey the ant populations and analyze the presence of bacteria associated with them in two medium-sized regional hospitals in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Specimens were collected every monthly over a six-month period. The following ant species were found: Pheidole sp1 and sp2, Linepithema humile, Wasmannia auropunctata, Camponotus sp1 and sp2, Odontomachus sp, Solenopsis sp, Acromyrmex sp and Tapinoma melenocephalum. It was observed that these ants mechanically transported Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Escherichia coli and non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus. These results show the propensity for occurrences of hospital infections at these sites caused by mechanical transmission of pathogens by ants.
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Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a fresh mixed sausage processing line in Pelotas-RS by PFGE.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2009
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Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium capable to adhere to the surfaces of equipment and utensils and subsequently form biofilms. It can to persist in the food processing environmental for extended periods of time being able to contaminate the final product. The aim of this study was to trace the contamination route of L. monocytogenes on a fresh mixed sausage processing line, from raw material to the final product. The isolates obtained were characterized by serotyping and molecular typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzymes ApaI and AscI. L. monocytogenes was detected in 25% of the samples. The samples of raw material were not contaminated, however, the microorganism was detected in 21% of the environmental samples (food contact and non-food contact), 20.8% of the equipments, 20% of the food workers hands, 40% of the mass ready to packaging and in all the final products samples, demonstrating that the contamination of final product occurred during the processing and the importance of cross contamination. PFGE yielded 22 pulsotypes wich formed 7 clusters, and serotyping yielded 3 serotypes and 1 serogroup, however, the presence of serotypes 4b and 1/2b in the final product is of great concern for public health. The tracing of contamination showed that some strains are adapted and persisted in the processing environment in this industry.
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National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node.
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Submicron trenches reduce the Pseudomonas fluorescens colonization rate on solid surfaces.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Bacterial adhesion and spreading on biomaterials are considered key features of pathogenicity. Roughness and topography of the substrate have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion, but little is known about their effect on spreading. Submicron row and channel tuning with bacterial diameter (S2) were designed to test bacterial motility on these surfaces. Random nanometer-sized structures (S1) were used as controls. Optical microscopy and AFM were employed to detect biological and surface pattern details in the micro- and nanoscale, respectively. Results showed that motility strategies (flagella orientation, elongation, aggregation in rafts, formation of network structures, and development of a bacterial frontier) were affected by the presence of submicropatterns. Importantly, the rate of bacterial spreading on S2 was significantly reduced and influenced by the orientation of the submicropatterns. Consequently, submicroengineered substrates could be employed as a tool to downgrade bacterial colonization. Such patterns could impact on the design of proper engineered structures to control biofilm spreading on solid surfaces.
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Partial monosomy 21 (q11.2?q21.3) combined with 3p25.3?pter monosomy due to an unbalanced translocation in a patient presenting dysmorphic features and developmental delay.
Gene
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We describe a female patient of 1 year and 5 months-old, referred for genetic evaluation due to neuropsychomotor delay, hearing impairment and dysmorphic features. The patient presents a partial chromosome 21 monosomy (q11.2?q21.3) in combination with a chromosome 3p terminal monosomy (p25.3?pter) due to an unbalanced de novo translocation. The translocation was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and the breakpoints were mapped with high resolution array. After the combined analyses with these techniques the final karyotype was defined as 45,XX,der(3)t(3;21)(p25.3;q21.3)dn,-21.ish der(3)t(3;21)(RP11-329A2-,RP11-439F4-,RP11-95E11-,CTB-63H24+).arr 3p26.3p25.3(35,333-10,888,738))×1,21q11.2q21.3(13,354,643-27,357,765)×1. Analysis of microsatellite DNA markers pointed to a paternal origin for the chromosome rearrangement. This is the first case described with a partial proximal monosomy 21 combined with a 3p terminal monosomy due to a de novo unbalanced translocation.
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A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of fluoride toothpastes on the prevention of dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool children.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol
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OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of fluoride (F) toothpastes on the prevention of dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool children. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A search for randomized or quasi-randomized clinical trials was carried out, without idiom restraints, in six electronic databases, registers of ongoing trials, meeting abstracts, dentistry journals and reference lists of potentially eligible studies. The search yielded 1932 records and 159 full-text articles were independently read by two examiners. Data regarding characteristics of participants, interventions, outcomes, length of follow-up and potential of bias were independently extracted by two examiners on the basis of predetermined criteria. Any disagreement was solved by consensus after consulting a third examiner. Pooled prevented fractions (PF) and relative risks (RR) were estimated separately for studies testing low F toothpastes (<600 ppm) and those testing standard F toothpastes (1000-1500 ppm). RESULTS: Eight clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria and most of them compared F toothpastes associated with oral health education against no intervention. When standard F toothpastes were compared to placebo or no intervention, significant caries reduction at surface (PF = 31%; 95% CI 18-43; 2644 participants in five studies), tooth (PF = 16%; 95% CI 8-25; 2555 participants in one study) and individual (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.81-0.93; 2806 participants in two studies) level were observed. Low F toothpastes were effective only at surface level (PF = 40%; 95% CI 5-75; 561 participants in two studies). CONCLUSION: Standard F toothpastes are effective in reducing dental caries in the primary teeth of preschool children and thus their use should be recommended to this age group.
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Molecular characterization of the hexose transporter gene in benznidazole resistant and susceptible populations of Trypanosoma cruzi.
Parasit Vectors
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Hexose transporters (HT) are membrane proteins involved in the uptake of energy-supplying glucose and other hexoses into the cell. Previous studies employing the Differential Display technique have shown that the transcription level of the HT gene from T. cruzi (TcrHT) is higher in an in vitro-induced benznidazole (BZ)-resistant population of the parasite (17 LER) than in its susceptible counterpart (17 WTS).
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Effectiveness of low-intensity aquatic exercise on COPD: a randomized clinical trial.
Respir Med
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Despite the growing number of studies reporting therapeutic success in water environments, research involving aquatic exercise among patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is scarce. This study evaluates the impact of low-intensity water and floor exercises on COPD.
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Reproductive biology and species geographical distribution in the Melastomataceae: a survey based on New World taxa.
Ann. Bot.
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Apomictic plants are less dependent on pollinator services and able to occupy more diverse habitats than sexual species. However, such assumptions are based on temperate species, and comparable evaluation for species-rich Neotropical taxa is lacking. In this context, the Melastomataceae is a predominantly Neotropical angiosperm family with many apomictic species, which is common in the Campos Rupestres, endemism-rich vegetation on rocky outcrops in central Brazil. In this study, the breeding system of some Campo Rupestre Melastomataceae was evaluated, and breeding system studies for New World species were surveyed to test the hypothesis that apomixis is associated with wide distributions, whilst sexual species have more restricted areas.
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Monocyte-derived dendritic cells from breast cancer patients are biased to induce CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
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DCs orchestrate immune responses contributing to the pattern of response developed. In cancer, DCs may play a dysfunctional role in the induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs, contributing to immune evasion. We show here that Mo-DCs from breast cancer patients show an altered phenotype and induce preferentially Tregs, a phenomenon that occurred regardless of DC maturation stimulus (sCD40L, cytokine cocktail, TNF-?, and LPS). The Mo-DCs of patients induced low proliferation of allogeneic CD3(+)CD25(neg)Foxp3(neg) cells, which after becoming CD25(+), suppressed mitogen-stimulated T cells. Contrastingly, Mo-DCs from healthy donors induced a stronger proliferative response, a low frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) with no suppressive activity. Furthermore, healthy Mo-DCs induced higher levels of IFN-?, whereas the Mo-DCs of patients induced higher levels of bioactive TGF-?1 and IL-10 in cocultures with allogeneic T cells. Interestingly, TGF-?1 blocking with mAb in cocultures was not enough to completely revert the Mo-DCs of patients bias toward Treg induction. Altogether, these findings should be considered in immunotherapeutic approaches for cancer based on Mo-DCs.
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[Matricial support in workers health: creating networks in primary care in the Unified Health System (SUS), the case of Amparo in the state of São Paulo].
Cien Saude Colet
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The Reference Center in Workers Health of Amparo in the State of São Paulo promotes actions directed to workers health in primary care. In order to understand the process, we conducted research in Matricial Support in Workers Health, its trajectory, difficulties and potential, using a qualitative case study approach. The main matricial support activities are thematic meetings, informative bulletins and systematic support. The exchange of knowledge and experience leads to a closer bond between the professionals. Horizontal technical support brings about a reorganization of work in health, mutual responsibility for cases and a new outlook on illness by integrating assistance and surveillance actions. An excess workload, rotation of health professionals, undernotification of Work-Related Accidents and Diseases and regional organization are the challenges to be tackled. Matricial Support in Workers Health is strategic for the insertion of such actions in primary care and represents a step forward in the reorientation of the assistential medical model, with the introduction of the work-health relationship in family health.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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