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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in South America: an overview.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ) since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax-endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.
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Emerging Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine in South America: an overview.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The global emergence of Plasmodium vivax strains resistant to chloroquine (CQ) since the late 1980s is complicating the current international efforts for malaria control and elimination. Furthermore, CQ-resistant vivax malaria has already reached an alarming prevalence in Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea. More recently, in vivo studies have documented CQ-resistant P. vivax infections in Guyana, Peru and Brazil. Here, we summarise the available data on CQ resistance across P. vivax -endemic areas of Latin America by combining published in vivo and in vitro studies. We also review the current knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of CQ resistance in P. vivax and the prospects for developing and standardising reliable molecular markers of drug resistance. Finally, we discuss how the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network, an international collaborative effort involving malaria experts from all continents, might contribute to the current regional efforts to map CQ-resistant vivax malaria in South America.
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Amazonian plant natural products: perspectives for discovery of new antimalarial drug leads.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria parasites are now resistant, or showing signs of resistance, to most drugs used in therapy. Novel chemical entities that exhibit new mechanisms of antiplasmodial action are needed. New antimalarials that block transmission of Plasmodium spp. from humans to Anopheles mosquito vectors are key to malaria eradication efforts. Although P. vivax causes a considerable number of malaria cases, its importance has for long been neglected. Vivax malaria can cause severe manifestations and death; hence there is a need for P. vivax-directed research. Plants used in traditional medicine, namely Artemisia annua and Cinchona spp. are the sources of the antimalarial natural products artemisinin and quinine, respectively. Based on these compounds, semi-synthetic artemisinin-derivatives and synthetic quinoline antimalarials have been developed and are the most important drugs in the current therapeutic arsenal for combating malaria. In the Amazon region, where P. vivax predominates, there is a local tradition of using plant-derived preparations to treat malaria. Here, we review the current P. falciparum and P. vivax drug-sensitivity assays, focusing on challenges and perspectives of drug discovery for P. vivax, including tests against hypnozoites. We also present the latest findings of our group and others on the antiplasmodial and antimalarial chemical components from Amazonian plants that may be potential drug leads against malaria.
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Artemisinin resistance in rodent malaria--mutation in the AP2 adaptor ?-chain suggests involvement of endocytosis and membrane protein trafficking.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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The control of malaria, caused by Plasmodium falciparum, is hampered by the relentless evolution of drug resistance. Because artemisinin derivatives are now used in the most effective anti-malarial therapy, resistance to artemisinin would be catastrophic. Indeed, studies suggest that artemisinin resistance has already appeared in natural infections. Understanding the mechanisms of resistance would help to prolong the effective lifetime of these drugs. Genetic markers of resistance are therefore required urgently. Previously, a mutation in a de-ubiquitinating enzyme was shown to confer artemisinin resistance in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi.
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A systematic in silico search for target similarity identifies several approved drugs with potential activity against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Most of the drugs in use against Plasmodium falciparum share similar modes of action and, consequently, there is a need to identify alternative potential drug targets. Here, we focus on the apicoplast, a malarial plastid-like organelle of algal source which evolved through secondary endosymbiosis. We undertake a systematic in silico target-based identification approach for detecting drugs already approved for clinical use in humans that may be able to interfere with the P. falciparum apicoplast. The P. falciparum genome database GeneDB was used to compile a list of ?600 proteins containing apicoplast signal peptides. Each of these proteins was treated as a potential drug target and its predicted sequence was used to interrogate three different freely available databases (Therapeutic Target Database, DrugBank and STITCH3.1) that provide synoptic data on drugs and their primary or putative drug targets. We were able to identify several drugs that are expected to interact with forty-seven (47) peptides predicted to be involved in the biology of the P. falciparum apicoplast. Fifteen (15) of these putative targets are predicted to have affinity to drugs that are already approved for clinical use but have never been evaluated against malaria parasites. We suggest that some of these drugs should be experimentally tested and/or serve as leads for engineering new antimalarials.
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MDR1-associated resistance to artesunate+mefloquine does not impair blood-stage parasite fitness in a rodent malaria model.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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If drug-resistant malaria mutants are less fit than sensitive forms, they will wane over time when active drug pressure is removed and the overall sensitivity to the drug may be restored. However, most studies addressing this issue have been largely retrospective. Here, we undertook a predictive study, using mutant rodent malaria parasites resistant to the Artemisinin combination treatment (ACT) version of artesunate+mefloquine (ATN+MF) to gain insights about their ability to compete with ATN+MF-sensitive forms in untreated hosts. Previously, Plasmodium chabaudi parasites resistant to ATN+MF were selected in vivo through prolonged passaging in mice under increasing doses of the two drugs, and shown to harbour duplication of the mdr1 gene. Here, the resistant parasite, AS-ATNMF1, was mixed with its progenitor AS-ATN in different proportions and each mixture was injected into mice that were left untreated. Absolute percentage parasitaemias and the proportion of each parasite were then monitored by microscopy and proportional sequencing, respectively, every two days for a period of 14days. AS-ATNMF1 outperformed its progenitor AS-ATN over the whole sampling period regardless of the relative starting proportion of each parasite clone. In order to assess if consecutive sub-inoculations could have been responsible for the apparent fitness gain of the resistant parasite, its growth was compared to that of AS-ATN27P, a parasite which was passaged the same number of times as AS-ATNMF1, but left untreated. Although small fluctuations in the proportion of each parasite were observed through time, the relative abundance of each on the last day of sampling (Day 14) was virtually identical to that of the starting inoculum. We conclude that there is no fitness cost associated with MDR1-associated ATN+MF resistance in vivo. These observations offer the first insights about the within-host dynamics between ACT-resistant and -sensitive parasites in absence of drug pressure.
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Genomewide scan reveals amplification of mdr1 as a common denominator of resistance to mefloquine, lumefantrine, and artemisinin in Plasmodium chabaudi malaria parasites.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites pose a threat to effective drug control, even to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Here we used linkage group selection and Solexa whole-genome resequencing to investigate the genetic basis of resistance to component drugs of ACTs. Using the rodent malaria parasite P. chabaudi, we analyzed the uncloned progeny of a genetic backcross between the mefloquine-, lumefantrine-, and artemisinin-resistant mutant AS-15MF and a genetically distinct sensitive clone, AJ, following drug treatment. Genomewide scans of selection showed that parasites surviving each drug treatment bore a duplication of a segment of chromosome 12 (translocated to chromosome 04) present in AS-15MF. Whole-genome resequencing identified the size of the duplicated segment and its position on chromosome 4. The duplicated fragment extends for ?393 kbp and contains over 100 genes, including mdr1, encoding the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein homologue 1. We therefore show that resistance to chemically distinct components of ACTs is mediated by the same genetic mutation, highlighting a possible limitation of these therapies.
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The origins of African Plasmodium vivax; insights from mitochondrial genome sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Plasmodium vivax, the second most prevalent of the human malaria parasites, is estimated to affect 75 million people annually. It is very rare, however, in west and central Africa, due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negative phenotype in the human population. Due to its rarity in Africa, previous studies on the phylogeny of world-wide P. vivax have suffered from insufficient samples of African parasites. Here we compare the mitochondrial sequence diversity of parasites from Africa with those from other areas of the world, in order to investigate the origin of present-day African P. vivax. Mitochondrial genome sequencing revealed relatively little polymorphism within the African population compared to parasites from the rest of the world. This, combined with sequence similarity with parasites from India, suggests that the present day African P. vivax population in humans may have been introduced relatively recently from the Indian subcontinent. Haplotype network analysis also raises the possibility that parasites currently found in Africa and South America may be the closest extant relatives of the ancestors of the current world population. Lines of evidence are adduced that this ancestral population may be from an ancient stock of P. vivax in Africa.
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Whole genome re-sequencing identifies a mutation in an ABC transporter (mdr2) in a Plasmodium chabaudi clone with altered susceptibility to antifolate drugs.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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In malaria parasites, mutations in two genes of folate biosynthesis encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) modify responses to antifolate therapies which target these enzymes. However, the involvement of other genes which modify the availability of exogenous folate, for example, has been proposed. Here, we used short-read whole-genome re-sequencing to determine the mutations in a clone of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi, which has altered susceptibility to both sulphadoxine and pyrimethamine. This clone bears a previously identified S106N mutation in dhfr and no mutation in dhps. Instead, three additional point mutations in genes on chromosomes 2, 13 and 14 were identified. The mutated gene on chromosome 13 (mdr2 K392Q) encodes an ABC transporter. Because Quantitative Trait Locus analysis previously indicated an association of genetic markers on chromosome 13 with responses to individual and combined antifolates, MDR2 is proposed to modulate antifolate responses, possibly mediated by the transport of folate intermediates.
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Experimental evolution of resistance to artemisinin combination therapy results in amplification of the mdr1 gene in a rodent malaria parasite.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Lacking suitable alternatives, the control of malaria increasingly depends upon Artemisinin Combination Treatments (ACT): resistance to these drugs would therefore be disastrous. For ACTs, the biology of resistance to the individual components has been investigated, but experimentally induced resistance to component drugs in combination has not been generated.
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Plasmodium vivax in the Democratic Republic of East Timor: Parasite prevalence and antifolate resistance-associated mutations.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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In the Democratic Republic of East Timor, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria coexist, but limited information is available about the latter species. Consequently, the prevalence of P. vivax and of its corresponding antifolate resistance-associated mutations in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes was assessed here. Blood samples were collected from 650 individuals distributed among six districts, over two different periods, by either passive case detection (PCD) or active case detection (ACD). As expected, malaria was over-represented in the PCD sample (26% PCD vs 5% ACD), because the infection increases medical care seeking. Additionally, the relative frequency of P. vivax infections in symptomatic individuals (37%) was twice as high as the one in the asymptomatic sampling group (18%), suggesting that that this parasite is accounting for a significant proportion malaria-attributed morbidity. The frequency of specific sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance-associated mutations genes was ascertained in P. vivax positive samples by PCR-RFLP. Although no mutants were detected in codons 383 and 553 of pvdhps, 48%, 76% and 82% of P. vivax-infected samples harbored the dhfr 33L, 58R and 117N mutations, respectively. Additionally, the frequency of parasites carrying both pvdhfr 58R and 117N mutant alleles accounted for a third of all genotypes analyzed, most likely due to inadvertent SP use in the past. In conclusion, evidence-based information is provided to promote optimized drug deployment and limit the evolution of resistance to antifolate resistance in P. vivax from East Timor.
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Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Classical and quantitative linkage analyses of genetic crosses have traditionally been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic variation at single base-pair resolution. Here, we combine in vivo experimental evolution, a rapid genetic strategy and whole genome re-sequencing to identify the precise genetic basis of artemisinin resistance in a lineage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Such genetic markers will further the investigation of resistance and its control in natural infections of the human malaria, P. falciparum.
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Tracing the origins and signatures of selection of antifolate resistance in island populations of Plasmodium falciparum.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Resistance of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has evolved worldwide. In the archipelago of São Tomé and Principe (STP), West Africa, although SP resistance is highly prevalent the drug is still in use in particular circumstances. To address the evolutionary origins of SP resistance in these islands, we genotyped point mutations at P. falciparum dhfr and dhps genes and analysed microsatellites flanking those genes.
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Geographic structuring of the Plasmodium falciparum sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (PfSERCA) gene diversity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Artemisinin, a thapsigargin-like sesquiterpene has been shown to inhibit the Plasmodium falciparum sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase PfSERCA. To collect baseline pfserca sequence information before field deployment of Artemisinin-based Combination therapies that may select mutant parasites, we conducted a sequence analysis of 100 isolates from multiple sites in Africa, Asia and South America. Coding sequence diversity was large, with 29 mutated codons, including 32 SNPs (average of one SNP/115 bp), of which 19 were novel mutations. Most SNP detected in this study were clustered within a region in the cytosolic head of the protein. The PfSERCA functional domains were very well conserved, with non synonymous mutations located outside the functional domains, except for the S769N mutation associated in French Guiana with elevated IC(50) for artemether. The S769N mutation is located close to the hinge of the headpiece, which in other species modulates calcium affinity and in consequence efficacy of inhibitors, possibly linking calcium homeostasis to drug resistance. Genetic diversity was highest in Senegal, Brazil and French Guiana, and few mutations were identified in Asia. Population genetic analysis was conducted for a partial fragment of the gene encompassing nucleotide coordinates 87-2862 (unambiguous sequence available for 96 isolates). This supported a geographic clustering, with a separation between Old and New World samples and one dominant ancestral haplotype. Genetic drift alone cannot explain the observed polymorphism, suggesting that other evolutionary mechanisms are operating. One possible contributor could be the frequency of haemoglobinopathies that are associated with calcium dysregulation in the erythrocyte.
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Analysis of genetic mutations associated with anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum from the Democratic Republic of East Timor.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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In response to chloroquine (CQ) resistance, the policy for the first-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the Democratic Republic of East Timor (DRET) was changed in early 2000. The combination of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was then introduced for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria.
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Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase gene in samples from Equatorial Guinea before implementation of artemisinin-based combination therapy.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Plasmodium falciparum resistance to the primary drugs used for treatment of malaria has become the main obstacle to malaria control. Artemisinin combination therapies are the current treatment strategy, and it has been suggested that resistance to artemisinin derivatives may be related to mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase ortholog of the mammalian sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase gene, known as the pfatp6 gene. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pfatp6. The presence of different SNPs was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the pfatp6 gene, and then sequencing to identify all possible alleles of the gene. A total of 20 SNPs were detected, including eight SNPs that have not been previously described: K481R in Malabo; R801H on Annobon Island; and the synonymous SNPs a141t, c1788t, a2211g, t2739g, a2760c, and g2836a. The genotypic profile of pfatp6 in samples from Equatorial Guinea, may be a useful epidemiologic tool for monitoring local efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies.
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Quantitative genome re-sequencing defines multiple mutations conferring chloroquine resistance in rodent malaria.
BMC Genomics
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Drug resistance in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum severely compromises the treatment and control of malaria. A knowledge of the critical mutations conferring resistance to particular drugs is important in understanding modes of drug action and mechanisms of resistances. They are required to design better therapies and limit drug resistance.A mutation in the gene (pfcrt) encoding a membrane transporter has been identified as a principal determinant of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum, but we lack a full account of higher level chloroquine resistance. Furthermore, the determinants of resistance in the other major human malaria parasite, P. vivax, are not known. To address these questions, we investigated the genetic basis of chloroquine resistance in an isogenic lineage of rodent malaria parasite P. chabaudi in which high level resistance to chloroquine has been progressively selected under laboratory conditions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.