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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Construction and Application of a Refined Hospital Management Chain.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Gaining large scale success was quite common in the later period of industrialization for hospitals in China. Today, Chinese hospital management face such problems as service inefficiency, high human resources cost, and low rate of capital use. This study analyzes the refined management chain of the Wuxi No. 2 People's Hospital. This consists of six gears namely "organizational structure, clinical practice, outpatient service, medical technology, and nursing care and logistics" used to achieve maximum scale and benefits. The gears are based on "flat management system targets, chief of medical staff, centralized outpatient service, intensified medical examinations, vertical nursing management and socialized logistics". The hospital took innovative measures. The "one doctor-one patient-one clinic" was well accepted; "one dispensary" shorten the waiting time by 20 min. The 168 rear service hot line "made patients' lives easier; and a red wrist ribbon" for seriously ill patient was implemented to prioritize medical treatment. The core concepts of refined hospital management are optimizing flow process, reducing waste, improving efficiency, saving costs, and taking good care of patients as most important.
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Iatrogenic parasitic myoma: A case report and review of the literature.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To investigate the possible causes of iatrogenic parasitic myoma and methods to prevent its occurrence.
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Note: Differential amplified high-resolution tilt angle measurement system.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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A high-resolution tilt angle measurement system is presented in this paper. In this system, the measurement signal is amplified by two steps: (1) amplified by operational amplifier and (2) differential amplified by two MEMS-based inclinometers. The novel application not only amplifies the signal but, more importantly, substantially reduces the electrical interference and common-mode noise among the same circuit design. Thus, both the extremely high resolution and great long-term stability are achieved in this system. Calibrated by an autocollimator, the system shows a resolution of 2 arc sec. The accuracy is better than ±1.5 arc sec. The zero-drift error is below ±1 arc sec and ±2 arc sec in the short and long term, respectively.
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Chlorella Protects Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Pancreatic ?-Cell Damage.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Abstract Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction and diabetes. Studies have shown that chlorella could be important in health promotion or disease prevention through its antioxidant capacity. However, whether chlorella has a cytoprotective effect in pancreatic ?-cells remains to be elucidated. We investigated the protective effects of chlorella on H2O2-induced oxidative damage in INS-1 (832/13) cells. Chlorella partially restored cell viability after H2O2 toxicity. To further investigate the effects of chlorella on mitochondria function and cellular oxidative stress, we analyzed mitochondria membrane potential, ATP concentrations, and cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Chlorella prevented mitochondria disruption and maintained cellular ATP levels after H2O2 toxicity. It also normalized intracellular levels of ROS to that of control in the presence of H2O2. Chlorella protected cells from apoptosis as indicated by less p-Histone and caspase 3 activation. In addition, chlorella not only enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), but also partially restored the reduced GSIS after H2O2 toxicity. Our results suggest that chlorella is effective in amelioration of cellular oxidative stress and destruction, and therefore protects INS-1 (832/13) cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis and increases insulin secretion. Chlorella should be studied for use in the prevention or treatment of diabetes.
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Sulforaphane Inhibits TNF-?-Induced Adhesion Molecule Expression Through the Rho A/ROCK/NF-?B Signaling Pathway.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Abstract Endothelial dysfunction is an early indicator of cardiovascular diseases. Increased stimulation of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) triggers the inflammatory mediator secretion of endothelial cells, leading to atherosclerotic risk. In this study, we investigated whether sulforaphane (SFN) affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in TNF-?-induced ECV 304 endothelial cells. Our data showed that SFN attenuated TNF-?-induced expression of ICAM-1 in ECV 304 cells. Pretreatment of ECV 304 cells with SFN inhibited dose-dependently the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and IL-8. SFN inhibited TNF-?-induced nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity. Furthermore, SFN decreased TNF-?-mediated phosphorylation of I?B kinase (IKK) and I?B?, Rho A, ROCK, ERK1/2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. Collectively, SFN inhibited the NF-?B DNA binding activity and downregulated the TNF-?-mediated induction of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells by inhibiting the Rho A/ROCK/NF-?B signaling pathway, suggesting the beneficial effects of SFN on suppression of inflammation within the atherosclerotic lesion.
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Controlled stimulation-burst targeted release by smart decentered core-shell microcapsules in gravity and magnetic field.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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By combining gravity and magnetic force, we have developed a versatile and facile microfluidic method for forming magnetic decentered core-shell microcapsules in which the directions of the oil core and the magnetic nanoparticles are either opposed or the same. When the temperature rises above the LCST of the PNIPAm, the shell shrinks rapidly and the core targets burst release towards the converse or the same direction as the magnet. By adjusting the direction of the magnet, the release direction of the active substance could be correspondingly accurately controlled.
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Mulberry water extracts inhibit atherosclerosis through suppression of the integrin-??/focal adhesion kinase complex and downregulation of nuclear factor ?B signaling in vivo and in vitro.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Previous studies have shown that mulberry water extracts (MWEs), which contain polyphenolic compounds, have an antiatherosclerotic effect in vivo and in vitro through stimulating apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Histological analysis was performed on atherosclerotic lesions from high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed rabbits after treatment with 0.5-1% MWEs for 10 weeks. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expressions of SMA, Ras, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the VSMCs were dose-dependently inhibited after MWE treatment. The antimigratory effects of MWEs on A7r5 VSMCs were assessed by western blot analysis of migration-related proteins, visualization of F-actin cytoskeleton, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MWEs inhibited VSMC migration through reducing interactions of the integrin-?3/focal adhesion kinase complex, alterations of the cytoskeleton, and downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3?/nuclear factor ?B signaling. Taken together, MWEs inhibited HCD-induced rabbit atherogenesis through blocking VSMC migration via reducing interactions of integrin-?3 and focal adhesion kinase and downregulating migration-related proteins.
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A new T classification based on masticator space involvement in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a study of 742 cases with magnetic resonance imaging.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance and various classifications for anatomic masticator space involvement (MSI) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Induction of macrophage cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis by humic acid.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Humic acid (HA) in well water is associated with Blackfoot disease and various cancers. Previously, we reported that acute humic acid exposure (25-200 µg/mL for 24 hr) induces inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages. In this study, we observed that prolonged (72 hr) HA exposure (25-200 µg/mL) induces cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in cultured RAW264.7 cells. We also observed that exposing macrophages to HA arrests cells in the G2 /M phase of the cell cycle by reducing cyclin A/B1 , Cdc2, and Cdc25C levels. Treating macrophages with HA triggers a sequence of events characteristic of apoptotic cell death including loss of cell viability, morphological changes, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, sub-G1 accumulation. Molecular markers of apoptosis associated with mitochondrial dysfunction were similarly observed, including cytochrome c release, caspase-3 or caspase-9 activation, and Bcl-2/Bax dysregulation. In addition to the mitochondrial pathway, HA-induced apoptosis may also be mediated through the death receptor and ER stress pathways, as evidence by induction of Fas, caspase-8, caspase-4, and caspase-12 activity. HA also upregulates p53 expression and causes DNA damage as assessed by the comet assay. These findings yield new insight into the mechanisms by which HA exposure may trigger atherosclerosis through modulation of the macrophage-mediated immune system. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:741-750, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Immobilization of Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1) and Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) in magnetic alginate beads: an enzymatic evaluation in the corresponding proteins.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Enzymes have a wide variety of applications in diverse biotechnological fields, and the immobilization of enzymes plays a key role in academic research or industrialization due to the stabilization and recyclability it confers. In this study, we immobilized the Brassica oleracea chlorophyllase 1 (BoCLH1) or Candida rugosa lipase (CRL) in magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles-loaded alginate composite beads. The catalytic activity and specific activity of the BoCLH1 and CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads were evaluated. Results show that the activity of immobilized BoCLH1 in magnetic alginate composite beads (3.36±0.469 U/g gel) was higher than that of immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (2.96±0.264 U/g gel). In addition, the specific activity of BoCLH1 beads (10.90±1.521 U/mg protein) was higher than that immobilized BoCLH1 in alginate beads (8.52±0.758 U/mg protein). In contrast, the immobilized CRL in magnetic alginate composite beads exhibited a lower enzyme activity (11.81±0.618) than CRL immobilized in alginate beads (94.83±7.929), and the specific activity of immobilized CRL entrapped in magnetic alginate composite beads (1.99±0.104) was lower than immobilized lipase in alginate beads (15.01±1.255). A study of the degradation of magnetic alginate composite beads immersed in acidic solution (pH 3) shows that the magnetic alginate composite beads remain intact in acidic solution for at least 6 h, indicating the maintenance of the enzyme catalytic effect in low-pH environment. Finally, the enzyme immobilized magnetic alginate composite beads could be collected by an external magnet and reused for at least six cycles.
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Blm-s, a BH3-Only Protein Enriched in Postmitotic Immature Neurons, Is Transcriptionally Upregulated by p53 during DNA Damage.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Programmed cell death is a pivotal process that regulates neuronal number during development. Key regulators of this process are members of the BCL-2 family. Using mRNA differential display, we identified a Bcl-2 family gene, Blm-s (Bcl-2-like molecule, short form), enriched in postmitotic neurons of the developing cerebral cortex. BLM-s functions as a BH3-only apoptosis sensitizer/derepressor and causes BAX-dependent mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by selectively binding to prosurvival BCL-2 or MCL-1. When challenged with ?-irradiation that produces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), Blm-s is transcriptionally upregulated in postmitotic immature neurons with concurrently increased apoptosis. RNAi-mediated depletion of Blm-s protects immature neurons from irradiation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, Blm-s is a direct target gene of p53 and AP1 via the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signaling pathways activated by DSBs. Thus, BLM-s is likely an apoptosis sensor activated by DSBs accumulating in postmitotic immature neurons.
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Tertiary amide-based Knoevenagel-type reactions: a direct, general, and chemoselective approach to enaminones.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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We report one-pot and chemoselective Knoevenagel-type reactions using highly stable amides and lactams as the electrophilic substrates. The method is based on the in situ activation of amide carbonyl with triflic anhydride and a subsequent reaction with carbanions generated in situ from carbonyl compounds. The amide-based method is an alternative to the versatile thioamide-based Eschenmoser sulfide contraction.
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Molecular dynamics investigations of liquid-vapor interaction and adsorption of formaldehyde, oxocarbons, and water in graphitic slit pores.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Formaldehyde exposure has been associated with several human cancers, including leukemia and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, motivating the present investigation on the microscopic adsorption behaviors of formaldehyde in multi-component-mixture-filled micropores. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to investigate the liquid-vapor interaction and adsorption of formaldehyde, oxocarbons, and water in graphitic slit pores. The effects of the slit width, system temperature, concentration, and the constituent ratio of the mixture on the diffusion and adsorption properties are studied. As a result of interactions between the components, the z-directional self-diffusivity (D(z)) in the mixture substantially decreased by about one order of magnitude as compared with that of pure (single-constituent) adsorbates. When the concentration exceeds a certain threshold, the D(z) values dramatically decrease due to over-saturation inducing barriers to diffusion. The binding energy between the adsorbate and graphite at the first adsorption monolayer is calculated to be 3.99, 2.01, 3.49, and 2.67 kcal mol(-1) for CO2, CO, CH2O, and H2O, respectively. These values agree well with those calculated using the density functional theory coupled cluster method and experimental results. A low solubility of CO2 in water and water preferring to react with CH2O, forming hydrated methanediol clusters, are observed. Because the cohesion in a hydrated methanediol cluster is much higher than the adhesion between clusters and the graphitic surface, the hydrated methanediol clusters were hydrophobic, exhibiting a large contact angle on graphite.
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FT-IR microspectrometry reveals the variation of membrane polarizability due to epigenomic effect on epithelial ovarian cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Ovarian cancer, as well as other cancers, is primarily caused by methylation at cytosines in CpG islands, but the current marker for ovarian cancer is low in sensitivity and failed in early-stage detection. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is powerful in analysis of functional groups within molecules, and infrared microscopy illustrates the location of specific groups within single cells. In this study, we applied HPLC and FT-IR microspectrometry to study normal epithelial ovarian cell line immortalized ovarian surface epithelium (IOSE), two epithelial ovarian cell lines (A2780 and CP70) with distinct properties, and the effect of a cancer drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza) without labeling. Our results reveal that inhibition of methylation on cytosine with 5-aza initiates the protein expression. Furthermore, paraffin-adsorption kinetic study allows us to distinguish hypermethylated and hypomethyated cells, and this assay can be a potential diagnosis method for cancer screening.
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Paired study of 172 cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with or without dermatomyositis.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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The prognosis and late adverse effects of radiotherapy (RT) in the patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with or without dermatomyositis (DM) were similar, although the NPC patients with DM had higher Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) VCA-IgA titers and more severe acute side effects. Gender, TNM stage, and chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors of overall survival for NPC with DM. Glucocorticoid treatment did not affect the survival of NPC patients with DM.
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Note: Real-time absolute air refractometer.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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We present a real-time absolute air refractometer benefiting from the synthetic pseudo-wavelength (SPW) method. Based on laser heterodyne interferometry, the SPW method uses three vacuum cells with specific lengths to synthesize a set of synthetic pseudo-wavelengths, by combination of which the refractive index can be determined directly without ambiguity. In addition, owing to the parallel arrangement of the vacuum cells in the optical path, the measured data can be collected simultaneously so that one measurement process can be less than 2 ms. The real-time feature makes it possible for instantaneous compensation for laser interferometers.
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Elevated apolipoprotein A-I levels are associated with favorable prognosis in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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The survival outcomes of patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) differ significantly between individuals. Serum lipids and lipoproteins have been reported to be associated with prognosis in some cancers, but it has not been studied in metastatic NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serum lipid and lipoproteins could predict the prognosis of metastatic NPC patients. Eight hundred and seven patients with metastatic NPC were analyzed retrospectively, and the values of serum lipids and lipoproteins at baseline were retrieved. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate the associations of serum lipids and lipoproteins with overall survival (OS). Univariate analysis revealed that higher values of baseline cholesterol (?4.655 mmol/L), baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (?0.965 mmol/L), and baseline apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) (?1.065 g/L) were significantly associated with superior OS (p < 0.001), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher ApoA-I level (vs. lower ApoA-I level, HR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.52-0.80, p < 0.001) was an independent protective factor against progression. In addition, higher body mass index, earlier N stages, single lesion, and absence of liver metastasis were also revealed to be independent protective factors. In conclusion, the elevated baseline ApoA-I level may predict those patients likely to have a favorable OS.
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Correlation of early postoperative blood glucose levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Early postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients is an important risk factor affecting postoperative complications and mortality. This study aimed at investigating the effects of early postoperative hyperglycemia on postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies; data of 1,015 non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies, who underwent surgical intervention between January 2010 and January 2012, were retrospectively evaluated. Records on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), liver function, and kidney function were collected before and one day after surgery. Correlation of early postoperative FPG levels with postoperative complications, hospital costs, and length of hospital stay was further assessed in non-diabetic patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. One day after surgery, FPG results were significantly increased compared to preoperative values. FPG levels greater than or equal to 9.13 mmol/L (or 164.34 mg/dL) were associated with significant increases in the incidence of postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and hospital costs. An association is shown between FPG and postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal malignancies. Significant increases in postoperative complications among these patients suggest that measurement of early postoperative FPG levels is critical to identify patients with postoperative hyperglycemia.
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Association of miRNA-related Genetic Polymorphisms and Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly disease with a poor prognosis. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in microRNA (miRNA) functions are potential biomarkers for prognosis of various human cancers. We investigated the association of the miRNA-related SNPs with the prognosis of ESCC.
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Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor signaling is critical in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth and metastasis.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia, with the highest metastasis rate among head and neck cancers. The mechanisms underlying NPC progression remain poorly understood. Genome-wide expression profiling on 18 NPC vs. 18 noncancerous nasopharyngeal tissues together with GeneGo pathway analysis and expression verification in NPC cells and tissues revealed a potential role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in NPC progression, which has not been investigated in NPC. We then observed that uPAR expression is increased in poorly differentiated, highly metastatic NPC cells compared with lowly metastatic cells or differentiated NPC cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that uPAR regulates NPC cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional tumor xenograft and spontaneous metastasis experiments revealed that uPAR promotes NPC cell growth and metastasis in vivo. The JAK-STAT pathway is involved in uPAR-regulated signaling in NPC cells as determined by immunoblotting. Moreover, uPAR-mediated growth and motility is partially abolished upon treatment with the Jak1/Jak2 inhibitor INCB018424. We suppressed uPA expression in uPAR-overexpressing NPC cells and found that uPAR-mediated cellular growth and motility is not exclusively dependent on uPA. In summary, uPAR is a significant regulator of NPC progression and could serve as a promising therapeutic target.
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Chemical pleurodesis for prolonged postoperative air leak in primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Prolonged air leak is the most common complication after thoracoscopic operation for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), and the role of chemical pleurodesis in treating air leaks remains unclear. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of chemical pleurodesis with a comparison between minocycline and OK-432.
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[Effects of CD147 gene silencing on protein expression of ANXA2, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 by thyroid medullary carcinoma TT cells and biologic characteristics].
Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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To study the influence of CD147 gene silencing on the expression of ANXA2, MMP-2 and TIMP-2 of thyroid medullary carcinoma TT cells and related biological characteristics.
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Prognostic significance of histologic differentiation, carcinoembryonic antigen value, and lymphovascular invasion in stage I non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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For stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the only 2 prognostic factors incorporated into the seventh edition of the TNM staging system were tumor size and visceral pleural invasion. However, with this staging system, the prognostic precision of survival has proved elusive, suggesting the need to include additional prognostic factors. To improve prognostic applications and treatment decisions, we investigated clinicopathologic factors affecting progression-free survival in patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC.
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Complexity generation by chemical synthesis: a five-step synthesis of (-)-chaetominine from L-tryptophan and its biosynthetic implications.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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We demonstrated, for the first time, that on the basis of chemistry principles, the hexacyclic peptidyl alkaloid (?)-chaetominine (1) can be synthesized in a straightforward manner from L-Trp. The approach features the efficient generation of molecular complexity via a tandem C3/C14 syn-selective epoxidation (dr = 3:2)–annulative ring-opening reaction and a regioselective epimerization at C14. The successful production of (?)-chaetominine (1) from L-Trp could be helpful for revealing how the configuration of L-tryptophan becomes inverted in the biosynthetic pathway of (?)-chaetominine (1).
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Emergence and evolution of avian H5N2 influenza viruses in chickens in Taiwan.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Sporadic activity by H5N2 influenza viruses has been observed in chickens in Taiwan from 2003 to 2012. The available information suggests that these viruses were generated by reassortment between a Mexican-like H5N2 virus and a local enzootic H6N1 virus. Yet the origin, prevalence, and pathogenicity of these H5N2 viruses have not been fully defined. Following the 2012 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks, surveillance was conducted from December 2012 to July 2013 at a live-poultry wholesale market in Taipei. Our findings showed that H5N2 and H6N1 viruses cocirculated at low levels in chickens in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that all H5N2 viruses had hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes derived from a 1994 Mexican-like virus, while their internal gene complexes were incorporated from the enzootic H6N1 virus lineage by multiple reassortment events. Pathogenicity studies demonstrated heterogeneous results even though all tested viruses had motifs (R-X-K/R-R) supportive of high pathogenicity. Serological surveys for common subtypes of avian viruses confirmed the prevalence of the H5N2 and H6N1 viruses in chickens and revealed an extraordinarily high seroconversion rate to an H9N2 virus, a subtype that is not found in Taiwan but is prevalent in mainland China. These findings suggest that reassortant H5N2 viruses, together with H6N1 viruses, have become established and enzootic in chickens throughout Taiwan and that a large-scale vaccination program might have been conducted locally that likely led to the introduction of the 1994 Mexican-like virus to Taiwan in 2003.
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Commonly used excipients modulate UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2b7 activity to improve nalbuphine oral bioavailability in humans.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Nalbuphine (NAL) is a potent opioid analgesic, but can only be administered by injection. The major aim of this study was to develop an oral NAL formulation employing known excipients as UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 (UGT2B7) inhibitors to improve its oral bioavailability.
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Acute thoracic empyema: clinical characteristics and outcome analysis of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Acute thoracic empyema is a common clinical problem worldwide, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to report its clinical characteristics and to evaluate whether thoracoscopic surgery is associated with a lower rate of in-hospital mortality compared with nonoperative drainage.
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An anthocyanin-rich extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa linnaeus inhibits N-nitrosomethylurea-induced leukemia in rats.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A previous study reported that anthocyanins from roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) showed significant anticancer activity in human promyelocytic leukemia cells. To explore the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a roselle bioactive polyphenol in a rat model of chemical-induced leukemia was assayed. Anthocyanin extract of roselle (Hibiscus anthocyanins, HAs) was supplemented in the diet (0.1 and 0.2%). This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effect of HAs on N-nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced leukemia of rats. The study employed male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48), and leukemia was induced by intravenous injection of 35 mg kg(-1) body weight of NMU dissolved in physiologic saline solution. The rats were divided into four groups (n = 12): control, NMU only, and HAs groups that received different doses of HAs (0.1 and 0.2%) daily, orally, after NMU injection. After 220 days, the animals were killed, and the following parameters were assessed: morphological observation, hematology examination, histopathological assessment, and biochemical assay. When compared with the NMU-only group, HAs significantly prevented loss of organ weight and ameliorated the impairment of morphology, hematology, and histopathology. Treatment with HAs caused reduction in the levels of AST, ALT, uric acid, and MPO. Also, the results showed that oral administration of HAs (0.2%) remarkably inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33.3% in rats. This is the first report to demonstrate that the sequential administration of HAs followed by NMU resulted in an antileukemic activity in vivo.
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Role of computed tomographic scanning prior to thoracoscopic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The role computed tomography (CT) performed prior to thoracoscopic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) remains unclear.
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Effects of carbonization parameters of Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal on capturing carbon dioxide.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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This study experimentally analyzed the carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of Moso-bamboo- (Phyllostachys edulis-) based porous charcoal. The porous charcoal was prepared at various carbonization temperatures and ground into powders with 60, 100, and 170 meshes, respectively. In order to understand the adsorption characteristics of porous charcoal, its fundamental properties, namely, charcoal yield, ash content, pH value, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, iodine number, pore volume, and powder size, were analyzed. The results show that when the carbonization temperature was increased, the charcoal yield decreased and the pH value increased. Moreover, the bamboo carbonized at a temperature of 1000(°)C for 2 h had the highest iodine sorption value and BET surface area. In the experiments, charcoal powders prepared at various carbonization temperatures were used to adsorb 1.854% CO2 for 120?h. The results show that the bamboo charcoal carbonized at 1000(°)C and ground with a 170 mesh had the best adsorpt on capacity, significantly decreasing the CO2 concentration to 0.836%. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, the Moso-bamboo-based porous charcoal exhibited much better CO2 adsorption capacity compared to that of commercially available 350-mesh activated carbon.
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Sulindac-derived RXR? modulators inhibit cancer cell growth by binding to a novel site.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXR?), an intriguing and unique drug target, can serve as an intracellular target mediating the anticancer effects of certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including sulindac. We report the synthesis and characterization of two sulindac analogs, K-8008 and K-8012, which exert improved anticancer activities over sulindac in a RXR?-dependent manner. The analogs inhibit the interaction of the N-terminally truncated RXR? (tRXR?) with the p85? subunit of PI3K, leading to suppression of AKT activation and induction of apoptosis. Crystal structures of the RXR? ligand-binding domain (LBD) with K-8008 or K-8012 reveal that both compounds bind to tetrameric RXR? LBD at a site different from the classical ligand-binding pocket. Thus, these results identify K-8008 and K-8012 as tRXR? modulators and define a binding mechanism for regulating the nongenomic action of tRXR?.
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Topical N-acetylcysteine accelerates wound healing in vitro and in vivo via the PKC/Stat3 pathway.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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N-Acetylcysteine (Nac) is an antioxidant administered in both oral and injectable forms. In this study, we used Nac topically to treat burn wounds in vitro and in vivo to investigate mechanisms of action. In vitro, we monitored glutathione levels, cell proliferation, migration, scratch-wound healing activities and the epithelialization-related proteins, matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and proteins involved in regulating the expression of MMP-1 in CCD-966SK cells treated with Nac. Various Nac concentrations (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) increased glutathione levels, cell viability, scratch-wound healing activities and migration abilities of CCD-966SK cells in a dose-dependent manner. The MMP-1 expression of CCD-966SK cells treated with 1.0 mM Nac for 24 h was significantly increased. Levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC), janus kinase 1 (Jak1), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3), c-Fos and Jun, but not extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk1/2), were also significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner compared to the controls. In addition, Nac induced collagenous expression of MMP-1 via the PKC/Stat3 signaling pathway. In vivo, a burn wound healing rat model was applied to assess the stimulation activity and histopathological effects of Nac, with 3.0% Nac-treated wounds being found to show better characteristics on re-epithelialization. Our results demonstrated that Nac can potentially promote wound healing activity, and may be a promising drug to accelerate burn wound healing.
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Staurosporine from the endophytic Streptomyces sp. strain CNS-42 acts as a potential biocontrol agent and growth elicitor in cucumber.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Chinese medicinal plants and their surrounding rhizospheric soil serve as promising sources of actinobacteria. A total of 180 actinobacteria strains were isolated from the rhizosphere soil, leaves, stems, and roots of nine selected plants and have been identified as potential biocontrol agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. An endophytic strain CNS-42 isolated from Alisma orientale showed the largest zone of inhibition demonstrating a potent effect against F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum and a broad antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeasts, and other pathogenic fungi. The in vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index was significantly reduced (P < 0.05), and plant shoot fresh weight and height increased greatly (P < 0.05) in plantlets treated with strain CNS-42 compared to the negative control. This isolate was identified as Streptomyces sp. based on cultural, physiological, morphological characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene analysis. Further bioassay-guided isolation and purification revealed that staurosporine was responsible for its antifungal and plant growth promoting activities and the latter property of staurosporine is reported for the first time. The in vivo assay was further performed and indicated that staurosporine showed good growth promoting effect on the plant shoot biomass of cucumber. This is the first critical evidence identifying CNS-42 as a biocontrol agent for the soil borne pathogen, F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.
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ABC transporters coupled with the elevated ergosterol contents contribute to the azole resistance and amphotericin B susceptibility.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Most screening approaches produce compounds that target survival genes and are likely to generate resistance over time. Simply having more drugs does not address the potential emergence of resistance caused by target mutation, drug efflux pumps over-expression, and so on. There is a great need to explore new strategies to treat fungal infections caused by drug-resistant pathogens. In this study, we found that azole-resistant Candida albicans with CaCDR1 and CaCDR2 over-expression is hypersensitive against amphotericin B (AmB) by our high throughput synergy screening (HTSS). In contrast, ?cdr1 and ?cdr2 knockout strains were resistant to AmB. Moreover, clinical isolates with increased expression of CaCDR1 and CaCDR2 demonstrated susceptibility to AmB, which can also synergize with the efflux pumps inducer fluphenazine (FPZ). Finally, the increased drug susceptibility to AmB in azole-resistant C. albicans with drug efflux pumps over-expression was consistent with the elevated expression of CaERG11 and its associated ergosterols in clinical isolates. Our data implies that the level of ergosterol contents determines the susceptibility to azoles and AmB in C. albicans. Deep understanding of the above mechanisms would offer new hope to treat drug-resistant C. albicans.
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Fatty acid synthase (FASN) levels in serum of colorectal cancer patients: correlation with clinical outcomes.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a common phenotype to many kinds of human cancers, such as those of the breast, ovary, pancreas, prostate, colon, and so on. Increased FASN levels have been detected in the serum of the patients with breast and pancreatic cancers. The relationship between the FASN level in serum and the clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal cancer is investigated in this study. FASN levels in serum were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 74 patients with colorectal cancer and 40 healthy persons. Pathological and clinical factors associated with FASN concentrations in serum were investigated and analyzed by statistical analysis. The FASN level in colorectal cancer patients' serum is significantly higher than that in healthy persons' serum. FASN levels in the serum of colorectal cancer patients are associated with tumor extent, lymph node metabasis status, distant metastasis, and tumor clinical stage. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year disease-free survival rate among patients with low FASN levels in serum are significantly higher than those among patients with high FASN levels in serum (log-rank P = 0.003). The high FASN level in serum is a promising independent predictor of colorectal cancers with advanced phases, late clinical stages, and shorter survival. These results suggest that FASN concentration in serum may be a potential and useful tumor marker.
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Toona sinensis inhibits LPS-induced inflammation and migration in vascular smooth muscle cells via suppression of reactive oxygen species and NF-?B signaling pathway.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Toona sinensis is one of the most popular vegetarian cuisines in Taiwan and it has been shown to possess antioxidant, antiangiogenic, and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the antiatherosclerotic potential of aqueous leaf extracts from Toona sinensis (TS; 25-100 ?g/mL) and its major bioactive compound, gallic acid (GA; 5 ?g/mL), in LPS-treated rat aortic smooth muscle (A7r5) cells. We found that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of TS and GA significantly inhibited inflammatory NO and PGE2 production by downregulating their precursors, iNOS and COX-2, respectively, in LPS-treated A7r5 cells. Furthermore, TS and GA inhibited LPS-induced intracellular ROS and their corresponding mediator, p47(phox). Notably, TS and GA pretreatment significantly inhibited LPS-induced migration in transwell assays. Gelatin zymography and western blotting demonstrated that treatment with TS and GA suppressed the activity or expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and t-PA. Additionally, TS and GA significantly inhibited LPS-induced VEGF, PDGF, and VCAM-1 expression. Further investigation revealed that the inhibition of iNOS/COX-2, MMPs, growth factors, and adhesion molecules was associated with the suppression of NF-?B activation and MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38) phosphorylation. Thus, Toona sinensis may be useful for the prevention of atherosclerosis.
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The four-step total synthesis of (-)-chaetominine.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The total synthesis of the alkaloid (-)-chaetominine (1) has been achieved in four steps with an overall yield of 33.4%. Key features of our strategy include a one-pot cascade indole epoxidation - epoxide ring-opening cyclization - lactamization reaction sequence, and the use of a nitro group as a latent amino group for the one-pot construction of the quinazolinone ring. This constitutes a step economical, redox economical and protecting group-free total synthesis.
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Carbon mass balance and microbial ecology in a laboratory scale reactor achieving simultaneous sludge reduction and nutrient removal.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Solids reduction in activated sludge processes (ASP) at source using process manipulation has been researched widely over the last two-decades. However, the absence of nutrient removal component, lack of understanding on the organic carbon, and limited information on key microbial community in solids minimizing ASP preclude the widespread acceptance of sludge minimizing processes. In this manuscript, we report simultaneous solids reduction through anaerobiosis along with nitrogen and phosphorus removals. The manuscript also reports carbon mass balance using stable isotope of carbon, microbial ecology of nitrifiers and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs). Two laboratory scale reactors were operated in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic (A(2)O) mode. One reactor was run in the standard mode (hereafter called the control-SBR) simulating conventional A(2)O type of activated sludge process and the second reactor was run in the sludge minimizing mode (called the modified-SBR). Unlike other research efforts where the sludge minimizing reactor was maintained at nearly infinite solids retention time (SRT). To sustain the efficient nutrient removal, the modified-SBR in this research was operated at a very small solids yield rather than at infinite SRT. Both reactors showed consistent NH3-N, phosphorus and COD removals over a period of 263 days. Both reactors also showed active denitrification during the anoxic phase even if there was no organic carbon source available during this phase, suggesting the presence of denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs). The observed solids yield in the modified-SBR was 60% less than the observed solids yield in the control-SBR. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) for the modified-SBR was almost 44% more than the control-SBR under identical feeding conditions, but was nearly the same for both reactors under fasting conditions. The modified-SBR showed greater diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and PAOs compared to the control-SBR. The diversity of PAOs in the modified-SBR was even more interesting in which case novel clades of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (CAP), an uncultured but widely found PAOs, were found.
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Thymidine kinase 1 is a better prognostic marker than Ki-67 for pT1 adenocarcinoma of the lung.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The sensitivity and reliability of the biomarkers thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) and Ki-67 were studied in relation to clinical features and prognosis of survival for pathological-T1 (pT1) lung adenocarcinoma patients.
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Inhibition of histone H3K9 acetylation by anacardic acid can correct the over-expression of Gata4 in the hearts of fetal mice exposed to alcohol during pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cardiovascular malformations can be caused by abnormalities in Gata4 expression during fetal development. In a previous study, we demonstrated that ethanol exposure could lead to histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression in fetal mouse hearts. However, the potential mechanisms of histone hyperacetylation and Gata4 over-expression induced by ethanol remain unclear.
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Effects of vacancy cluster defects on electrical and thermodynamic properties of silicon crystals.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A first-principle plane-wave pseudopotential method based on the density function theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the effects of vacancy cluster (VC) defects on the band structure and thermoelectric properties of silicon (Si) crystals. Simulation results showed that various VC defects changed the energy band and localized electron density distribution of Si crystals and caused the band gap to decrease with increasing VC size. The results can be ascribed to the formation of a defect level produced by the dangling bonds, floating bonds, or high-strain atoms surrounding the VC defects. The appearance of imaginary frequencies in the phonon spectrum of defective Si crystals indicates that the defect-region structure is dynamically unstable and demonstrates phase changes. The phonon dispersion relation and phonon density of state were also investigated using density functional perturbation theory. The obtained Debye temperature ( ? D ) for a perfect Si crystal had a minimum value of 448 K at T = 42 K and a maximum value of 671 K at the high-temperature limit, which is consistent with the experimental results reported by Flubacher. Moreover, the Debye temperature decreased with increases in the VC size. VC defects had minimal effects on the heat capacity (C v ) value when temperatures were below 150 K. As the temperature was higher than 150 K, the heat capacity gradually increased with increasing temperature until it achieved a constant value of 11.8 cal/cell · K. The heat capacity significantly decreased as the VC size increased. For a 2 × 2 × 2 superlattice Si crystal containing a hexagonal ring VC (HRVC10), the heat capacity decreased by approximately 17%.
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Intrapleural steroid instillation for multiple organ failure with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) increases mortality in patients with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). This study evaluates the feasibility of intrapleural steroid instillation (IPSI) in patients with ARDS and MODS unresponsive to conventional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Ninety-two of 467 patients who underwent ECMO between 2005 and 2009 had ARDS, and 30 consecutive adult patients of these 92 patients with severe ARDS and MODS were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Nine of these 30 patients, who did not respond to therapy and whose condition deteriorated, were managed with IPSI. All patients met the inclusion criteria of hemodynamic instability with high catecholamine infusion requirement and 100% oxygen demand in ventilation and ECMO flow. On initial diagnosis of ARDS, no differences in prognostic scorings were observed in patients who underwent conventional treatment (n = 21) and those who underwent IPSI (n = 9). Blood oxygenation, tidal volume, changing in chest radiographic findings, and survival rates were analyzed. The primary outcome was survival until discharge from the hospital. Pulmonary radiographic appearance improved after 3 days of IPSI treatment (P = 0.008); the ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen also increased significantly after 5 days of IPSI treatment (P = 0.028). Moreover, the 28-day mortality rate (P = 0.017), 60-day mortality rate (P = 0.003), and survival rate (78% vs. 19%; P = 0.003) significantly improved in patients undergoing IPSI, which therefore appears to be an easily implemented and highly effective treatment for patients with severe ARDS in combination with MODS, particularly in patients who fail to respond to conventional treatment.
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Five-degrees-of-freedom measurement system based on a monolithic prism and phase-sensitive detection technique.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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This paper presents a method for measuring five-degrees-of-freedom errors of a moving stage with a monolithic prism and phase-sensitive detection technique. It consists of a pigtailed laser diode, three position-sensitive detectors (PSDs), a monolithic prism, and additional optical and electronic components. The monolithic prism mounted on the moving stage generates three beams that are detected by three PSDs, respectively, so that the straightness, pitch, yaw, and roll errors can be simultaneously measured. Theoretical analysis of each error measurement process is presented. To reduce the influence of disturbing light, the laser diode is modulated by a sinusoidal wave current, and a phase-sensitive detection technique is developed to demodulate the signals. Compared with a laser interferometer, the deviation errors when measuring the horizontal and vertical straightness errors are better than ±0.25 and ±0.4 ?m, respectively. The deviation errors for the pitch, yaw, and roll are better than ±0.5, ±0.3, and ±2 arc sec, respectively, in comparison with an autocollimator. The system can be assembled to measure five error components of machine tools in an industrial environment.
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Caesanines A-D, new cassane diterpenes with unprecedented N bridge from Caesalpinia sappan.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Serial antibacterial furanoditerpenes caesanines A-D (1-4), possessing a cassane-type diterpenoid skeleton with an unusual N bridge between C-19/C-20, were identified from a Chinese herb Caesalpinia sappan Linn. In addition, caesanine D (4) showed the first class of dicassane diterpenoid ethers. Their structures were determined by different spectroscopic methods and ECD calculation. Caesanines A and B exhibited strong activities against MRSA suggesting a promising entry point for the development of anti-infective drugs.
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Modular enantioselective synthesis of 8-aza-prostaglandin E1.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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We report herein for the first time the enantioselective synthesis of 8-aza-PGE1. The synthesis used the cross olefin metathesis reaction to connect the 5-vinyl-?-lactam subunit, prepared from (R)-malic acid via the Leys sulfone-based ?-amidalkylation protocol (dr = 6.8:1), with the chiral pre-?-chain. The latter was synthesized in high enantioselectivity from (E)-2-octenol by the Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation and the titanocene-mediated epoxide opening. This modular approach is quite concise and flexible, and requires only eight steps from commercially available reagents.
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical thymectomy to treat early thymoma: a comparison with the conventional transsternal approach.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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For thymoma, the feasibility of resection via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) remains controversial. The objective of our study was to compare the outcomes of VATS and transsternal thymectomy in order to evaluate the efficacy of the VATS method for treatment of early stage thymoma.
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Endophytic Streptomyces sp. Y3111 from traditional Chinese medicine produced antitubercular pluramycins.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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As part of a search for antitubercular substances from natural sources, we screened a library of endophytic microbes (50 strains and 300 crude extracts in total) isolated from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for growth inhibitory activity against Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). The crude extract of Streptomyces sp. strain Y3111, which was associated with the stems of Heracleum souliei, showed good anti-BCG activity with an MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL. Bioassay-guided isolation led to four new pluramycin-type compounds, heraclemycins A-D (1-4). Their structures were determined by different spectroscopic techniques including HRMSESI, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR. This is the first report of pluramycin analogues produced by TCM endophytic microbes as well as the first example of BCG-selective pluramycins. Heraclemycin C (3) showed selective antitubercular activity against BCG with a MIC value of 6.25 ?g/mL and a potential new mode of action.
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The independent, unfavorable prognostic factors endothelin A receptor and chemokine receptor 4 have a close relationship in promoting the motility of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the activation of AKT and MAPK pathways.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Recent studies have indicated that the expression of endothelin A receptor (ETAR) and chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) could be used as an indicator of the metastatic potential of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of ETAR and CXCR4 in NPC patients and to reveal the interplay of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ETAR and stromal-derived factor-1(SDF-1)/CXCR4 pathways in promoting NPC cell motility.
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A direct and general method for the reductive alkylation of tertiary lactams/amides: application to the step economical synthesis of alkaloid (-)-morusimic acid D.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Full details of the direct and general method for the reductive alkylation of tertiary lactams and amides to give tertiary sec-alkylamines are presented. This one-pot method consists of in situ activation of a lactam or an amide with Tf2O/DTBMP, addition of a Grignard reagent, and reduction of the resulting iminium intermediates. Alkyl, benzyl, and aryl Grignard reagents and several reductants or reducing conditions (LiAlH4, NaBH4, Hantzsch ester, Bu3SnH, Pd(OH)2/C, H2) could be used effectively. Reductive alkylations of substituted lactams demonstrated good to excellent 1,3-asymmetric induction to provide the corresponding di- or trisubstituted pyrrolidine/piperidine in 6:1 (LiAlH4), 11:1 (Et3SiH), and 20:1 (catalytic hydrogenation) cis/trans diastereoselectivity, respectively. The versatility of this methodology was demonstrated by its application in the concise stereoselective synthesis of piperidine alkaloid (-)-morusimic acid.
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Synchrotron-based microspectroscopic study on the effects of heat treatments on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) microspectroscopy is able to reveal structural features of biomaterials within intact tissue at both cellular and molecular levels. Heat-related treatments have been used to improve nutrient availability of canola seeds and meal. However, hitherto, there has been no study on the sensitivity and response of each layer in canola seeds to heat-related treatments. It is not known which layer (epiderm/mucllage, spermoderm, endosperm, or cotyledon) is the most sensitive to heat when heat treatment is applied to the seeds. Traditional wet chemical analysis is unable to answer such questions. The objective of this study is to use synchrotron IR microspectroscopy with multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to study heat treatment effects in a fast way on the structural changes in cotyledon tissues of yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds among raw (treatment code "A"), wet heating (autoclaving at 121 °C for 60 min, treatment code "B"), and dry heating (dry roasting at 120 °C for 60 min, treatment code "C"). The hypothesis of this study was that different heat treatments have different heat penetration abilities on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola seeds. The multivariate analytical tools principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchal cluster analysis (AHCA) were applied to investigate variance and groupings within the spectral data set [whole spectral range of ca. 4000-650 cm(-1), spectral range of ca. 1300-900 cm(-1) (cellulose or saccarides), spectral range of ca. 1800-1500 cm(-1) (secondary structures of protein) and spectral range of ca. 1500-1300 cm(-1) (bending motion of methylene and methyl group; this change is consistent with the change in the range of ca. 3000-2800 cm(-1))]. The results showed that there were no clear cluster and groups formed in the cotyledon tissues among the three treatments (A, B, and C). There were no clear distinguished responses of the cotyledon tissues to different types of heat treatments using multivariate molecular spectral analyses. The results indicate that the cotyledon tissues might not be sufficiently penetrated by both heat treatments (autoclaving and dry roasting) under the specified conditions. A future study is needed to analyze individual functional group band intensity among the treatments using univariate molecular spectral analysis to confirm multivariate PCA and cluster analyses.
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Renin angiotensin system blockade ameliorates lead nephropathy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Lead intoxication is usually insidious and may cause a variety of complications such as kidney damage and hypertension. The role of intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in lead-induced nephropathy has not been investigated. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with water containing 250ppm of lead acetate (lead group) and deionized water (control group) for 4weeks. Another two groups started to receive intraperitoneal captopril (50mg/kg/d) or losartan (10mg/kg/d) after 2weeks of lead feeding and continued for another 2weeks. Immunoblotting was used to analyze the protein amount of intrarenal RAS components and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?). Compared with control group, lead exposure resulted in increased proteinuria after 2-week treatment (4.2±0.9mg/100g vs. 1.8±0.8mg/100g, p<0.05) and 4-week (5.2±1.7mg/100g, p<0.05). Serum creatinine level was increased (0.40±0.2 vs. 0.3 ±.04mg/dL, p<0.05) and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was decreased (2.68±1.03 vs. 3.37±0.11mL/min, p<0.05). Intrarenal angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (ANG II), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) were upregulated in lead group. Captopril and losartan administration reduced proteinuria significantly (3.0±0.50mg/100g of captopril and 2.7±0.4mg/100g of losartan group) and lowered systolic blood pressure when compared with lead group. Furthermore, serum creatinine levels and GFR were improved by RAS blockade. Captopril treatment significantly reduced protein abundance of ACE, ANG II, AT1R and TGF-?. Losartan treatment also decreased ANG II and TGF-?. We concluded that lead exposure elicited intrarenal RAS activation with associated proteinuria and impaired renal function. RAS blockade was effective in alleviating lead-associated kidney injury and lowering blood pressure.
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Prospective study of tailoring whole-body dual-modality [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography with plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA for detecting distant metastasis in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma at initial staging.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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To evaluate which patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) obtained the greatest benefits from the detection of distant metastasis with [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) combined with plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA levels.
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Functional polymorphisms of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and survival in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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To investigate the prognostic role of major matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) gene polymorphisms in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with chemoradiotherapy. Four hundred twenty-one consecutive NPC patients were prospectively recruited. Two hundred patients were randomly selected as the training cohort, and the remaining 221 patients were the validation cohort. Twelve polymorphisms in the MMP-1, 2, 3, 7, 8, and 9 genes were genotyped by ligase detection reaction-PCR. MMP-9 rs2250889 PR/RR (HR = 2.287, 95% CI 1.400-3.735) and rs17576 RQ/QQ (HR = 2.347, 95% CI 1.431-3.849) genotypes were significantly related with increased death risk in the training cohort. Analysis of the validation cohort confirmed these results (rs2250889: HR = 2.231, 95% CI 1.281-3.886; rs17576: HR = 2.987, 95% CI 1.674-5.330). Multivariate analysis showed that rs17576 (HR = 2.284, 95% CI 1.123-4.643, P = 0.023) was still an independent prognostic factor. The MMP-9 rs17576 is a novel independent prognostic marker in patients with locoregionally advanced NPC treated with chemoradiotherapy.
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Versatile construction of functionalized tropane ring systems based on lactam activation: enantioselective synthesis of (+)-pervilleine B.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The halo-assisted intramolecular addition of silyl enol ethers with in situ activated lactams yielded (hydroxylated) 1-halo-8-azabicyclo[3,2,1]octane and 1-halo-9-azabicyclo[3,3,1]nonane ring systems, which provided an easy enantioselective access to 6?-silyloxytropane-3-one, 3?,6?-dihydroxytropane, and pervilleine B. The absolute configuration of the natural (-)-pervilleine B was determined to be 1R,3R,5S,6R.
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Mulberry anthocyanins inhibit oleic Acid induced lipid accumulation by reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Mulberry ( Morus alba L.) has been considered to possess different benefits such as protecting liver; improving fever, urine excretion disorder, hypertension, and diabetic syndrome; and preventing cardiovascular diseases. Recently, mounting evidence has shown that mulberry anthocyanin extract (MAE) is beneficial to hyperlipidemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of MAE on hepatocyte cultured with high fatty acid and the underlying mechanisms. By using human hepatoma cell HepG2 as cell model, the results showed that MAE suppressed fatty acid synthesis and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, contributing to amelioration of lipid accumulation induced by oleic acid (OA). Moreover, MAE also inhibited acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) activities by stimulating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). MAE attenuated the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target molecules, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS). Similar results were also found in the expressions of enzymes involved in triglyceride and cholesterol biosyntheses including glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGCoR), adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP), and SREBP-2. In contrast, the lipolytic enzyme expressions of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and carnitinepalmitol- transferase-1 (CPT1) were increased. This study suggests the hypolipidemic effects of MAE occur via phosphorylation of AMPK and inhibition of lipid biosynthesis and stimulation of lipolysis. Therefore, the mulberry anthocyanins may actively prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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The inhibition of oleic acid induced hepatic lipogenesis and the promotion of lipolysis by caffeic acid via up-regulation of AMP-activated kinase.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Caffeic acid (CA) can inhibit toxin-induced liver injury. In this study, CA is assessed for its lipid lowering potential when oleic acid is used to induce non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in human HepG2 cells.
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Hepatoprotective effect of mulberry water extracts on ethanol-induced liver injury via anti-inflammation and inhibition of lipogenesis in C57BL/6J mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Many plant extracts and their bioactive substances are well recognized for their potential to exert as chemoprotective agents against common alcoholic liver injury. In this study, the effects of Mulberry water extracts (MWE) treatment in the prevention of alcohol-induced liver injury were investigated in mice. MWE contain many nutrients and bioactive substances, including fifteen types of polyphenols and anthocyanin compounds. The parameters of histopathology, immunohistochemistry, antioxidant defense and proinflammatory mediator demonstrated the inhibitory effect of MWE on alcohol-induced liver injury. Plasma and hepatic content analysis showed that MWE inhibited the levels of liver injury biomarkers (AST, ALT and ALP), triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC). Furthermore, treatment with MWE lessened the expression of lipid synthesis-related proteins, increased the p-AMPK/AMPK ratio and PPAR-?. Fatty acid oxidation and export via microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) were both activated as well as carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1). These results suggested that MWE prevents alcohol-induced liver injury through the activation of the AMPK and PPAR-? signal. This may be mediated by multiple pathways, including reduced lipid accumulation and lipid synthesis, increased fatty acid transport and fatty acid oxidation responses, decreased oxidative stress and facilitated anti-inflammation.
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Design and performance of an absolute gas refractometer based on a synthetic pseudo-wavelength method.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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We present a refractometer that is capable of measuring the refractive index of gases with an unambiguous range of 1.000395 and an uncertainty of 3.14×10(-8) at 633 nm. The measurement range was extended via the combination of the vacuum cells according to the proposed synthetic pseudo-wavelength (SPW) method. The basic principles of the SPW method and the design of the gas refractometer are presented in detail. The performance of the refractometer was verified in the measurements of dry air, nitrogen gas, and ambient air under different environmental conditions. No gas-filling or pumping processes were required during the measurements; so one measurement could be completed within 70 s. Compared with existing refractometers, the method reported here holds advantages in its large unambiguous measuring range, fast speed, high accuracy, and simple instrumentation design.
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General one-pot reductive gem-bis-alkylation of tertiary lactams/amides: rapid construction of 1-azaspirocycles and formal total synthesis of (±)-cephalotaxine.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Amides are a class of highly stable and readily available compounds. The amide functional group constitutes a class of powerful directing/activating and protecting group for C-C bond formation. Tertiary tert-alkylamine, including 1-azaspirocycle is a key structural feature found in many bioactive natural products and pharmaceuticals. The transformation of amides into tert-alkylamines generally requires several steps. In this paper, we report the full details of the first general method for the direct transformation of tertiary lactams/amides into tert-alkylamines. The method is based on in situ activation of amide with triflic anhydride/2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylpyridine (DTBMP), followed by successive addition of two organometallic reagents of the same or different kinds to form two C-C bonds. Both alkyl and functionalized organometallic reagents and enolates can be used as the nucleophiles. The method displayed excellent 1,2- and good 1,3-asymmetric induction. Construction of 1-azaspirocycles from lactams required only two steps or even one-step by direct spiroannelation of lactams. The power of the method was demonstrated by a concise formal total synthesis of racemic cephalotaxine.
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An inorganic-organic double network hydrogel of graphene and polymer.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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An inorganic-organic double network (DN) hydrogel of graphene and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) has been prepared by a two step synthesis. At first, reduced graphene oxide hydrogel (rGO) was prepared by a reduction-induced in situ self-assembly, and then acrylic acid monomer was adsorbed into the first network and was polymerized therein to form a second PAA network. The as-prepared rGO-PAA DN hydrogel shows both elasticity and electrical conductivity, and has potential application as a flexible conductive material for the next generation of electric devices.
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Orphan nuclear receptor TR3 acts in autophagic cell death via mitochondrial signaling pathway.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Autophagy is linked to cell death, yet the associated mechanisms are largely undercharacterized. We discovered that melanoma, which is generally resistant to drug-induced apoptosis, can undergo autophagic cell death with the participation of orphan nuclear receptor TR3. A sequence of molecular events leading to cellular demise is launched by a specific chemical compound, 1-(3,4,5-trihydroxyphenyl)nonan-1-one, newly acquired from screening a library of TR3-targeting compounds. The autophagic cascade comprises TR3 translocation to mitochondria through interaction with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein Nix, crossing into the mitochondrial inner membrane through Tom40 and Tom70 channel proteins, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential by the permeability transition pore complex ANT1-VDAC1 and induction of autophagy. This process leads to excessive mitochondria clearance and irreversible cell death. It implicates a new approach to melanoma therapy through activation of a mitochondrial signaling pathway that integrates a nuclear receptor with autophagy for cell death.
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Concomitant slide tracheoplasty and cardiac operation for congenital tracheal stenosis associated with VACTERL.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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The association of congenital tracheal stenosis and tracheoesophageal (TE) fistula is rare. Here, we report 2 patients with tracheobronchial stenosis (complete cartilage ring) involving the lower trachea and right bronchus. Both patients had associated VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiovascular anomalies, TE, renal, and limb defects) congenital cardiac defects and tracheal diverticula after repair of the TE fistula in type C esophageal atresia. The stenotic segment began at the orifice of the TE fistula, which became diverticula after the TE fistula was repaired. Concomitant repair of congenital cardiac defects and a slide tracheoplasty with elimination of the diverticula were performed successfully.
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Prion protein oligomer and its neurotoxicity.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. According to the protein only hypothesis, the key molecular event in the pathogenesis of prion disease is the conformational conversion of the host-derived cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a misfolded form (scrapie PrP, PrP(Sc)). Increasing evidence has shown that the most infectious factor is the smaller subfibrillar oligomers formed by prion proteins. Both the prion oligomer and PrP(Sc) are rich in ?-sheet structure and resistant to the proteolysis of proteinase K. The prion oligomer is soluble in physiologic environments whereas PrP(Sc) is insoluble. Various prion oligomers are formed in different conditions. Prion oligomers exhibited more neurotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo than the fibrillar forms of PrP(Sc), implying that prion oligomers could be potential drug targets for attacking prion diseases. In this article, we describe recent experimental evidence regarding prion oligomers, with a special focus on prion oligomer formation and its neurotoxicity.
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Feasibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy for elderly patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: results from a matched cohort analysis.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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BACKGROUND: To clarify the feasibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in elderly (age>=65 years) patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2006, 101 newly diagnosed elderly non-metastatic NPC patients (age>=65 years) who received cisplatin 3-weekly or weekly concurrent CRT with/without sequential chemotherapy were recruited. Each patient from the CRT group was matched to another patient treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone based on age, gender, pathological type, performance status, overall stage, stage method, Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27) score and RT technique, from the same institute and time period. We also recruited 101 young patients (age<65 years) as the referent group, which had been matched to the CRT group based on patient characteristics and treatment parameters. Treatment tolerability and toxicity were clarified, and treatment outcomes were calculated and compared among groups. RESULTS: CRT was feasible in elderly NPC patients, while a concurrent regimen of weekly cisplatin was more tolerable. Grade>=3 acute toxicity in CRT group was similar with referent group, although it was significantly higher than the RT alone group (65.3% vs. 43.6%, P=0.002). Furthermore, patients with ACE-27 score>=2 in the CRT group had significantly higher severe acute toxicity and dose reduction. Survival was poorer in elderly patients than the referent group. Compared to RT alone, CRT significantly improved the 5-year overall survival (OS: 54.6% vs. 39.3%, P=0.009), cancer-specific survival (CSS: 56.6% vs. 42.7%, P=0.022), disease-free survival (DFS: 51.6% vs. 30.2%, P=0.028) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRRFS: 78.4% vs. 52.2%, P=0.003), but not distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS: 69.6% vs. 63.6%, P=0.669). However, CRT did not significantly improve 5-year OS (43.6% vs. 27.3%, P=0.893) or CSS (43.6% vs. 34.1%, P=0.971) in elderly NPC patients with ACE-27 score>=2. CONCLUSIONS: CRT is feasible and effective in elderly patients with locoregionally advanced NPC without severe comorbidities. CRT should be used under serious consideration and be further tested in elderly patients with severe comorbidities. As such, it is essential to perform a comprehensive evaluation of pretreatment comorbidity status for all elderly NPC patients.
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Simultaneous determination of nalbuphine and its prodrug sebacoly dinalbuphine ester in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application to pharmacokinetic study in humans.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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A rapid, simple, sensitive and selective ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of nalbuphine and its prodrug sebacoly dinalbuphine ester (SDE) was developed and validated in human plasma. The sample pretreatment involves basification and iterative liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl-ether-dichloromethane (7:3, v/v) solution, followed by LC separation and positive electrospray ionization (ESI) API-3000 mass spectrometry detection. The chromatography was on a Waters Acquity UPLC BEH HILIC column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 µm). The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water (83:17, v/v) that contained 0.2% formic acid and 4 mm ammonium formate at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. Ethylmorphine and naloxine were selected as the SDE and nalbuphine internal standard (IS), respectively. The calibration curve for both was linear over the range from 0.05 to 20 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients ?0.995. The lower limit of quantification was set at 0.05 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision values for nalbuphine and SDE were acceptable as per FDA guidelines. The method was applied successfully to determine nalbuphine concentration in human plasma samples obtained from four Taiwanese volunteers receiving intramuscularly administration of sebacoyl dinalbuphine ester. The method is sensitive, selective and directly applicable to human pharmacokinetic studies involving nalbuphine.
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3-Anhydro-6-hydroxy-ophiobolin A, a new sesterterpene inhibiting the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and inducing the cell death by apoptosis on K562, from the phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris oryzae.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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A new ophiobolin derivative, 3-anhydro-6-hydroxy-ophiobolin A (1), as well as two known ophiobolin derivatives 3-anhydro-ophiobolin A (2) and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (3) were isolated from the PDB culture of a phytopathogenic fungus Bipolaris oryzae. The structure of 1 was elucidated through 2D NMR and other spectroscopic techniques. Compound 1 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against Bacille Calmette-Guerin, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 12.5 ?g/mL, and potent antiproliferative activity against cell lines HepG2 and K562 with IC50 of 6.49 ?M and 4.06 ?M, respectively. Further studies on the cytotoxicity of compound 1 against K562 cells demonstrated that it induced apoptosis, observed by flow cytometric method. Preliminary structure-activity relationships of these ophiobolins and the mechanism of apoptosis induced by 1 were analyzed.
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High pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase level correlates with disease relapse and predicts an inferior outcome in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Here, we evaluate the prognostic effect of pretreatment serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
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Protein tyrosine kinase 6 is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma poor prognosis and metastasis.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) samples, and to identify whether PTK6 can serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of NPC.
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Pretreatment body mass index as an independent prognostic factor in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with chemoradiotherapy: findings from a randomised trial.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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To investigate the relationship between the pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and the clinical outcomes in patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.