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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Study of the algorithm for inversion of low field nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation distribution].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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It is difficult to reflect the properties of samples from the signal directly collected by the low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyzer. People must obtain the relationship between the relaxation time and the original signal amplitude of every relaxation component by inversion algorithm. Consequently, the technology of T2 spectrum inversion is crucial to the application of NMR data. This study optimized the regularization factor selection method and presented the regularization algorithm for inversion of low field NMR relaxation distribution, which is based on the regularization theory of ill-posed inverse problem. The results of numerical simulation experiments by Matlab7.0 showed that this method could effectively analyze and process the NMR relaxation data.
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Recent Research and Progress in Food, Feed and Nutrition with Advanced Synchrotron-Based SR-IMS and DRIFT Molecular Spectroscopy.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Ultraspatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy is able to detect the structure features of a food or feed tissue at cellular and molecular levels. However, to date, this advanced synchrotron-based technique is almost unknown to food and feed scientists. The objective of this article was to introduce this novel analytical technology, ultra-spatially resolved synchrotron radiation based infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) to food, feed, conventional nutrition and molecular nutrition scientists. The emphasis of this review focused on the following areas: (1) Principles of molecular spectroscopy for food and feed structure research, such as protein molecular structure, carbohydrate conformation, heating induced protein structure changes, and effect of gene-transformation on food and feed structure; (2) Molecular spectral analysis methodology; (3) Biological applications of synchrotron SR-IMS and DRIFT spectroscopy; and (4) Recent progress in food, feed and nutrition research program. The information described in this article gives better insight in food structure research progress and update.
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High-efficiency synergistic conversion of CO2 to methanol using Fe2O3 nanotubes modified with double-layer Cu2O spheres.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Cuprous oxide/hematite nanotubes (Cu2O/Fe2O3NTs) were prepared by a potentiostatic electrodeposited method, in which different structured Cu2O materials were modified onto Fe2O3 NTs surface. Among them, the material with double-layer Cu2O spheres (Cu2O/Fe2O3 NTs-30) showed excellent photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) properties with a suitable energy band gap (1.96 eV) and a smaller overpotential (0.18 V). Furthermore, Cu2O/Fe2O3 NTs-30 showed two types of synergisms in the PEC reduction of CO2: (i) between electrocatalysis and photocatalysis and (ii) between Cu2O and Fe2O3NTs. The faradaic efficiency and methanol yield reached 93% and 4.94 mmol L(-1) cm(-2) after 6 h, respectively.
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Effect of thermal processing on estimated metabolizable protein supply to dairy cattle from camelina seeds: relationship with protein molecular structural changes.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing on the estimated metabolizable protein (MP) supply to dairy cattle from camelina seeds (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) and determined the relationship between heat-induced changes in protein molecular structural characteristics and the MP supply. Seeds from two camelina varieties were sampled in two consecutive years and were either kept raw or were heated in an autoclave (moist heating) or in an air-draft oven (dry heating) at 120 °C for 1 h. The MP supply to dairy cattle was modeled by three commonly used protein evaluation systems. The protein molecular structures were analyzed by Fourier transform/infrared-attenuated total reflectance molecular spectroscopy. The results showed that both the dry and moist heating increased the contents of truly absorbable rumen-undegraded protein (ARUP) and total MP and decreased the degraded protein balance (DPB). However, the moist-heated camelina seeds had a significantly higher (P < 0.05) content of ARUP and total MP and a significantly lower (P < 0.05) content of DPB than did the dry-heated camelina seeds. The regression equations showed that intensities of the protein molecular structural bands can be used to estimate the contents of ARUP, MP, and DPB with high accuracy (R(2) > 0.70). These results show that protein molecular structural characteristics can be used to rapidly assess the MP supply to dairy cattle from raw and heat-treated camelina seeds.
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Mid-infrared spectral characteristics of lipid molecular structures in Brassica carinata seeds: relationship to oil content, fatty acid and glucosinolate profiles, polyphenols, and condensed tannins.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The objectives of this study were to quantify lipid-related inherent molecular structures using a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) technique and determine their relationship to oil content, fatty acid and glucosinolate profile, total polyphenols, and condensed tannins in seeds from newly developed yellow-seeded and brown-seeded Brassica carinata lines. Canola seeds were used as a reference. The lipid-related molecular spectral band intensities were strongly correlated to the contents of oil, fatty acids, glucosinolates, and polyphenols. The regression equations gave relatively high predictive power for the estimation of oil (R(2) = 0.99); all measured fatty acids (R(2) > 0.80), except C14:0, C20:3n-3, C22:2n-9, and C22:2n-6; 3-butenyl, 2-OH-3-butenyl, 4-OH-3-CH3-indolyl, and total glucosinolates (R(2) > 0.686); and total polyphenols (R(2) = 0.935). However, further study is required to obtain predictive equations based on large numbers of samples from diverse sources to illustrate the general applicability of these regression equations.
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Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, ?-helix, and ?-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains.
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Molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of protein in brown and yellow flaxseed with altered nutrient traits.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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The objectives of this study were to investigate the chemical profiles; crude protein (CP) subfractions; ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP); and protein molecular structures using molecular spectroscopy of newly developed yellow-seeded flax (Linum usitatissimum L.). Seeds from two yellow flaxseed breeding lines and two brown flaxseed varieties were evaluated. The yellow-seeded lines had higher (P < 0.001) contents of oil (44.54 vs 41.42% dry matter (DM)) and CP (24.94 vs 20.91% DM) compared to those of the brown-seeded varieties. The CP in yellow seeds contained lower (P < 0.01) contents of true protein subfraction (81.31 vs 92.71% CP) and more (P < 0.001) extensively degraded (70.8 vs 64.9% CP) in rumen resulting in lower (P < 0.001) content of RUP (29.2 vs 35.1% CP) than that in the brown-seeded varieties. However, the total supply of digestible RUP was not significantly different between the two seed types. Regression equations based on protein molecular structural features gave relatively good estimation for the contents of CP (R(2) = 0.87), soluble CP (R(2) = 0.92), RUP (R(2) = 0.97), and intestinal digestibility of RUP (R(2) = 0.71). In conclusion, molecular spectroscopy can be used to rapidly characterize feed protein molecular structures and predict their nutritive value.
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Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (p<0.05) modeled protein structures compared to the raw canola (control) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p<0.05) spectral intensities of amide I, amide II, ?-helices, and ?-sheets but decreased (p<0.05) the ratio of modeled ?-helices to ?-sheet spectral intensity. There was no difference (p>0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings.
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The computerized OMAHA system in microsoft office excel.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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The OMAHA System was adopted as the documentation system in an interventional study. To systematically record client care and facilitate data analysis, two Office Excel files were developed. The first Excel file (File A) was designed to record problems, care procedure, and outcomes for individual clients according to the OMAHA System. It was used by the intervention nurses in the study. The second Excel file (File B) was the summary of all clients that had been automatically extracted from File A. Data in File B can be analyzed directly in Excel or imported in PASW for further analysis. Both files have four parts to record basic information and the three parts of the OMAHA System. The computerized OMAHA System simplified the documentation procedure and facilitated the management and analysis of data.
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Detect changes in lipid-related structure of brown- and yellow-seeded Brassica Carinata seed during rumen fermentation in relation to basic chemical profile using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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In this experiment, brown- and yellow-seeded Brassica carinata were selected to use as a model to investigate whether there were any changes in lipid-related structure make-up (including CH3 and CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching bands ca. 3010-2765cm(-1), unsaturated lipid band ca. 3043-2987cm(-1) and carbonyl CO ester band ca. 1789-1701cm(-1)) of oilseed tissue during rumen in situ incubation using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT/IR). Correlations of lipid spectral characteristics with basic chemical profile and multivariate analyses for clarifying structural differences within lipid regions between two carinata seeds were also measured. The results showed that most spectral parameters in both carinata seeds were reduced as incubation time increased. However, the extent of changes in peak intensity of carbonyl CO ester group of brown-seeded carinata was not in fully accordance with that of yellow-seeded carinata. Additionally, these lipid structure features were highly correlated with the concentrations of OM (positively), CP (positively), NDF (negatively) and EE (positively) in carinata seeds after 0, 12, 24 and 48h of incubation. Based on the results from multivariate analyses, neither AHCA nor PCA could produce any distinctions in rumen residues between brown- and yellow-seeded carinata in spectra at lipid regions. It was concluded that besides for original feed samples, spectroscopic technique of ATR-FT/IR could also be used for rumen degradation residues in detecting changes in lipid-related molecular structure make-up. Further studies are needed to explore more details in lipid metabolism during ruminal fermentation with the combined consideration on both metabolic basis and molecular structural basis.
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Correlating molecular spectroscopy and molecular chemometrics to explore carbohydrate functional groups and utilization of coproducts from biofuel and biobrewing processing.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) was coproducts from bioethanol and biobrewing industry. It was an excellent resource of protein and energy feedstuff in China. Conventional studies often focus on traditional nutritional profiles. To data, there is little research on molecular structure-nutrition interaction of carbohydrate in coproducts. In this study, five kinds of corn-grain based DDGS and two kinds of barley-grain based DDGS were collected from different manufactures in the north of China. They were coded as "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7", respectively. The primary purposes of this project were to investigate the molecular structure-nutrition interaction of carbohydrate in coproducts, in terms of (1) carbohydrate-related chemical composition and nutrient profiles, (2) predicted values for energy in coproducts for animal, and (3) in situ digestion of dry matter. The result showed that acid detergent fiber content in corn DDGS and barley DDGS had negative correlation with structural carbohydrate peak area, cellulose compounds, and carbohydrate component peaks (first, second, and total peak area), which were measured with molecular spectroscopy. The correlation between carbohydrate peak area (second and total) and digestible fiber (tdNDF) were negative. There were no correlation between carbohydrate spectral intensities and energy values, carbohydrate subfractions partitioned by CNCPS system, and in situ rumen degradation. The results indicate that carbohydrate spectral profiles (functional groups) are associated with the carbohydrate nutritive values in coproducts from biofuel and biobrewing processing.
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Interactive Association between Biopolymers and Biofunctions in Carinata Seeds as Energy Feedstock and Their Coproducts (Carinata Meal) from Biofuel and Bio-oil Processing before and after Biodegradation: Current Advanced Molecular Spectroscopic Investigations.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.
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A meta-analysis identifies adolescent idiopathic scoliosis association with LBX1 locus in multiple ethnic groups.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a common rotational deformity of the spine that presents in children worldwide, yet its etiology is poorly understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a few candidate risk loci. One locus near the chromosome 10q24.31 LBX1 gene (OMIM #604255) was originally identified by a GWAS of Japanese subjects and replicated in additional Asian populations. To extend this result, and to create larger AIS cohorts for the purpose of large-scale meta-analyses in multiple ethnicities, we formed a collaborative group called the International Consortium for Scoliosis Genetics (ICSG).
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Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which cause these variations. In addition, the effect of the broad range in chemical composition of maize silages on the total tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, milk production and milk composition of dairy cows is quantified and discussed. Finally, the optimum inclusion level of maize silage in the ration of dairy cows for milk production and composition is reviewed. The data showed that the nutritive value of maize silages is highly variable and that most of this variation is caused by large differences in maturity at harvest. Maize silages ensiled at a very early stage (dry matter (DM)?
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Characterization of protein and carbohydrate mid-IR spectral features in crop residues.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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To the best of our knowledge, a few studies have been conducted on inherent structure spectral traits related to biopolymers of crop residues. The objective of this study was to characterize protein and carbohydrate structure spectral features of three field crop residues (rice straw, wheat straw and millet straw) in comparison with two crop vines (peanut vine and pea vine) by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). Also, multivariate analyses were performed on spectral data sets within the regions mainly related to protein and carbohydrate in this study. The results showed that spectral differences existed in mid-IR peak intensities that are mainly related to protein and carbohydrate among these crop residue samples. With regard to protein spectral profile, peanut vine showed the greatest mid-IR band intensities that are related to protein amide and protein secondary structures, followed by pea vine and the rest three field crop straws. The crop vines had 48-134% higher spectral band intensity than the grain straws in spectral features associated with protein. Similar trends were also found in the bands that are mainly related to structural carbohydrates (such as cellulosic compounds). However, the field crop residues had higher peak intensity in total carbohydrates region than the crop vines. Furthermore, spectral ratios varied among the residue samples, indicating that these five crop residues had different internal structural conformation. However, multivariate spectral analyses showed that structural similarities still exhibited among crop residues in the regions associated with protein biopolymers and carbohydrate. Further study is needed to find out whether there is any relationship between spectroscopic information and nutrition supply in various kinds of crop residue when fed to animals.
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N-oxide reduction of quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides catalyzed by porcine aldehyde oxidase SsAOX1.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Quinoxaline-1,4-dioxides (QdNOs) are a class of quinoxaline derivatives that are widely used in humans or animals as drugs or feed additives. However, the metabolic mechanism, especially the involved enzymes, has not been reported in detail. In this study, the N-oxide reduction enzyme, porcine aldehyde oxidase SsAOX1 was identified and characterized. The SsAOX1 gene was cloned from pig liver through reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using degenerate primers, which encode a 147-kDa protein with typical aldehyde oxidase motifs, two [2Fe-2S] centers, a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) binding domain, and a molybdenum cofactor domain. After heterologous expression in a prokaryote, purified SsAOX1 formed a functional homodimer under native conditions. Importantly, the SsAOX1 catalyzed the N-oxide reduction at the N1 position of three representative QdNOs (quinocetone, mequindox, and cyadox), which are commonly used as animal feed additives. SsAOX1 has the highest activity toward quinocetone, followed by mequindox and cyadox, with kcat/K(m) values of 1.94 ± 0.04, 1.27 ± 0.15, and 0.43 ± 0.09 minute(-1) ?M(-1), respectively. However, SsAOX1 has the lowest substrate affinity for quinocetone, followed by the cyadox and mequindox, with K(m) values of 4.36 ± 0.56, 3.16 ± 0.48, and 2.96 ± 0.51 ?M, respectively. In addition, using site-directed mutagenesis, we found that substitution of glycine 1019 with threonine endows SsAOX1 with N-oxide reductive activity at the N4 position. The goal of this study was to identify and characterize the N-oxide reduction enzyme for a class of veterinary drugs, QdNOs, which will aid in the elucidation of the metabolic pathways of QdNOs and will provide a theoretical basis for their administration and new veterinary drug design.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress-unfolding protein response-apoptosis cascade causes chondrodysplasia in a col2a1 p.Gly1170Ser mutated mouse model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1) mutation causes severe skeletal malformations, but the pathogenic mechanisms of how this occurs are unclear. To understand how this may happen, a col2a1 p.Gly1170Ser mutated mouse model was constructed and in homozygotes, the chondrodysplasia phenotype was observed. Misfolded procollagen was largely synthesized and retained in dilated endoplasmic reticulum and the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-unfolded protein response (UPR)-apoptosis cascade was activated. Apoptosis occurred prior to hypertrophy, prevented the formation of a hypertrophic zone, disrupted normal chondrogenic signaling pathways, and eventually caused chondrodysplasia. Heterozygotes had normal phenotypes and endoplasmic reticulum stress intensity was limited with no abnormal apoptosis detected. Our results suggest that earlier chondrocyte death was related to the ERS-UPR-apoptosis cascade and that this was the chief cause of chondrodysplaia. The col2a1 p.Gly1170Ser mutated mouse model offered a novel connection between misfolded collagen and skeletal malformation. Further investigation of this mouse mutant model can help us understand mechanisms of type II collagenopathies.
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Characterizations of Structural, Biochemical, and Nutritive Profiles in Silage among Cool-Season Corn Cultivars in Relation to Heat Units (aCHU, dCHU) with Curvilinear Response and Multivariate Analyses.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Molecular spectroscopy is able to reveal structural features of biomaterials. Corn grown in Canadian prairies is known as cool-season corn, which is different from warm-season corn varieties. To our knowledge, to date, there has been no study on the magnitude difference in structure on a molecular basis among cultivars, no study on biochemical and nutritive profiles associated with heat unit, and no study on how heat unit affects the molecular structure and biochemical and nutritive profiles. This study investigates how corn varieties grown in cooler climates are affected by crop heat units (CHU) in relation to molecular spectral profiles, nutrient storage, biochemical composition, and nutritive value of silage among different cool-season corn cultivars. Corn cultivars (Pioneer and Dekalb) were from seven farm locations, and samples were analyzed for major nutrients (digestible and metabolic energy and protein). The Fourier transform infrared (FT/IR) spectroscopic technique was applied to understand and differentiate molecular structural spectral profiles in silage. A correlation (P < 0.05) of CHU with some nutrients (mean ± SD, %DM) (CP, 8.1 ± 1.3, r = 0.56; NDF, 56.3 ± 3.5, r = -0.54; ADF, 33.6 ± 2.3, r = -0.71; NDICP, 1.6 ± 0.4, r = -0.66; SCP, 4.2 ± 1.3, r = 0.61), protein and carbohydrate fractions (mean ± SD, %DM) (PB1 (= fast degradable protein fraction), 1.3 ± 0.4, r = 0.54; PB3 (= slowly degradable protein fraction), 1.5 ± 0.4, r = -0.74; CB2 (= medium degradable carbohydrate fraction), 45.1 ± 2.8, r = -0.65; CB3 (= slowly degradable carbohydrate fraction), 13.9 ± 0.9, r = -0.54) and intestinal availability of ruminally degraded fractions (mean ± SD, %DM) (rdPB1, 1.1 ± 0.3, r = 0.54; rdPB3, 1.0 ± 0.3, r = -0.74; RDP, 6.6 ± 1.2, r = 0.59; rdCB2, 40.0 ± 2.5, r = -0.65; rdCB3, 8.9 ± 0.6, r = 0.54; RDCHO, 50.1 ± 2.9, r = -0.65) was found contentious. Molecular spectral data indicated many similarities and few differences among the cultivars. However, CHU correlated (r = -0.4, P < 0.05) with molecular spectral intensity ratio of carbohydrate to amide I. This result indicates that molecular structural differences may be influenced by epiphytic bacterial compounds. Cool corn cultivars were grown acceptably well in cooler dry climates, and those silages had acceptable nutrient levels for cattle. Cultivars that reached target CHU were found to be optimal in nutrient and energy synchronization aspect.
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Optimized Utilization of the Co-products from Bioethanol Processing and Oat Grain: Effect of Blending on Biochemical, Biodegradation, and Nutritional Profiles.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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The objective of this study was to (1) optimize the utilization of wheat-based dried distillers grains with soluble (wDDGS) by blending with oat ( Avena sativa L.) grain as an alternative feed for beef cattle when the barley price is high and (2) investigate the effect of blending on biochemical, biodegradation, and nutritional profiles. Oat grains were blended with wDDGS produced in western Canada at different levels (4:0, 3:1, 2:2, and 1:3 on %DM basis in two batches, denoted O0, O25, O50, and O75, respectively). The study revealed that increasing the wDDGS resulted in increasing most nutrient contents linearly (P < 0.05) except for starch and cell wall materials, which were linearly decreased (from 43.6 to 12.0% and from 34.5 to 29.1% of DM for starch and NDF, respectively). When wDDGS was increased in the blend/mixture, intestinally absorbable protein and degradable balance of protein increased (P < 0.05). Overall, through blending or combining with the cereal grain, the co-products from bioethanol processing could be optimally utilized. The best combination of oat to wDDGS ratio was 75% to 25%.
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Investigating the Molecular Structural Features of Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Relation to Metabolic Characteristics Using Synchrotron-Based Fourier Transform Infrared Microspectroscopy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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The synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM) technique was used to quantify molecular structural features of the four hulless barley lines with altered carbohydrate traits [amylose, 1-40% of dry matter (DM); ?-glucan, 5-10% of DM] in relation to rumen degradation kinetics, intestinal nutrient digestion, and predicted protein supply. Spectral features of ?-glucan (both area and heights) in hulless barley lines showed a negative correlation with protein availability in the small intestine, including truly digested protein in the small intestine (DVE) (r = -0.76, P < 0.01; r = -0.84, P < 0.01) and total metabolizable protein (MP) (r = -0.71, P < 0.05; r = -0.84, P < 0.01). Variation in absorption intensities of total carbohydrate (CHO) was observed with negative effects on protein degradation, digestion, and potential protein supply (P < 0.05). Molecular structural features of CHO in hulless barley have negative effects on the supply of true protein to ruminants. The results clearly indicated the impact of the carbohydrate-protein structure and matrix.
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Reduction of CO2 to low carbon alcohols on CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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In this paper, the CuO FCs/Fe2O3 NTs catalyst was obtained after Fe2O3 nanotubes (Fe2O3 NTs) were decorated with CuO flower clusters (CuO FCs) by the pulse electrochemical deposition method. The in situ vertically aligned Fe2O3 NTs were prepared on the ferrous substrate by a potentiostatic anodization method. The SEM result showed the volcano-like Fe2O3 NTs were arranged in order and the CuO FCs constituted of flaky CuO distributed on the Fe2O3 NTs surface uniformly. After CuO FCs were loaded on Fe2O3 NTs, the absorption of visible light was enhanced noticeably, and its band gap narrowed to 1.78 eV from 2.03 eV. The conduction band and valence band locating at -0.73 eV and 1.05 eV, respectively were further obtained. In the PEC reduction of CO2 process, methanol and ethanol were two major products identified by chromatography. Their contents reached 1.00 mmol L(-1) cm(-2) and 107.38 ?mol L(-1) cm(-2) after 6 h, respectively. This high-efficiency catalyst with photoelectric dual catalytic interfaces has a great guidance and reference significance for CO2 reduction to liquid carbon fuels.
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Studies on Brassica carinata seed. 1. Protein molecular structure in relation to protein nutritive values and metabolic characteristics.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the protein chemical profile, (2) the protein subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS), (3) the rumen crude protein (CP) degradation kinetics, (4) the protein supply predicted by the DVE/OEB system, (5) the protein structural features using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and (6) the correlations between protein intrinsic structural features and nutritional profiles in three strains of Brassica carinata in yellow and brown seed coats, with comparison to canola seed as a reference. The results showed that carinata seed strains were different in both nutritional values and IR absorbance within the protein spectral region (ca. 1720-1482 cm(-1)). The comparison between yellow and brown B. carinata seeds indicated that the former was lower in acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP; P = 0.002) and undegradable protein fraction (PC; P = 0.002) and greater in the degradable (D) fraction (P = 0.004) and true absorbed protein in the small intestine (DVE; P = 0.02) as well as feed milk value (FMV; P = 0.02) than the latter. The brown canola seed (Brassica napus L.) was also not in full accordance with B. carinata seed on these parameters. The FTIR studies showed significant differences in protein amide II peak height, amide I peak area, and ?-sheet height among different B. carinata strains. However, multivariate spectral analyses indicated a similarity in protein structural makeup in these four kinds of oilseed. The not very strong correlations shown in this study implied that the limited sample size and narrow range in biological and spectral variation might be responses for the weak relationships between chemical profile and mid-IR spectral data. Further studies using sufficient samples with wide and diverse range in nutritional properties are needed to illustrate the actual relationship between spectroscopic data and nutritional profiles in oilseeds.
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Studies on Brassica carinata seed. 2. Carbohydrate molecular structure in relation to carbohydrate chemical profile, energy values, and biodegradation characteristics.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) the carbohydrate chemical profile, (2) the energy values, (3) the rumen neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation kinetics, (4) the carbohydrate-related functional group structural features using a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR), and (5) the correlations between carbohydrate intrinsic structural features and nutritional profiles in three strains of Brassica carinata in yellow and brown seed coats, with comparison to canola seed as a reference. The results showed that yellow B. carinata strains 111000EM and AAC A100 were lower for contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), and carbohydrate (CHO) and higher for contents of total digestible nutrients (TDN), energy values, and effective degradable NDF (EDNDF) than brown-seeded 110915EM. In comparison, brown canola seed (Brassica napus L.) had more fiber content and less EDNDF. Also, carinata strains showed significantly different IR intensities in structural carbohydrate (SCHO), cellulosic compounds (CELC), and total CHO profiles. These structural variations might be one of the possible reasons for various fiber profile and biodegradation characteristics for ruminants in oilseeds. However, multivariate analyses within carbohydrate regions indicated there were still some structural relationships among the four oilseed samples. Moreover, the correlation study showed that the changes of CELC and CHO peak intensities were highly related with some changes in CHO chemical profile, energy values, and in situ NDF degradation kinetics in B. carinata and canola seeds. Further study with a large sample size is still necessary to figure out whether CHO molecular spectral information could be used to predict nutrient values and biological behavior in oilseeds.
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Molecular spectroscopic investigation on fractionation-induced changes on biomacromolecule of co-products from bioethanol processing to explore protein metabolism in ruminants.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Fractionation processing is an efficient technology which is capable to redesign/redevelop a new food or feed product with a specified chemical and nutrient profile. This processing technique was able to produce four different fractions (called "A", "B", "C", "D" fractions/treatments) with different nutrient profile form a co-product of bioethanol processing [wheat dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS)]. To date, there is no study on the effect of fractionation processing on inherent molecular structure of different fractions and how the processing-induced structural change affect the metabolic characteristics of protein and nutrient availability. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) investigate the effect of fractionation processing on changes of protein functional groups (amide I, amide II, and their ratio) and molecular structure (modeled ?-helix, ?-sheet, and their ratio), and (2) study the relationship between the fractionation processing-induced changes of protein molecular structure and nutrients availability as well as the metabolic characteristics of protein. The hypothesis of this study was that the fractionation processing changes the molecular structure and such changes affect the metabolic characteristics of protein. The protein molecular structure spectral profile of the fractions A, B, C and D were identified by Fourier-transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (FT/IR-ATR). The results showed that the fractionation processing significantly affected the protein molecular spectral profiles. The differences in amide I to amide II peak area and height ratios were strongly significant (P<0.01) among the treatment fractions, ranging from 4.98 to 6.33 and 3.28 to 4.00, respectively. The difference in the modeled protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio was also strongly significant (P<0.01) among the treatment fractions. Multivariate molecular spectral analysis with cluster (CLA) and principal component analyses (PCA) showed that there are no clear distinguished clusters and ellipses among the fractions (A, B, C and D) in the protein amide I and II region ca. 1726-1485cm(-1). The correlation study showed that the modeled ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio tended to have a negative correlation with truly absorbed rumen undegraded protein (ARUP(DVE): r=-0.944, P=0.056<0.10) and total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine (DVE: r=-0.946, P=0.054<0.10), but there was no correlation between the ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio and the degraded protein balance (DPB(OEB): P=0.267<0.10). In conclusion, the fractionation processing changed the molecular structural spectral profiles in terms of amide I to II ratio and ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio. These changes negatively affected the metabolic characteristics of protein and true protein supply. These results indicated that spectral features of different fractions could be used as a potential tool to predict true protein nutritive value.
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Melatonin enhances chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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Intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification are two ways through which bone formation and fracture healing occur. Accumulating amounts of evidence suggests that melatonin affects osteoblast differentiation, but little is known about the effects of melatonin on the process of chondrogenic differentiation. In this study, the effects of melatonin on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) undergoing chondrogenic differentiation were investigated. Cells were induced along chondrogenic differentiation via high-density micromass culture in chondrogenic medium containing vehicle or 50 nm melatonin. Histological study and quantitative analysis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) showed induced cartilage tissues to be larger and richer in GAG, collagen type II and collagen type X in the melatonin group than in the untreated controls. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that melatonin treatment significantly up-regulated the expression of the genes involved in chondrogenic differentiation, including aggrecan (ACAN), collagen type II (COL2A1), collagen type X (COL10A1), SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and the potent inducer of chondrogenic differentiation, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). And the expression of melatonin membrane receptors (MT) MT1 and MT2 were detected in the chondrogenic-induced-MSCs by immunofluorescence staining. Luzindole, a melatonin receptor antagonist, was found to partially block the ability of melatonin to increase the size and GAG synthesis of the induced cartilage tissues, as well as to completely reverse the effect of melatonin on the gene expression of ACAN, COL2A1, COL10A1, SOX9 and BMP2 after 7 days of differentiation. These findings demonstrate that melatonin enhances chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs at least partially through melatonin receptors.
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Explore protein molecular structure in endosperm tissues in newly developed black and yellow type canola seeds by using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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This study was conducted to characterize the protein molecular structure in endosperm tissues in newly developed black and yellow-type canola seeds by using synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. The results showed that the yellow canola seeds contained relatively lower (P<0.05) percentage of ?-sheet and amide I and amide II area compared to the black-type canola seed. This might be an indication that the protein value of the yellow canola seeds as food or feed is different from that of the black canola seeds. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (AHCA, PCA) showed that there were not significant molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and amide II fingerprint region (ca. 1720-1480cm(-1)) between the yellow and the black-type of canola seed. It can be concluded that both the yellow and the black-seeded canola contain the same proteins but in different ratios.
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Moist and dry heating-induced changes in protein molecular structure, protein subfractions, and nutrient profiles in camelina seeds.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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The objectives of the present study were to investigate the nutritive value of camelina seeds (Camelina sativa L. Crantz) in ruminant nutrition and to use molecular spectroscopy as a novel technique to quantify the heat-induced changes in protein molecular structures in relation to protein digestive behavior in the rumen and intestine of dairy cattle. In this study, camelina seeds were used as a model for feed protein. The seeds were kept as raw (control) or heated in an autoclave (moist heating) or in an air-draft oven (dry heating) at 120°C for 60 min. The parameters evaluated were (1) chemical profiles, (2) Cornell Net Protein and Carbohydrate System protein subfractions, (3) nutrient digestibilities and estimated energy values, (4) in situ rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility, and (5) protein molecular structures. Compared with raw seeds, moist heating markedly decreased (52.73 to 20.41%) the content of soluble protein and increased (2.00 to 9.01%) the content of neutral detergent insoluble protein in total crude protein (CP). Subsequently, the rapidly degradable Cornell Net Protein and Carbohydrate System CP fraction markedly decreased (45.06 to 16.69% CP), with a concomitant increase in the intermediately degradable (45.28 to 74.02% CP) and slowly degradable (1.13 to 8.02% CP) fractions, demonstrating a decrease in overall protein degradability in the rumen. The in situ rumen incubation study revealed that moist heating decreased (75.45 to 57.92%) rumen-degradable protein and increased (43.90 to 82.95%) intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein. The molecular spectroscopy study revealed that moist heating increased the amide I-to-amide II ratio and decreased ?-helix and ?-helix-to-?-sheet ratio. In contrast, dry heating did not significantly change CP solubility, rumen degradability, intestinal digestibility, and protein molecular structures compared with the raw seeds. Our results indicated that, compared with dry heating, moist heating markedly changed protein chemical profiles, protein subfractions, rumen protein degradability, and intestinal digestibility, which were associated with changes in protein molecular structures (amide I-to-amid II ratio and ?-helix-to-?-sheet ratio). Moist heating improved the nutritive value and utilization of protein in camelina seeds compared with dry heating.
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Common Prairie feeds with different soluble and insoluble fractions used for CPM diet formulation in dairy cattle: Impact of carbohydrate-protein matrix structure on protein and other primary nutrient digestion.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship of carbohydrates molecular spectral characteristics to rumen degradability of primary nutrients in Prairie feeds in dairy cattle. In total, 12 different types of feeds were selected, each type of feed was from three different source with total 37 samples. Six types of them were energy-sourced feeds and the others were protein-sourced feeds. The carbohydrates molecular spectral intensity of various functional groups were collected using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FT/IR) spectroscopy. In the in situ study, the results showed that the rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of primary nutrients (DM, OM, NCP, and CP) were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. The spectral bands features were significantly different (P<0.05) among the feeds. Spectral intensities of A_Cell, H_1415 and H_1370 were weakly positively correlated with in situ rumen digestibility and digestible fractions of DM, OM and NCP. Spectral intensities of H_1150, H_1015, A_1, and A_3 were weakly negatively associated with in situ rumen degradation of CP. Spectral intensities of A_1240 and H_1240, mainly associated with cellulosic compounds, were correlated with rumen CP degradation. The multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the spectral intensities of A_3 and H_1415 played the most important role and could be used as a potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feeds in dairy cattle. In conclusion, this study showed that the carbohydrates as a whole have an effect on protein rumen degradation, rather than cellulose alone, indicating carbohydrate-protein matrix structure impact protein utilization in dairy cattle. The non-invasive molecular spectral technique (ATR-FT/IR) could be used as a rapid potential tool to predict rumen protein degradation of feedstuffs by using molecular spectral bands intensities in carbohydrate fingerprint region.
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Synchrotron-based microspectroscopic study on the effects of heat treatments on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Synchrotron-based infrared (IR) microspectroscopy is able to reveal structural features of biomaterials within intact tissue at both cellular and molecular levels. Heat-related treatments have been used to improve nutrient availability of canola seeds and meal. However, hitherto, there has been no study on the sensitivity and response of each layer in canola seeds to heat-related treatments. It is not known which layer (epiderm/mucllage, spermoderm, endosperm, or cotyledon) is the most sensitive to heat when heat treatment is applied to the seeds. Traditional wet chemical analysis is unable to answer such questions. The objective of this study is to use synchrotron IR microspectroscopy with multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to study heat treatment effects in a fast way on the structural changes in cotyledon tissues of yellow-type canola (Brassica) seeds among raw (treatment code "A"), wet heating (autoclaving at 121 °C for 60 min, treatment code "B"), and dry heating (dry roasting at 120 °C for 60 min, treatment code "C"). The hypothesis of this study was that different heat treatments have different heat penetration abilities on cotyledon tissues in yellow-type canola seeds. The multivariate analytical tools principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchal cluster analysis (AHCA) were applied to investigate variance and groupings within the spectral data set [whole spectral range of ca. 4000-650 cm(-1), spectral range of ca. 1300-900 cm(-1) (cellulose or saccarides), spectral range of ca. 1800-1500 cm(-1) (secondary structures of protein) and spectral range of ca. 1500-1300 cm(-1) (bending motion of methylene and methyl group; this change is consistent with the change in the range of ca. 3000-2800 cm(-1))]. The results showed that there were no clear cluster and groups formed in the cotyledon tissues among the three treatments (A, B, and C). There were no clear distinguished responses of the cotyledon tissues to different types of heat treatments using multivariate molecular spectral analyses. The results indicate that the cotyledon tissues might not be sufficiently penetrated by both heat treatments (autoclaving and dry roasting) under the specified conditions. A future study is needed to analyze individual functional group band intensity among the treatments using univariate molecular spectral analysis to confirm multivariate PCA and cluster analyses.
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Protein structures among bio-ethanol co-products and its relationships with ruminal and intestinal availability of protein in dairy cattle.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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The objectives of this study were to reveal molecular structures of protein among different types of the dried distillers grains with solubles (100% wheat DDGS (WDDGS); DDGS blend1 (BDDGS1, corn to wheat ratio 30:70%); DDGS blend2 (BDDGS2, corn to wheat ratio 50:50 percent)) and different batches within DDGS type using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT). Compared with BDDGS1 and BDDGS2, wheat DDGS had higher (p < 0.05) peak area intensities of protein amide I and II and amide I to II intensity ratio. Increasing the corn to wheat ratio form 30:70 to 50:50 in the blend DDGS did not affect amide I and II area intensities and their ratio. Amide I to II peak intensity ratio differed (p < 0.05) among the different batches within WDDGS and BDDGS1. Compared with both blend DDGS types, WDDGS had higher ?-helix and ?-sheet ratio (p < 0.05), while ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio was similar among the three DDGS types. The ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio differed significantly among batches within WDDGS. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that protein molecular structures in WDDGS differed from those of BDDGS1 and between different batches within BDDGS1 and BDDGS2. The ?-helix to ?-sheet ratios of protein in all DDGS types had an influence on availability of protein at the ruminal level as well as at the intestinal level. The ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio was positively correlated to rumen undegraded protein (r = 0.41, p < 0.05) and unavailable protein (PC; r = 0.59, p < 0.05).
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Thermal stability and molecular microstructure of heat-induced cereal grains, revealed with Raman molecular microspectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The objectives of the present study were to use Raman molecular microspectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to reveal molecular thermal stability and thermal degradation behavior of heat-induced cereal grains and reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein structures of cereal grain tissues affected by heat processing and to quantify the protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modeling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were also conducted to identify molecular differences in the Raman spectra. Three cereal grain seeds, wheat, triticale, and corn, were used as the model for feed protein in the experiment. The specimens were autoclaved (moist heating) and dry-heated (roasted) at 121 °C for 80 min, respectively. Raman spectroscopy results revealed that there are marked differences in the secondary structures of the proteins subjected to various heating treatments of different cereals. The sensitivity of cereals to moist heating was much higher than the sensitivity to dry heating. The multivariate analyses (CLA and PCA) showed that heat treatment was significantly isolated between the different Raman raw spectra. The DSC study revealed that the thermal degradation behavior of cereals was significantly changed after moist- and dry-heat treatments. The position of the major endothermic peak of dry-heated cereals shifted toward a higher temperature, from 131.7 to 134.0 °C, suggesting the high thermal stability of dry-heated cereals. In contrast, the endothermic peak position was slightly decreased to 132.1 °C in the case of moist autoclaved heating. The digestive behavior and nutritive value of rumen-undegradable protein in animals may be related to the changes of the protein secondary molecular structure and thermal stability of the cereal grain materials, which is attributed by Raman microspectroscopy and DSC endotherm profiles.
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Using synchrotron radiation-based infrared microspectroscopy to reveal microchemical structure characterization: frost damaged wheat vs. normal wheat.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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This study was conducted to compare: (1) protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2) carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM). Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments, including protein amide I and II (ca. 1774-1475 cm(-1)), structural carbohydrates (SCHO, ca. 1498-1176 cm(-1)), cellulosic compounds (CELC, ca. 1295-1176 cm(-1)), total carbohydrates (CHO, ca. 1191-906 cm(-1)) and non-structural carbohydrates (NSCHO, ca. 954-809 cm(-1)). The results showed that frost did cause variations in spectral profiles in wheat grains. Compared with healthy wheat grains, frost damaged wheat had significantly lower (p < 0.05) spectral intensities in height and area ratios of amide I to II and almost all the spectral parameters of carbohydrate-related functional groups, including SCHO, CHO and NSCHO. Furthermore, the height ratio of protein amide I to the third peak of CHO and the area ratios of protein amide (amide I + II) to carbohydrate compounds (CHO and SCHO) were also changed (p < 0.05) in damaged wheat grains. It was concluded that the SR-FTIR microspectroscopic technique was able to examine inherent molecular structure features at an ultra-spatial resolution (10 × 10 ?m) between different wheat grains samples. The structural characterization of wheat was influenced by climate conditions, such as frost damage, and these structural variations might be a major reason for the decreases in nutritive values, nutrients availability and milling and baking quality in wheat grains.
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The temporal changes in road stormwater runoff quality and the implications to first flush control in Chongqing, China.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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This study investigates the quality of stormwater runoff from a driveway in the southwest mountainous urban area of Chongqing, China, from 2010 to 2011. The results showed that the mean concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) were 4.1, 2.4, and 2.2 times the grade V levels of the national surface water standard of China. The pollutant concentration peak preceded or synchronized with the rainfall intensity peak and occurred 10 min after the runoff started. The significant high pollutant concentration in the initial stage of the rainfall suggested that first flush control is necessary, especially for the most polluted constitutes, such as total suspended solids, COD, and TN. Three potential pollution sources were identified: the atmospheric dry and wet deposition (TN, NO?(-)-N, NH?(+)-N, and DCu), the road sediment and materials (total suspended solids, COD, and TP), and the vehicle emissions (DPb and DZn). Therefore, this study indicates that reductions in road sediments and material pollution and dry and wet deposition should be the priority factors for pollution control of road stormwater runoff in mountainous urban areas.
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Application potential of ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy in animal nutrition: revelation of protein molecular structures of canola meal and presscake, as affected by heat-processing methods, in relationship with their protein digestive behavior and utili
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Protein quality relies not only on total protein but also on protein inherent structures. The most commonly occurring protein secondary structures (?-helix and ?-sheet) may influence protein quality, nutrient utilization, and digestive behavior. The objectives of this study were to reveal the protein molecular structures of canola meal (yellow and brown) and presscake as affected by the heat-processing methods and to investigate the relationship between structure changes and protein rumen degradations kinetics, estimated protein intestinal digestibility, degraded protein balance, and metabolizable protein. Heat-processing conditions resulted in a higher value for ?-helix and ?-sheet for brown canola presscake compared to brown canola meal. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses (PCA, CLA) showed that there were significant molecular structural differences in the protein amide I and II fingerprint region (ca. 1700-1480 cm(-1)) between the brown canola meal and presscake. The in situ degradation parameters, amide I and II, and ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio (R_a_?) were positively correlated with the degradable fraction and the degradation rate. Modeling results showed that ?-helix was positively correlated with the truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine when using both the Dutch DVE/OEB system and the NRC-2001 model. Concerning the protein profiles, R_a_? was a better predictor for crude protein (79%) and for neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (68%). In conclusion, ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy may be used to rapidly characterize feed structures at the molecular level and also as a potential predictor of feed functionality, digestive behavior, and nutrient utilization of canola feed.
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Short communication: Comparison of the newly developed DVE/OEB (2010) system and the National Research Council (2001) model in modeling metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The truly absorbed protein in the small intestine/degraded protein balance (DVE/OEB)2010 system is a recently developed protein evaluation system for ruminants. The objective of this study was to compare the DVE/OEB2010 system with the National Research Council (2001) model in determining the metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle. The metabolic characteristics of proteins in bioethanol feedstock and their co-products were compared in terms of (1) truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; (2) truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; (3) endogenous protein in the digestive tract; (4) total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and (5) protein degraded balance. The DVE/OEB2010 system predicted 30% more truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine, 4% more truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine, 64% more endogenous protein, 9% more total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, but 27% less degraded protein balance.
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Evaluation of the feed value for ruminants of blends of corn and wheat distillers dried grains.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Recently, biofuel processing has produced a large amount of biofuel coproducts. However, to date, there is little information on the metabolic characteristics of proteins and energy in biofuel coproduct-based rations. The objective of this study was to study the metabolic characteristics of proteins and energy in biofuel coproduct-based rations in terms of (1) chemical and nutrient profiles, (2) protein and carbohydrate subfraction associated with various degradation rate, (3) rumen and intestinal degradation and digestion kinetics, and (4) metabolic characteristics of proteins. Two sources of grain corn were mixed with two sources of biofuel coproducts (wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles, wDDGS) in ratios of 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, and 25:75%. The study revealed that increasing the biofuel coproduct inclusion level increased most of the nutritional components linearly (P < 0.05) except starch, which linearly decreased. With increasing biofuel coproduct inclusion level, the rumen degradation rate and the effective degradability of organic matter were not affected (P > 0.05), but the effective degradability of starch was decreased (P < 0.05). Effective degradation of crude protein and neutral detergent fiber as well as predicted truly absorbed protein supply in the small intestine and degraded protein balance were increased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the inclusion of the biofuel coproduct up to 25-50% in rations improved potential nitrogen and energy synchronization for microbial growth and improved truly absorbable protein supply to the small intestine, without altering energy value.
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Chemical Profile, Energy Values, and Protein Molecular Structure Characteristics of Biofuel/Bio-oil Co-products (Carinata Meal) in Comparison with Canola Meal.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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To our knowledge, little information exists on nutritive values and molecular structural characteristics associated with protein biopolymers of carinata meal from biofuel and bio-oil processing. The objectives of this study were to investigate (1) chemical compositions; (2) protein and carbohydrate subfractions partitioned by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS); (3) truly digestible nutrients and energy values; (4) protein conformation spectral characteristics using the ATR-FT/IR technique; and (5) the correlation between protein intrinsic structural features and nutrient profiles of carinata meal in comparison with conventional canola meal as references. The results showed that carinata meal was higher (p < 0.05) in soluble crude protein (SCP, 55.6% CP) and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN, 38.5% CP) and lower in acid detergent insoluble crude protein (ADICP, 1.3% CP) compared to canola meal. Although no differences were found in CP and carbohydrate (CHO) contents, CNCPS protein and carbohydrate subfractions were different (p < 0.05) between carinata meal and canola meal. Carinata meal has similar contents of total digestible nutrient (TDN) and predicted energy values to canoal meal (p > 0.05). As for protein spectral features, much greater IR absorbance in amide I height and area as well as ?-helix and ?-sheet height for carinata meal by 20-31% (p < 0.05) was found compared with canola meal; however, results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated these two meals could not be distinguished completely within the protein spectrum (ca. 1728-1478 cm(-1)). Additionally, close correlations were observed between protein structural parameters and protein nutrient profiles and subfractions. All the comparisons between carinata meal and canola meal in our study indicated that carinata meal could be used as a potential high-protein supplement source for ruminants. Further study is needed on more information associated with nutrient degradability, utilization, and availability of carinata meal to ruminants for its better and effective application in animal industry.
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Quality and seasonal variation of rainwater harvested from concrete, asphalt, ceramic tile and green roofs in Chongqing, China.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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There is an urgent requirement to examine the quality of harvested rainwater for potable and non-potable purposes, based on the type of roofing material. In this study, we examined the effect on the quality of harvested rainwater of conventional roofing materials (concrete, asphalt and ceramic tile roofs) compared with alternative roofing materials (green roof). The results showed that the ceramic tile roof was the most suitable for rainwater-harvesting applications because of the lower concentrations of leachable pollutants. However, in this study, the green roof was not suitable for rainwater harvesting applications. In addition, seasonal trends in water quality parameters showed that pollutants in roof runoff in summer and autumn were lower than those in winter and spring. This study revealed that the quality of harvested rainwater was significantly affected by the roofing material; therefore, local government and urban planners should develop stricter testing programs and produce more weathering resistant roofing materials to allow the harvesting of rainwater for domestic and public uses.
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Molecular structure, chemical and nutrient profiles, and metabolic characteristics of the proteins and energy in new cool-season corn varieties harvested as fresh forage for dairy cattle.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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To our knowledge, no previous research exists concerning the molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of the proteins and energy that new cool-season corn varieties provide for dairy cattle. The objectives of this study were to identify the differences in the molecular structures of proteins among several new cool-season corn varieties [Pioneer P7443R, Pioneer P7213R, Pioneer P7535R (Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., Johnston, IA), Hyland Baxxos RR, Hyland SR22, and Hyland SR06 (Hyland Seeds, Blenheim, ON, Canada)] using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FT/IR-ATR) molecular spectroscopy, and to determine the nutrient profile and supply that each variety provided for dairy cattle. The protein molecular structure studies showed that the amide I to amide II ratio ranged from 1.09 to 1.66 and that the ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio ranged from 0.95 to 1.01 among the new cool-season corn varieties. Energy content was significantly different among the new varieties. We found significant differences in the protein and carbohydrate subfractions and in the ruminal degradation kinetics of the organic matter, crude protein, starch, and neutral detergent fiber of the new varieties. The new varieties had similar estimated intestinal digestibilities for rumen undegraded crude protein. However, the new varieties had significant differences in predicted total truly absorbable protein, ranging from 39 to 57 g/kg of dry matter, indicating that these newly developed varieties are satisfactory sources of truly absorbed protein for dairy cattle. Further study on the molecular structure profiles of cool-season corn in relation to its nutrient utilization and availability in dairy cattle is necessary.
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Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for postoperative recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: clinical efficacy and failure pattern.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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To assess the therapeutic outcome and failure pattern of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT)-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for recurrence of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after radical surgery.
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Metabolic Characteristics of the Proteins in Yellow-Seeded and Brown-Seeded Canola Meal and Presscake in Dairy Cattle: Comparison of Three Systems (PDI, DVE, and NRC) in Nutrient Supply and Feed Milk Value (FMV).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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To the authors knowledge, there is little research on metabolic characteristics of the protein in newly developed yellow and brown types of canola meal and canola presscake. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify differences in the metabolic characteristics of the protein among yellow-seeded ( Brassica juncea ) and brown-seeded ( Brassica napus ) canola meal and brown-seeded (B. napus) canola presscake modeled for dairy cattle, (2) determine the extent of ruminal and intestinal digestion and absorption of the protein, (3) determine feed milk value, and (4) compare three evaluation systems in modeling nutrient supply to dairy cattle, namely, the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance), the National Research Council (NRC) 2001 model, and the PDI system (protein truly digestible in the small intestine). Comparison was made in terms of (1) ruminally synthesized microbial protein, (2) truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, (3) endogenous protein, (4) total metabolizable protein, and (5) degraded protein balance. The results showed that there were significant differences in the truly absorbed protein supply, protein degraded balance, and feed milk value (P < 0.05) among the different types of canola meal. Yellow-seeded canola meal had significantly higher (P < 0.05) intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded crude protein (%dRUP) than brown-seeded canola meal and presscake (%dRUP, 90 vs 75 and 60%, respectively). Yellow-seeded canola meal also had higher (P < 0.05) total metabolizable protein predicted by all three models (DVE, 312 vs 192 and 128 g/kg DM; MP, 287 vs 193 and 168 g/kg DM; PDIA, 264 vs 168 and 137 g/kg DM, respectively), lower (P < 0.05) degraded protein balance (OEB, 84 vs 104 and 102 g/kg DM; DPB, 49 vs 60 and 57 g/kg DM, respectively), and higher (P < 0.05) feed milk value (6.3 vs 3.9 and 2.6 kg milk/kg feed, respectively) than the brown-seeded canola meal and presscake. In the model comparison, the supply of endogenous protein predicted by the DVE/OEB system was higher (P < 0.05) than that predicted by the NRC-2001 model. Moreover, a high proportion of the variability in truly absorbed rumen-undegraded feed protein in the small intestine and the total metabolizable protein predicted by the DVE/OEB system was found that can be accounted for by the equivalent parameters predicted by the NRC-2001 model. The truly absorbed rumen-synthesized microbial protein values predicted from the PDI system were 19% lower than those predicted from the DVE/OEB system. Between the two latest mentioned models, no differences were detected in truly absorbed rumen-undegraded feed protein, microbial protein supply based on available energy, and degraded protein balance. All of the parameters predicted by the PDI system can be accounted for by the equivalent parameters predicted by the DVE/OEB system. When the PDI system and NRC-2001 model were compared, the overall means for microbial protein supply based on energy and truly absorbed rumen-synthesized microbial protein were found to be lower than those predicted by the NRC-2001 model. Although the factors used in quantifying calculations as well as the evaluation systems concepts differ among each other, all three protein evaluation systems employed in this study efficiently predict the potential nutrient supply to the animal from feedstuffs as affected by processing. In conclusion, the yellow-seeded canola meal provided the highest total metabolizable protein and the lowest degraded protein balance.
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What makes protein indigestible from tissue-related, cellular, and molecular aspects?
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This paper gives an insight into key factors, which impair enzymatic protein digestion. By nature, some proteins in raw products are already poorly digestible because of structural peculiarities, or due to their occurrence in plant cytoplasmic organelles or in cell membranes. In plant-based protein, molecular and structural changes can be induced by genetic engineering, even if protein is not a target compound class of the genetic modification. Other proteins only become difficult to digest due to changes that occur during the processing of proteinaceous products, such as extruding, boiling, or acidic or alkaline treatment. The utilization of proteinaceous raw materials in industrial fermentations can also have negative impacts on protein digestibility, when reused as fermentation by-products for animal nutrition, such as brewers grains. After consumption, protein digestion can be impeded in the intestine by the presence of antinutritional factors, which are ingested together with the food or feedstuff. It is concluded that the encircling matrix, but also molecular, chemical, and structural peculiarities or modifications to amino acids and proteins obstruct protein digestion by common proteolytic enzymes in humans and animals.
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Protein molecular structures in alfalfa hay cut at three stages of maturity and in the afternoon and morning and relationship with nutrient availability in ruminants.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Molecular structures in feed protein influence its digestive behavior, availability and utilization. From a nutritive point of view, stage of maturity and cutting time are important factors affecting nutrient profiles and availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay in ruminants. The objectives of this study were to determine protein molecular structures by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their relationship with nutrient profiles and availability in ruminants of alfalfa hay cut at early bud, late bud and early flower stages and in afternoon and morning.
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Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm(-1)), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm(-1)), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889cm(-1)) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm(-1), region: 1102-1083 cm(-1)) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm(-1)) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm(-1)) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm(-1)) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm(-1)) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P<0.05) during 48 h ruminal degradation in both carinata meal and canola meal. Although carinata meal differed from canola meal in some carbohydrate spectral parameters, multivariate results from agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis showed that both original and in situ residues of two meals were not fully distinguished from each other within carbohydrate spectral regions. It was concluded that carbohydrate structural conformation could be detected in carinata meal by using ATR-FT/IR techniques and further study is needed to explore more information on molecular spectral features of other functional group such as protein structure profile and their association with potential nutrient supply and availability of carinata meal in animals.
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Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.
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Effects of elevated O? exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain in Yangtze River Delta, China.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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With the open-top chambers (OTCs) in situ in Yangtze River Delta, China in 2007 and 2008, the effects of elevated O? exposure on nutrient elements and quality of winter wheat and rice grain were investigated. Grain yield per plant of winter wheat and rice declined in both years. The N and S concentrations increased under elevated O? exposure in both years and C-N ratios decreased significantly. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, P, Mn, Cu and Zn in winter wheat and the concentrations of Mg, K, Mn and Cu in rice increased. The concentrations of protein, amino acid and lysine in winter wheat and rice increased and the concentration of amylose decreased. The increase in the nutrient concentration was less than the reduction of grain yield in both winter wheat and rice, and, hence, the absolute amount of the nutrients was reduced by elevated O?.
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Uremia and thrombotic microangiopathy: conditions that may havethe same manifestation.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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In this article, we present the case of a man with uremia. Laboratory testing revealed thrombocytopenia, erythrocyte fragmentation, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and malignant hypertension, manifestations that are similar to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Thromboasthenia, manifested as a decrease in the platelet aggregation rate, was also noted. Regular hemodialysis (3 times per week) improved the patients thrombocytopenia and thromboasthenia. This case supports the conclusion that uremic toxin, which can be removed by hemodialysis, inhibits the quantity and quality of platelets. We believe that the platelet aggregation rate can be a useful tool in distinguishing uremia from TMA.
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Detect changes in protein structure of carinata meal during rumen fermentation in relation to basic chemical profile and comparison with canola meal using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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As far as we know, no study has been carried out on whether protein structure changes in the feed during rumen fermentation from other research team. This study was conducted to characterize protein structure spectral changes in carinata meal during ruminal fermentation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with ATR. The objectives were to find out whether (1) protein internal structure (in terms of protein amide profile and protein secondary structure profile) changed after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h in carinata meal and conventional canola meal was used as a reference; (2) there was any correlation between protein spectral parameters and basic chemical profile in in situ rumen residue samples; and (3) the protein structural chemical make-up of carinata meal differed from canola meal during 48 h rumen incubation. The results showed that protein structure features in both carinata meal and canola meal were altered as incubation time increased (P<0.0001) and linear and curvilinear relationships (P<0.05) on amide II height and area, height and area ratio of amide I and II as well as height ratio of ?-helix and ?-sheet were observed within 48 h ruminal fermentation. And the amide I height and area as well as ?-helix height and ?-sheet height were in the highest level of IR absorbance at 0 h and then gradually declined linearly (P<0.0001) by 30-38% after 48 h incubation. These results indicated that not only quantities decreased but also inherent structure changed in protein chemical make-up during ruminal fermentation. Meanwhile, strong correlations were found between protein spectral parameters and some basic nutrients profile such as CP (positively) and NDF (negatively). And both AHCA and PCA results showed that in situ rumen residues from carinata meal was not distinguished from those from canola meal, suggesting some relationship in structural make-up exhibited between them within protein region during 48 h rumen fermentation. Further studies are still needed to investigate detailed information on structural changes in protein of various feedstuffs in order to fully and deeply understand protein degradation during rumen fermentation on both metabolic basis and molecular biological basis.
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Characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana lines with altered seed storage protein profiles using synchrotron-powered FT-IR spectromicroscopy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing only one cruciferin subunit type (double-knockout; CRUAbc, CRUaBc, or CRUabC) or devoid of cruciferin (triple-knockout; CRU-) or napin (napin-RNAi) were generated using combined T-DNA insertions or RNA interference approaches. Seeds of double-knockout lines accumulated homohexameric cruciferin and contained similar protein levels as the wild type (WT). Chemical imaging of WT and double-knockout seeds using synchrotron FT-IR spectromicroscopy (amide I band, 1650 cm(-1), ?C?O) showed that proteins were concentrated in the cell center and protein storage vacuoles. Protein secondary structure features of the homohexameric cruciferin lines showed predominant ?-sheet content. The napin-RNAi line had lower ?-helix content than the WT. Lines entirely devoid of cruciferin had high ?-helix and low ?-sheet levels, indicating that structurally different proteins compensate for the loss of cruciferin. Lines producing homohexameric CRUC showed minimal changes in protein secondary structure after pepsin treatment, indicating low enzyme accessibility. The Synchrotron FT-IR technique provides information on protein secondary structure and changes to the structure within the cell.
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Proteomic changes in chicken primary hepatocytes exposed to T-2 toxin are associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial enhancement.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin that is toxic to plants, animals, and humans. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in chickens. In this study, using 2D electrophoresis with MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS, 53 proteins were identified as up- or downregulated by T-2 toxin in chicken primary hepatocytes. Functional network analysis by ingenuity pathway analysis showed that the top network altered by T-2 toxin is associated with neurological disease, cancer, organismal injury, and abnormalities. Most of the identified proteins were associated with one of eight functional classes, including cell redox homeostasis, transcriptional or translational regulation, cell cycle or cell proliferation, stress response, lipid metabolism, transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein degradation. Subcellular location categorization showed that the identified proteins were predominantly located in the mitochondrion (34%) and interestingly, the expression of all the identified mitochondrial proteins was increased. Further cellular analysis showed that T-2 toxin was able to induce the ROS accumulation and could lead to an increase in mitochondrial mass and adenosine 5-triphosphate content, which indicated that oxidative stress and mitochondrial enhancement occurred in T-2 toxin-treated cells. Overall, these results characterize the global proteomic response of chicken primary hepatocytes to T-2 toxin, which may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity.
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Airborne spread and infection of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-O 2009 IV) can cause respiratory infectious diseases in humans and pigs, but there are few studies investigating the airborne spread of the virus. In January 2011, a swine-origin H1N1 epidemic emerged in eastern China that rapidly spread to neighboring farms, likely by aerosols carried by the wind.
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Association between common variants near LBX1 and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis replicated in the Chinese Han population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is one of the most common spinal deformities found in adolescent populations. Recently, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in a Japanese population indicated that three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs11190870, rs625039 and rs11598564, all located near the LBX1 gene, may be associated with AIS susceptibility [1]. This study suggests a novel AIS predisposition candidate gene and supports the hypothesis that somatosensory functional disorders could contribute to the pathogenesis of AIS. These findings warrant replication in other populations.
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[Chemical constituents from Rehmannia glutinosa].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Rehmannia glutinosa.
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The security analysis of transpedicular screw fixation in the lower cervical spine and a case report.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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This study evaluated the anatomical parameters of the lower cervical spine by imaging methods and reported a case.
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Genomic polymorphisms of G-protein estrogen receptor 1 are associated with severity of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is reported to be associated with the two traditional estrogen receptor genes, ESR1 and ESR2. Yet, the novel estrogen receptor G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) has not been studied. To investigate the association of GPER gene polymorphisms with the onset and deterioration of AIS, we performed a case-control study.
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Musa paradisica RCI complements AtRCI and confers Na+ tolerance and K+ sensitivity in Arabidopsis.
Plant Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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The mechanisms involved in Na?/K? uptake and extrusion are important in plant salt tolerance. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein, MpRCI, from plantain in transgenic Arabidopsis under NaCl and KCl stress and determined its effect on PM fluidity and H?-ATPase activity. The MpRCI gene exhibited high homology to the AtRCI2 gene family in Arabidopsis and was therefore able to complement for loss of the yeast AtRCI2-related PMP3 gene. Results of phenotypic espial and atomic emission spectrophotometer (AES) assays indicated that MpRCI overexpression in the AtRCI2A knockout mutant with reduced shoot Na? and increased K? exhibited increased Na?-tolerance and K?-sensitivity under NaCl or KCl treatments, respectively. Furthermore, comparisons of PM fluidity and H?-ATPase activity in shoots, with expression or absence of MpRCI/AtRCI2A expression under NaCl or KCl stress, showed MpRCI maintained PM fluidity and H?-ATPase activity under stress conditions. Results suggest that MpRCI plays an essential role in Na?/K? flux in plant cells.
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Use of computed tomographic reconstruction to establish the ideal entry point for pedicle screws in idiopathic scoliosis.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2011
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To determine the ideal entry point for individual pedicle screw in the surgical treatment of idiopathic scoliosis using computed tomographic (CT) three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction.
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Cu2+ triggers reversible aggregation of a disordered His-rich dehydrin MpDhn12 from Musa paradisiaca.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Copper is an essential nutrient, but it is toxic in excess. Here, we cloned and characterized a His-rich low molecular weight dehydrin from Musa paradisiaca, MpDhn12. Analysis by circular dichroism (CD) spectra and a thermal stability assay showed that MpDhn12 is an intrinsically disordered protein, and immobilized-metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) analysis revealed that MpDhn12 can bind Cu(2+) both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, MpDhn12 aggregated under excess Cu(2+) conditions, and the aggregation was reversible and impaired by histidine modification with diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), while the disordered structure of another dehydrin ERD14 (as a control) was not changed. Furthermore, MpDhn12 could complement the copper-sensitive phenotype of yeast mutant ?sod1. These results together suggested that MpDhn12 may take part in buffering copper levels through chelation and formation of aggregates in excess Cu(2+) conditions. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report that a dehydrin interchanged between disordered and aggregated state triggered by copper.
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Study the sensitivity of molecular functional groups to bioethanol processing in lipid biopolymer of co-products using DRIFT molecular spectroscopy.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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To date, there is no study on bioethanol processing-induced changes in molecular structural profiles mainly related to lipid biopolymer. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine molecular structural changes of lipid related functional groups in the co-products that occurred during bioethanol processing; (2) relatively quantify the antisymmetric CH(3) and CH(2) (ca. 2959 and 2928 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH(3) and CH(2) (ca. 2871 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups, carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) and unsaturated groups (CH attached to C=C) (ca. 3007 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH(3) to antisymmetric CH(2), and (3) illustrate the molecular spectral analyses as a research tool to detect for the sensitivity of individual moleculars to the bioethanol processing in a complex plant-based feed and food system without spectral parameterization. The hypothesis of this study was that bioethanol processing changed the molecular structure profiles in the co-products as opposed to original cereal grains. These changes could be detected by infrared molecular spectroscopy and will be related to nutrient utilization. The results showed that bioethanol processing had effects on the functional groups spectral profiles in the co-products. It was found that the CH(3)-antisymmetric to CH(2)-antisymmetric stretching intensity ratio was changed. The spectral features of carbonyl C=O ester group and unsaturated group were also different. Since the different types of cereal grains (wheat vs. corn) had different sensitivity to the bioethanol processing, the spectral patterns and band component profiles differed between their co-products (wheat DDGS vs. corn DDGS). The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization), distinguished the structural differences between the wheat and wheat DDGS and between the corn and corn DDGS in the antisymmetric and symmetric CH(3) and CH(2) spectral region (ca. 2994-2800 cm(-1)) and unsaturated group band region (3025-2996 cm(-1)). Further study is needed to quantify molecular structural changes in relation to nutrient utilization of lipid biopolymer.
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A chloroplast envelope-bound PHD transcription factor mediates chloroplast signals to the nucleus.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Chloroplast development, maintenance and function depend on the coordinated expression of chloroplast and nuclear genes. The retrograde chloroplast signals are essential in coordinating nuclear gene expression. Although the sources of signals in chloroplasts have been identified and the associated transcription factors in the nucleus extensively studied, the molecular mechanism that relays chloroplast signals to the nucleus remains a mystery. Here we show that PTM, a chloroplast envelope-bound plant homeodomain (PHD) transcription factor with transmembrane domains, functions in multiple retrograde signal pathways. The proteolytic cleavage of PTM occurs in response to retrograde signals and amino-terminal PTM accumulates in the nucleus, where it activates ABI4 transcription in a PHD-dependent manner associated with histone modifications. These results provide a molecular basis for the critical function of PTM in retrograde chloroplast signaling and shed new light on the mechanism whereby chloroplast signals are transmitted to the nucleus through the cytosol.
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A 4.6 kb genomic duplication on 20p12.2-12.3 is associated with brachydactyly type A2 in a Chinese family.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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Brachydactyly type A2 (BDA2) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It was recently reported that a 5.9 kb duplication and a 5.5 kb duplication in the region 20p12.2-12.3 are associated with BDA2 in two European families.
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Microprobing the molecular spatial distribution and structural architecture of feed-type sorghum seed tissue (Sorghum Bicolor L.) using the synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy technique.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Sorghum seed (Sorghum bicolor L.) has unique degradation and fermentation behaviours compared with other cereal grains such as wheat, barley and corn. This may be related to its cell and cell-wall architecture. The advanced synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy (SR-IMS) technique enables the study of cell or living cell biochemistry within cellular dimensions. The objective of this study was to use the SR-IMS imaging technique to microprobe molecular spatial distribution and cell architecture of the sorghum seed tissue comprehensively. High-density mapping was carried out using SR-IMS on beamline U2B at the National Synchrotron Light Source (Brookhaven National Laboratory, NY, USA). Molecular images were systematically recorded from the outside to the inside of the seed tissue under various chemical functional groups and their ratios [peaks at ?1725 (carbonyl C=O ester), 1650 (amide I), 1657 (protein secondary structure ?-helix), 1628 (protein secondary structure ?-sheet), 1550 (amide II), 1515 (aromatic compounds of lignin), 1428, 1371, 1245 (cellulosic compounds in plant seed tissue), 1025 (non-structural CHO, starch granules), 1246 (cellulosic material), 1160 (CHO), 1150 (CHO), 1080 (CHO), 930 (CHO), 860 (CHO), 3350 (OH and NH stretching), 2960 (CH(3) anti-symmetric), 2929 (CH(2) anti-symmetric), 2877 (CH(3) symmetric) and 2848?cm(-1) (CH(2) asymmetric)]. The relative protein secondary structure ?-helix to ?-sheet ratio image, protein amide I to starch granule ratio image, and anti-symmetric CH(3) to CH(2) ratio image were also investigated within the intact sorghum seed tissue. The results showed unique cell architecture, and the molecular spatial distribution and intensity in the sorghum seed tissue (which were analyzed through microprobe molecular imaging) were generated using SR-IMS. This imaging technique and methodology has high potential and could be used for scientists to develop specific cereal grain varieties with targeted food and feed quality, and can also be used to monitor the degree of grain maturity, grain damage, the fate of organic contaminants and the effect of chemical treatment on plant and grain seeds.
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Mequindox induced cellular DNA damage via generation of reactive oxygen species.
Mutat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
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Mequindox, a quinoxaline-N-dioxide derivative that possesses antibacterial properties, has been widely used as a feed additive in the stockbreeding industry in China. While recent pharmacological studies have uncovered potential hazardous effects of mequindox, exactly how mequindox induces pathological changes and the cellular responses associated with its consumption remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the cellular responses associated with mequindox treatment. We report here that mequindox inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, this mequindox-associated deleterious effect on cell proliferation was observed in human, pig as well as chicken cells, suggesting that mequindox acts on evolutionarily conserved target(s). To further understand the mequindox-host interaction and the mechanism underlying mequindox-induced cell cycle arrest, we measured the cellular content of DNA damage, which is known to perturb cell proliferation and compromise cell survival. Accordingly, using ?-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DNA damage, we found that mequindox treatment induced cellular DNA damage, which paralleled the chemical-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase partially alleviated these mequindox-associated effects. Taken together, our results suggest that mequindox cytotoxicity is attributable, in part, to its role as a potent inducer of DNA damage via ROS.
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Heat-induced changes to lipid molecular structure in Vimy flaxseed: spectral intensity and molecular clustering.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Autoclaving was used to manipulate nutrient utilization and availability. The objectives of this study were to characterize any changes of the functional groups mainly associated with lipid structure in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum, cv. Vimy), that occurred on a molecular level during the treatment process using infrared Fourier transform molecular spectroscopy. The parameters included lipid CH(3) asymmetric (ca. 2959 cm(-1)), CH(2) asymmetric (ca. 2928 cm(-1)), CH(3) symmetric (ca. 2871 cm(-1)) and CH(2) symmetric (ca. 2954 cm(-1)) functional groups, lipid carbonyl CO ester group (ca. 1745 cm(-1)), lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to CC) (ca. 3010 cm(-1)) as well as their ratios. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CLA) and principal components analysis (PCA) were conducted to identify molecular spectral differences. Flaxseed samples were kept raw for the control or autoclaved in batches at 120°C for 20, 40 or 60 min for treatments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Molecular spectral analysis of lipid functional group ratios showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in the CH(2) asymmetric to CH(3) asymmetric stretching band peak intensity ratios for the flaxseed. There were linear and quadratic effects (P<0.05) of the treatment time from 0, 20, 40 and 60 min on the ratios of the CH(2) asymmetric to CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration intensity. Autoclaving had no significant effect (P>0.05) on lipid carbonyl CO ester group and lipid unsaturation group (CH attached to CC) (with average spectral peak area intensities of 138.3 and 68.8 IR intensity units, respectively). Multivariate molecular spectral analyses, CLA and PCA, were unable to make distinctions between the different treatment original spectra at the CH(3) and CH(2) asymmetric and symmetric region (ca. 2988-2790 cm(-1)). The results indicated that autoclaving had an impact to the mid-infrared molecular spectrum of flaxseed to identify heat-induced changes in lipid conformation. A future study is needed to quantify the relationship between lipid molecular structure changes and functionality/availability.
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Detecting Molecular Features of Spectra Mainly Associated with Structural and Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Co-Products from BioEthanol Production Using DRIFT with Uni- and Multivariate Molecular Spectral Analyses.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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The objective of this study was to use DRIFT spectroscopy with uni- and multivariate molecular spectral analyses as a novel approach to detect molecular features of spectra mainly associated with carbohydrate in the co-products (wheat DDGS, corn DDGS, blend DDGS) from bioethanol processing in comparison with original feedstock (wheat (Triticum), corn (Zea mays)). The carbohydrates related molecular spectral bands included: A_Cell (structural carbohydrates, peaks area region and baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), A_1240 (structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 1240 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 1292-1198 cm(-1)), A_CHO (total carbohydrates, peaks region and baseline: ca. 1187-950 cm(-1)), A_928 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 928 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 952-910 cm(-1)), A_860 (non-structural carbohydrates, peak area centered at ca. 860 cm(-1) with region and baseline: ca. 880-827 cm(-1)), H_1415 (structural carbohydrate, peak height centered at ca. 1415 cm(-1) with baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)), H_1370 (structural carbohydrate, peak height at ca. 1370 cm(-1) with a baseline: ca. 1485-1188 cm(-1)). The study shows that the grains had lower spectral intensity (KM Unit) of the cellulosic compounds of A_1240 (8.5 vs. 36.6, P < 0.05), higher (P < 0.05) intensities of the non-structural carbohydrate of A_928 (17.3 vs. 2.0) and A_860 (20.7 vs. 7.6) than their co-products from bioethanol processing. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak area intensities of A_Cell (structural CHO) at 1292-1198 cm(-1) and A_CHO (total CHO) at 1187-950 cm(-1) with average molecular infrared intensity KM unit of 226.8 and 508.1, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the peak height intensities of H_1415 and H_1370 (structural CHOs) with average intensities 1.35 and 1.15, respectively. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses were able to discriminate and classify between the corn and corn DDGS molecular spectra, but not wheat and wheat DDGS. This study indicated that the bioethanol processing changes carbohydrate molecular structural profiles, compared with the original grains. However, the sensitivities of different types of carbohydrates and different grains (corn and wheat) to the processing differ. In general, the bioethanol processing increases the molecular spectral intensities for the structural carbohydrates and decreases the intensities for the non-structural carbohydrates. Further study is needed to quantify carbohydrate related molecular spectral features of the bioethanol co-products in relation to nutrient supply and availability of carbohydrates.
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Effects of partially replacing barley or corn with raw and micronised CDC SO-I oats on productive performance of lactating dairy cows.
Arch Anim Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
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Recently, a new genotype of oat (cv. CDC SO-I, containing low-hull lignin and high-fat groat), has been developed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially replacing barley and corn with the new oat and its micronisation on lactating performance of dairy cows. In a double 4 x 4 Latin square design, eight lactating dairy cows (732 +/- 46 kg body weight [BW]; parity 4 +/- 2) received total mixed rations with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50 (DM basis). The four treatments were: T1, barley only (control); T2, raw oat, replacing 42% barley of T1; T3, micronised oat, replacing 42% barley of T1; and T4, raw oat and corn blend, replacing 100% barley of T1. The results showed that dairy cows fed the new oats (T2, T3) produced more fat (p < 0.05) and more fat corrected milk (p < 0.10) than cows fed barley only (T1). The performance of cows fed the new oat and corn blend (T4) was not significantly different from other treatments. The micronisation significantly reduced protein degradability (74 vs. 63%,p < 0.05), but increased starch degradability (87 vs. 93%,p < 0.05) of the new oat. However, the overall results suggested that micronisation did not show a significant impact on milk production. The newly developed CDC SO-I oat can replace 42% barley (in T1) as a concentrate supplement in dairy total mixed rations with an increased yield of milk fat and fat corrected milk.
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Novel mutations of EXT1 and EXT2 genes among families and sporadic cases with multiple exostoses.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder characterized by multiple benign cartilage-capped exostoses. Clinical manifestation of the disease is heterogenous. Overriding toes, scoliosis, spinal cord compression, and brachydactyly caused by shortening of metatarsals are rare findings. EXT1 and EXT2 are the genes responsible in most HME patients. We have characterized 11 HME families and 6 sporadic cases involving a total of 37 patients and performed mutational analysis of EXT1 and EXT2. Structural modeling of the wild and mutant proteins was also performed. Thirteen mutations were identified, including 8 that are novel. Among the novel mutations in EXT1, c.1004T>G-associated HME exhibited overriding toes and scoliosis, c.1883+2T>A-associated HME exhibited brachydactyly, and c.459_460delCT-associated exostosis arising from vertebra T4 caused spinal cord compression. Our structural predictions revealed four domains in the proteins encoded by EXT1 and EXT2: signalP, transmembrane regions, exostosin, and glyco_transf-64. The mutations truncated either part or whole of the exostosin domain and/or the C terminus of the glyco_transf-64 domain, or occurred within one of the domains. Our results provide new data for genetic diagnosis, identification of presymptomatic carriers, phenotype-genotype correlation, and understanding of the mechanisms of disease.
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CdS-encapsulated TiO2 nanotube arrays lidded with ZnO nanorod layers and their photoelectrocatalytic applications.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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A novel TiO(2) nanotube array/CdS nanoparticle/ZnO nanorod (TiO(2) NT/CdS/ZnO NR) photocatalyst was constructed which exhibited a wide-absorption (200-535 nm) response in the UV/Vis region and was applied for the photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) degradation of dye wastewater. This was achieved by chemically assembling CdS into the TiO(2) NTs and then constructing a ZnO NR layer on the TiO(2) NT/CdS surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that a new structure had been obtained. The TiO(2) NTs looked like many "empty bottles" and the ZnO NR layer served as a big lid. Meanwhile the CdS NPs were encapsulated between them with good protection. After being sensitized by the CdS NPs, the absorption-band edge of the obtained photocatalyst was obviously red-shifted to the visible region, and the band gap was reduced from its original 3.20 eV to 2.32 eV. Photoelectric-property tests indicated that the TiO(2) NT/CdS/ZnO NR material maintained a very high PEC activity in both the ultraviolet (UV) and the visible region. The maximum photoelectric conversion efficiencies of TiO(2) NT/CdS/ZnO NR were 31.8 and 5.98% under UV light (365 nm) and visible light (420-800 nm), respectively. In the PEC oxidation, TiO(2) NT/CdS/ZnO NR exhibited a higher removal ability for methyl orange (MO) and a high stability. The kinetic constants were 1.77×10(-4) s(-1) under UV light, which was almost 5.9 and 2.6 times of those on pure TiO(2) NTs and TiO(2) NT/ZnO NR, and 2.5×10(-4) s(-1) under visible light, 2.4 times those on TiO(2) NT/CdS.
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Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2010
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The objective of this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (HB) cultivar (CDC McGwire) in terms of ruminant feed value. The study revealed that altered starch HB cultivars possessed several desirable feed characteristics, distinct from conventional normal starch HB, although they were similar in some respects: (1) basic chemical and carbohydrate subfraction profiles varied; (2) starch degradation kinetics showed altered starch HB containing higher soluble starch, rumen undegraded starch, lower degradable starch, and slower degradation rate; (3) all altered starch HB cultivars had similar soluble and degradable starch, different from that of conventional normal starch HB; (4) two waxy HB cultivars were lower, whereas the high-amylose cultivar was similar in effective degradability of the starch as compared to conventional normal starch HB; (5) zero-amylose waxy HB had the greater effective degradability of protein among HB cultivars; and (6) amylopectin in HB had a positive relationship with protein supply (increasing amylopectin was correlated with increased effective degradability of protein). Overall, these results demonstrate that the alteration of starch structure in granule affects not only starch fermentation and utilization but also protein value in hull-less barley. In summary, the HB cultivars with modified starch might be a better feed grain for ruminants than the normal starch HB.
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