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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene expression, clinical pathological characteristics and prognosis in 95 Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To examine the prevalence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene in Chinese patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
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Bright and fast multicoloured voltage reporters via electrochromic FRET.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Genetically encoded fluorescent reporters of membrane potential promise to reveal aspects of neural function not detectable by other means. We present a palette of multicoloured brightly fluorescent genetically encoded voltage indicators with sensitivities from 8-13% ?F/F per 100 mV, and half-maximal response times from 4-7 ms. A fluorescent protein is fused to an archaerhodopsin-derived voltage sensor. Voltage-induced shifts in the absorption spectrum of the rhodopsin lead to voltage-dependent nonradiative quenching of the appended fluorescent protein. Through a library screen, we identify linkers and fluorescent protein combinations that report neuronal action potentials in cultured rat hippocampal neurons with a single-trial signal-to-noise ratio from 7 to 9 in a 1 kHz imaging bandwidth at modest illumination intensity. The freedom to choose a voltage indicator from an array of colours facilitates multicolour voltage imaging, as well as combination with other optical reporters and optogenetic actuators.
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[Anatomical structures of Coleus forskohlii transplanted in Tongcheng].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To investigate the vegetative tissues of Coleus forskohlii cultivated in Tongcheng, Hubei Province, and to provide useful information for its planting.
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Synergistic effects of atorvastatin and rosiglitazone on endothelium protection in rats with dyslipidemia.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction is implicated in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Whether atorvastatin combined with rosiglitazone has synergistic effects on endothelial function improvement in the setting of dyslipidemia is unknown.
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All-optical electrophysiology in mammalian neurons using engineered microbial rhodopsins.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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All-optical electrophysiology-spatially resolved simultaneous optical perturbation and measurement of membrane voltage-would open new vistas in neuroscience research. We evolved two archaerhodopsin-based voltage indicators, QuasAr1 and QuasAr2, which show improved brightness and voltage sensitivity, have microsecond response times and produce no photocurrent. We engineered a channelrhodopsin actuator, CheRiff, which shows high light sensitivity and rapid kinetics and is spectrally orthogonal to the QuasArs. A coexpression vector, Optopatch, enabled cross-talk-free genetically targeted all-optical electrophysiology. In cultured rat neurons, we combined Optopatch with patterned optical excitation to probe back-propagating action potentials (APs) in dendritic spines, synaptic transmission, subcellular microsecond-timescale details of AP propagation, and simultaneous firing of many neurons in a network. Optopatch measurements revealed homeostatic tuning of intrinsic excitability in human stem cell-derived neurons. In rat brain slices, Optopatch induced and reported APs and subthreshold events with high signal-to-noise ratios. The Optopatch platform enables high-throughput, spatially resolved electrophysiology without the use of conventional electrodes.
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Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 ?mol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 ?mol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals.
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Synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel asymmetrical curcumin analogs for the treatment of inflammation.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Curcumin has been reported to possess multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties, however the clinical application of curcumin has been significantly limited by its instability and poor metabolism. Modification of curcumin has led to discovery and development of lots of novel therapeutic candidates. In recent years acute and chronic inflammation has been the focus of numerous studies in various diseases. Here, we synthesized a series of asymmetrical curcumin analogs with high in vitro chemical stability, and their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. According to the bio-screening results and QSAR analysis, these analogs exhibited potent activities against LPS-induced TNF-? and IL-6 release. Among the analogs of the potent anti-inflammatory activity, compounds 3b8 and 3b9 exhibited significant protection and possess enhanced anti-inflammatory activity thereby attenuated the LPS-induced septic death in mice.
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Targeting self-renewal in high-grade brain tumors leads to loss of brain tumor stem cells and prolonged survival.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been suggested as potential therapeutic targets for treating malignant tumors, but the in vivo supporting evidence is still missing. Using a GFP reporter driven by the promoter of the nuclear receptor tailless (Tlx), we demonstrate that Tlx(+) cells in primary brain tumors are mostly quiescent. Lineage tracing demonstrates that single Tlx(+) cells can self-renew and generate Tlx(-) tumor cells in primary tumors, suggesting that they are brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs). After introducing a BTSC-specific knock-out of the Tlx gene in primary mouse tumors, we observed a loss of self-renewal of BTSCs and prolongation of animal survival, accompanied by induction of essential signaling pathways mediating cell-cycle arrest, cell death, and neural differentiation. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of targeting glioblastomas and indicates the suitability of BTSCs as therapeutic targets, thereby supporting the CSC hypothesis.
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Chimaphilin induces apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Chimaphilin, 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, is extracted from pyrola [Passiflora incarnata Fisch.]. In this study, the anticancer activity and underlying mechanisms of chimaphilin toward human breast cancer MCF-7 cells are firstly investigated. Chimaphilin could inhibit the viability of MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 43.30?M for 24h. Chimaphilin markedly induced apoptosis through the investigation of characteristic apoptotic morphological changes, nuclear DNA fragmentation, annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. Flow cytometry assay revealed that chimaphilin triggered a significant generation of ROS and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, western blotting assay showed that chimaphilin suppressed Bcl-2 level and enhanced Bad level, then activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and further activated the poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), finally induced cell apoptosis involving the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, free radical scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) pretreatment test testified that chimaphilin could increase the generation of ROS, then induce cell apoptosis. In general, the present results demonstrated that chimaphilin induced apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells via a ROS-mediated mitochondrial pathway.
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Design, synthesis and molecular docking of amide and urea derivatives as Escherichia coli PDHc-E1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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By targeting the ThDP binding site of Escherichia coli PDHc-E1, two new 'open-chain' classes of E. coli PDHc-E1 inhibitors, amide and urea derivatives, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. The amide derivatives of compound 6d, with 4-NO2 in the benzene ring, showed the most potent inhibition of E. coli PDHc-E1. The urea derivatives displayed more potent inhibitory activity than the corresponding amide derivatives with the same substituent. Molecular docking studies confirmed that the urea derivatives have more potency due to the two hydrogen bonds formed by two NH of urea with Glu522. The docking results also indicate it might help us to design more efficient PDHc-E1 inhibitors that could interact with Glu522.
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Proteomic mapping of the human mitochondrial intermembrane space in live cells via ratiometric APEX tagging.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Obtaining complete protein inventories for subcellular regions is a challenge that often limits our understanding of cellular function, especially for regions that are impossible to purify and are therefore inaccessible to traditional proteomic analysis. We recently developed a method to map proteomes in living cells with an engineered peroxidase (APEX) that bypasses the need for organellar purification when applied to membrane-bound compartments; however, it was insufficiently specific when applied to unbounded regions that allow APEX-generated radicals to escape. Here, we combine APEX technology with a SILAC-based ratiometric tagging strategy to substantially reduce unwanted background and achieve nanometer spatial resolution. This is applied to map the proteome of the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS), which can freely exchange small molecules with the cytosol. Our IMS proteome of 127 proteins has >94% specificity and includes nine newly discovered mitochondrial proteins. This approach will enable scientists to map proteomes of cellular regions that were previously inaccessible.
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Regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) rs6010620 polymorphism contribute to increased risk of glioma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) is critical for genome stability and tumor avoidance. Many studies have reported the associations of RTEL1 rs6010620 with glioma risk, but individually published results were inconclusive. This meta-analysis was performed to quantitatively summarize the evidence for such a relationship. The PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. The odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were computed to estimate the strength of the association using a fixed or random effects model. Ten studies were eligible for meta-analysis including data on glioma with 6,490 cases and 9,288 controls. Overall, there was a significant association between RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism and glioma risk in all four genetic models (GG vs. AA: OR=1.87, 95 % CI=1.60-2.18, P heterogeneity=0.552; GA vs. AA: OR=1.30, 95 % CI=1.16-1.46, P heterogeneity=0.495; dominant model-GG+GA vs. AA: OR=1.46, 95 % CI=1.31-1.63, P heterogeneity=0.528; recessive model-GG vs. GA+AA: OR=1.36, 95 % CI=1.27-1.46, P heterogeneity=0.093). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity showed that RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism resulted in a higher risk of glioma among both Asians and Caucasians. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity and source of controls, significantly increased risk was observed for Asians and Europeans in all genetic models, population-based studies in all genetic models, and hospital-based studies in three genetic models (heterozygote comparison, homozygote comparison, and dominant model). Our meta-analysis suggested that RTEL1 rs6010620 polymorphism is likely to be associated with increased glioma risk, which lends further biological plausibility to these findings.
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ADS-J1 inhibits HIV-1 infection and membrane fusion by targeting the highly conserved pocket in the gp41 NHR-trimer.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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We previously identified a potent small-molecule human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion inhibitor, termed ADS-J1, and hypothesized that it mainly targeted the hydrophobic pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) trimer. However, this hypothesis has been challenged by the fact that ADS-J1 cannot induce drug-resistance mutation in the gp41 pocket region. Therefore, we show herein that HIV-1 mutants resistant to T2635, a peptide derived from the gp41 C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) region with pocket-binding domain (PBD), were also resistant to ADS-J1. We also show that pseudoviruses with mutations at positions 64 and 67 in the gp41 pocket region were highly resistant to ADS-J1 and C34, another CHR-peptide with PBD, but relatively sensitive to T20, a CHR-peptide without PBD. ADS-J1 could effectively bind to N36Fd, a mimic of the gp41 NHR-trimer with pocket exposed, and block binding of C34 to N36Fd trimer to form six-helix bundle (6-HB). However, ADS-J1 was less effective in binding to N36Fd trimer with mutations in the gp41 pocket region, such as N36(Q64A)Fd, N36(Q64L)Fd, N36(A67G)Fd, N36(A67S)Fd, and N36(Q66R)Fd, as well as less effective in blocking 6-HB formation between C34 and these mutant N36Fd trimers. These results confirm that ADS-J1 mainly targets the pocket region in the HIV-1 gp41 NHR trimer and suggest that it could be used as a lead for developing small-molecule HIV fusion inhibitors and as a molecule probe for studying the mechanisms of gp41-mediated membrane fusion.
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Development of a standardized and safe airborne antibacterial assay, and its evaluation on antibacterial biomimetic model surfaces.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bacterial infection of biomaterials is a major concern in medicine, and different kinds of antimicrobial biomaterial have been developed to deal with this problem. To test the antimicrobial performance of these biomaterials, the airborne bacterial assay is used, which involves the formation of biohazardous bacterial aerosols. We here describe a new experimental set-up which allows safe handling of such pathogenic aerosols, and standardizes critical parameters of this otherwise intractable and strongly user-dependent assay. With this new method, reproducible, thorough antimicrobial data (number of colony forming units and live-dead-stain) was obtained. Poly(oxonorbornene)-based Synthetic Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides (SMAMPs) were used as antimicrobial test samples. The assay was able to differentiate even between subtle sample differences, such as different sample thicknesses. With this new set-up, the airborne bacterial assay was thus established as a useful, reliable, and realistic experimental method to simulate the contamination of biomaterials with bacteria, for example in an intraoperative setting.
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[Textual research of existing block-printed edition of Source of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Zhenjiu Fengyuan)].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Based on comprehensive arrangement and analysis of edition origin and development, system, characteristic, archive holding situation of Zhenjiu Fengyuan (Source of Acupuncture and Moxibustion writlen) by LI Xue-chuan in Qing dynasty, the error and mistakes in Summary of TCM Ancient books in China, Union Catalog of TCM Books and Grand Chinese Dictionary of Medical Books are pointed out. On the other hand, under full evaluation and comparison among three types of block-printed editions, Dihua Caotang edition in 2 years of Daoguang emperor, Qing Dynasty (about 1822) that is collected in the library of Beijing University of CM is considered as good edition.
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Noninvasive Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Imaging of in Vivo Premature Drug Release from Polymeric Nanoparticles.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Understanding in vivo drug release kinetics is critical for the development of nanoparticle-based delivery systems. In this study, we developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging approach to noninvasively monitor in vitro and in vivo cargo release from polymeric nanoparticles. The FRET donor dye (DiO or DiD) and acceptor dye (DiI or DiR) were individually encapsulated into poly(ethylene oxide)-b-polystyrene (PEO-PS) nanoparticles. When DiO (donor) nanoparticles and DiI (acceptor) nanoparticles were coincubated with cancer cells for 2 h, increased FRET signals were observed from cell membranes, suggesting rapid release of DiO and DiI to cell membranes. Similarly, increased FRET ratios were detected in nude mice after intravenous coadministration of DiD (donor) nanoparticles and DiR (acceptor) nanoparticles. In contrast, another group of nude mice i.v. administrated with DiD/DiR coloaded nanoparticles showed decreased FRET ratios. Based on the difference in FRET ratios between the two groups, in vivo DiD/DiR release half-life from PEO-PS nanoparticles was determined to be 9.2 min. In addition, it was observed that the presence of cell membranes facilitated burst release of lipophilic cargos while incorporation of oleic acid-coated iron oxide into PEO-PS nanoparticles slowed the release of DiD/DiR to cell membranes. The developed in vitro and in vivo FRET imaging techniques can be used to screening stable nanoformulations for lipophilic drug delivery.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of allylated and prenylated mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin as anti-inflammatory agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Curcumin has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activities but has been limited for its low stability and poor bioavailability. We have previously reported four series of 5-carbon linker-containing mono-carbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). In continuation of our ongoing research, we designed and synthesized 33 novel allylated or prenylated MACs here, and evaluated their anti-inflammatory effects in RAW 264.7 macrophages. A majority of them effectively inhibited the LPS-induced expression of TNF-? and IL-6, especially IL-6. The preliminary SAR and quantitative SAR analysis were conducted. Compound 14q is the most potent analog among them, and exhibits significant protection against LPS-induced death in septic mice. Together, these data present a series of new analogs of curcumin as promising anti-inflammatory agents.
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IFN-? in turtle: Conservation in sequence and signalling and role in inhibiting iridovirus replication in Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The IFN-? gene was identified in a turtle, the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, with its genome consisting of 4 exons and 3 introns. The deduced amino acid sequence of this gene contains a signal peptide, an IFN-? family signature motif (130)IQRKAVNELFPT, an NLS motif (155)KRKR and three potential N-glycosylation sites. As revealed by real-time quantitative PCR, the gene was constitutively expressed in all tested organs/tissues, with higher level observed in blood, intestine and thymus. An induced expression of IFN-? at mRNA level was observed in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs) in response to in vitro stimulation of LPS and PolyI:C. The overexpression of IFN-? in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle artery (STA) cell line resulted in the increase in the expression of transcriptional regulators, such as IRF1, IRF7 and STAT1, and antiviral genes, such as Mx, PKR, implying possibly the existence of a conserved signalling network and role for IFN-? in the turtle. Furthermore, the infection of soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV) in the cell line transfected with IFN-? may cause the cell death as demonstrated with the elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level and cell mortality. However, the mechanism involved in the antiviral activity may require further investigation.
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[Dexmedetomidine improves oxygenation during one-lung ventilation in balanced anesthesia with propofol-fentanyl in adults].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine on oxygenation function in adult patients with balanced anesthesia by propofol-fentanyl under one-lung ventilation (OLV).
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Molecular cloning and functional characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein 6 in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of innate immunity. In this study, a long-form PGRP, designated as gcPGRP6, was identified from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. The deduced amino acid sequence of gcPGRP6 is composed of 464 residues with a conserved PGRP domain at the C-terminus. The gcPGRP6 gene consists of four exons and three introns, spacing approximately 2.7kb of genomic sequence. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that gcPGRP6 is clustered closely with zebrafish PGLYRP6, and formed a long-type PGRP subfamily together with PGLYRP2 members identified in teleosts and mammals. Real-time PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is constitutively expressed in organs/tissues examined, and its expression was significantly induced in liver and intestine of grass carp in response to PGN stimulation and in CIK cells treated with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) and peptidoglycan (PGN). Immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting analyses revealed that gcPGRP6 is effectively secreted to the exterior of CIK cells. The over-expression of gcPGRP6 in CIK cells leads to the activation of NF-?B and the inhibition of intracellular bacterial growth. Moreover, cell lysates from CIK cells transfected with pTurbo-gcPGRP6-GFP plasmid display the binding activity towards Lys-type PGN from Staphylococcus aureus and DAP-type PGN from Bacillus subtilis. Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and intracellular PGN receptor NOD2 had a significantly increased expression in CIK cells overexpressed with gcPGRP6. It is demonstrated that the PGRP6 in grass carp has a role in binding PGN, in inhibiting the growth of intracellular bacteria, and in activating NF-?B, as well as in regulating innate immune genes.
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) mutants transmissible by air are susceptible to human and animal neutralizing antibodies.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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A laboratory-generated reassortant H5 hemagglutinin (HA)/influenza A(H1N1) strain containing 4 mutations in influenza A(H5N1) HA has become transmissible by air among mammals. Here, we constructed 15 influenza A(H5N1) pseudoviruses containing a single mutation or a combination of mutations and showed that the pseudoviruses were susceptible to neutralizing antibodies from patients with influenza A(H5N1) infection and from mice immunized with a vaccine containing the conserved HA1 sequence of influenza A(H5N1). These results indicate that antibodies in patients currently infected by influenza A(H5N1) and antibodies induced by vaccines containing conserved sequences in HA1 of wild-type influenza A(H5N1) are highly effective in cross-neutralizing future influenza A(H5N1) mutants with airborne transmissibility, suggesting that human influenza pandemics caused by these influenza A(H5N1) variants can be prevented.
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An engineered HIV-1 gp41 trimeric coiled coil with increased stability and anti-HIV-1 activity: implication for developing anti-HIV microbicides.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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We previously constructed a trimeric coiled coil, N28Fd, based on the N-heptad repeat (NHR) sequence of HIV-1 gp41, as a promising HIV-1 entry inhibitor. Here, we attempted to engineer a stabilized trimeric coiled coil, ccN28Fd, by adding interchain disulphide bonds at the N terminus of N28Fd to improve its biophysical properties and anti-HIV-1 efficacy.
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A Potent Small-Molecule Inhibitor of the MDM2-p53 Interaction (MI-888) Achieved Complete and Durable Tumor Regression in Mice.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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We previously reported the discovery of a class of spirooxindoles as potent and selective small-molecule inhibitors of the MDM2-p53 interaction (MDM2 inhibitors). We report herein our efforts to improve their pharmacokinetic properties and in vivo antitumor activity. Our efforts led to the identification of 9 (MI-888) as a potent MDM2 inhibitor (Ki = 0.44 nM) with a superior pharmacokinetic profile and enhanced in vivo efficacy. Compound 9 is capable of achieving rapid, complete, and durable tumor regression in two types of xenograft models of human cancer with oral administration and represents the most potent and efficacious MDM2 inhibitor reported to date.
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Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of an antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer.
Biopharm Drug Dispos
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a class of key apoptosis regulators overexpressed or dysregulated in cancer. SM-406/AT-406 is a potent and selective small molecule mimetic of Smac that antagonizes the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model was developed to predict the tissue concentration-time profiles of SM-406, the related onco-protein levels in tumor, and the tumor growth inhibition in a mouse model bearing human breast cancer xenograft. In the whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pharmacokinetics characterization, a well stirred (perfusion rate-limited) model was used to describe SM-406 pharmacokinetics in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine, liver and spleen, and a diffusion rate-limited (permeability limited) model was used for tumor. Pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to correlate the SM-406 concentration in tumor to the cIAP1 degradation, pro-caspase 8 decrease, CL-PARP accumulation and tumor growth inhibition. The PBPK-PD model well described the experimental pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacodynamic biomarker responses and tumor growth. This model may be helpful to predict tumor and plasma SM-406 concentrations in the clinic.
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Association between the XRCC6 Promoter rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence based on the current literature.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that the DNA repair gene XRCC6 (Ku70) may be critically involved in the aetiology of the human carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated the association between the rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. However, the results of these studies have been controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the evidence for a relationship between the rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer risk.
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PLGA/Liposome Hybrid Nanoparticles for Short-Chain Ceramide Delivery.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Rapid premature release of lipophilic drugs from liposomal lipid bilayer to plasma proteins and biological membranes is a challenge for targeted drug delivery. The purpose of this study is to reduce premature release of lipophilic short-chain ceramides by encapsulating ceramides into liposomal aqueous interior with the aid of poly (lactic-coglycolicacid) (PLGA).
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Functional outcome and postoperative complications after the microsurgical removal of large vestibular schwannomas via the retrosigmoid approach: a meta-analysis.
Neurosurg Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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For large (?30 mm) or giant (?40 mm) vestibular schwannomas (VSs) for which microsurgical removal is the main treatment option, complete tumour resection and the preservation of acceptable facial nerve function can be safely and successfully achieved via the retrosigmoid approach. We performed a meta-analysis to provide a reliable estimate of functional outcome and postoperative complications for patients treated surgically for large VSs. We conducted a comprehensive search in Pubmed, Embase and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify publications that included only patients in whom the VSs were >3.0 cm in maximal diameter and microsurgically removed by a retrosigmoid approach. Pooled estimates of proportions with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation. This meta-analysis revealed that the pooled proportion of gross total resections was 79.1 % (95 % CI, 64.2-90.8 %; I (2)?=?95.4 %). By combining microsurgical techniques with continuous electrophysiological monitoring, the anatomical preservation of the facial nerve at the end of surgery was achieved in 88.8 % (95 % CI, 83.6-93.2 %; I (2)?=?76.1 %) of the patients. The pooled proportion of good postoperative facial nerve function (House-Brackmann (HB) grades I-II) was 62.9 % (95 % CI, 50.0-74.9 %; I (2)?=?91.1 %). Cerebrospinal fluid leakage was reported in 7.8 % (95 % CI, 4.8-11.4 %; I (2)?=?49.8 %) of the patients. The mortality rate was 0.87 % (95 % CI, 0.22-1.78 %; I (2)?=?4.9 %). Our meta-analysis revealed that for large VSs, very favourable results can be obtained using the retrosigmoid approach with minimal mortality, especially with respect to anatomical and functional facial nerve preservation.
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Polymeric curcumin nanoparticle pharmacokinetics and metabolism in bile duct cannulated rats.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of polymeric nanoparticle-encapsulated (nanocurcumin) and solvent-solubilized curcumin formulations in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Nanocurcumin is currently under development for cancer therapy. Since free, unencapsulated curcumin is rapidly metabolized and excreted in rats, upon intravenous (i.v.) administration of nanocurcumin only nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin can be detected in plasma samples. Hence, the second objective of this study was to utilize the metabolic instability of curcumin to assess in vivo drug release from nanocurcumin. Nanocurcumin and solvent-solubilized curcumin were administered at 10 mg curcumin/kg by jugular vein to bile duct-cannulated male SD rats (n = 5). Nanocurcumin increased the plasma Cmax of curcumin 1749 fold relative to the solvent-solubilized curcumin. Nanocurcumin also increased the relative abundance of curcumin and glucuronides in bile but did not dramatically alter urine and tissue metabolite profiles. The observed increase in biliary and urinary excretion of both curcumin and metabolites for the nanocurcumin formulation suggested a rapid "burst" release of curcumin. Although the burst release observed in this study is a limitation for targeted tumor delivery, nanocurcumin still exhibits major advantages over solvent-solubilized curcumin, as the nanoformulation does not result in the lung accumulation observed for the solvent-solubilized curcumin and increases overall systemic curcumin exposure. Additionally, the remaining encapsulated curcumin fraction following burst release is available for tumor delivery via the enhanced permeation and retention effect commonly observed for nanoparticle formulations.
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Comparison of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of biliary clearance using an empirical scaling factor versus transport-based scaling factors in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Biliary clearance (CLb ) is often underestimated by in vitro-in vivo extrapolation from sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCHs). The objective of this study was to compare the performance of a universal correction factor with transporter-based correction factors in correcting underestimation of CLb . The apparent in vitro CLb of a training set of 21 compounds was determined using the SCH model and extrapolated to apparent in vivo CLb (CLb, app ). A universal correction factor (10.2) was obtained by a linear regression of the predicted CLb, app and observed in vivo CLb of training set compounds and applied to an independent test set (n = 20); the corrected CLb predictions of 13 compounds were within twofold error of observed values. Furthermore, two transporter-based correction factors (Organic anion transporting polypeptides/multidrug-resistance-related protein 2 and diffusion/P-glycoprotein) were estimated by linear regression analysis of training set compounds. The applications of the two correction factors to the test set resulted in improved prediction precision. In conclusion, both the universal correction factor and transporter-based correction factors provided reasonable corrections of CLb values, which are often underestimated by the SCH model. The use of transporter-based correction factors resulted in an even greater improvement of predictions for compounds with intermediate-to-high CLb values.
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Kinetics of sulforaphane in mice after consumption of sulforaphane-enriched broccoli sprout preparation.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Sulforaphane (SF) is a natural isothiocyanate in broccoli sprouts with cancer chemopreventive activity. This study is aimed to use different methods to develop broccoli sprout preparations to compare their ability to deliver SF to the mice and to evaluate the kinetics and biodistribution of SF.
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Prediction of nanoparticle prodrug metabolism by pharmacokinetic modeling of biliary excretion.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation is a powerful tool for the prediction of drug concentrations in the absence of analytical techniques that allow for direct quantification. The present study applied this modeling approach to determine active drug release from a nanoparticle prodrug formulation. A comparative pharmacokinetic study of a nanoscale micellar docetaxel (DTX) prodrug, Procet 8, and commercial DTX formulation, Taxotere, was conducted in bile duct cannulated rats. The nanoscale (~40nm) size of the Procet 8 formulation resulted in confinement within the plasma space and high prodrug plasma concentrations. Ex vivo prodrug hydrolysis during plasma sample preparation resulted in unacceptable error that precluded direct measurement of DTX concentrations. Pharmacokinetic modeling of Taxotere and Procet 8 plasma concentrations, and their associated biliary metabolites, allowed for prediction of the DTX concentration profile and DTX bioavailability, and thereby evaluation of Procet 8 metabolism. Procet 8 plasma decay and in vitro plasma hydrolytic rates were identical, suggesting that systemic clearance of the prodrug was primarily metabolic. The Procet 8 and Taxotere plasma profiles, and associated docetaxel hydroxy-tert-butyl carbamate (HDTX) metabolite biliary excretion, were best fit by a two compartment model, with both linear and non-linear DTX clearance, and first order Procet 8 hydrolysis. The model estimated HDTX clearance rate agreed with in vitro literature values, supporting the predictability of the proposed model. Model simulation at the 10mg DTX equivalent/kg dose level predicted DTX formation rate-limited kinetics and a peak plasma DTX concentration of 39ng/mL at 4h for Procet 8, in comparison to 2826ng/mL for Taxotere. As a result of nonlinear DTX clearance, the DTX AUCinf for the Procet 8 formulation was predicted to be 2.6 times lower than Taxotere (775 vs. 2017h×ng/mL, respectively), resulting in an absolute bioavailability estimate of 38%. As DTX clearance in man is considered linear, this low bioavailability is likely species-dependent. These data support the use of pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation in cases of complex formulations, where analytical methods for direct measurement of free (released) drug concentrations are unavailable. Uses of such models may include interpretation of preclinical toxicology studies, selection of first in man dosing regimens, and PK/PD model development.
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IDOL stimulates clathrin-independent endocytosis and multivesicular body-mediated lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) is a critical determinant of plasma cholesterol levels that internalizes lipoprotein cargo via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here, we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase IDOL stimulates a previously unrecognized, clathrin-independent pathway for LDLR internalization. Real-time single-particle tracking and electron microscopy reveal that IDOL is recruited to the plasma membrane by LDLR, promotes LDLR internalization in the absence of clathrin or caveolae, and facilitates LDLR degradation by shuttling it into the multivesicular body (MVB) protein-sorting pathway. The IDOL-dependent degradation pathway is distinct from that mediated by PCSK9 as only IDOL employs ESCRT (endosomal-sorting complex required for transport) complexes to recognize and traffic LDLR to lysosomes. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of ESCRT-0 (HGS) or ESCRT-I (TSG101) components prevents IDOL-mediated LDLR degradation. We further show that USP8 acts downstream of IDOL to deubiquitinate LDLR and that USP8 is required for LDLR entry into the MVB pathway. These results provide key mechanistic insights into an evolutionarily conserved pathway for the control of lipoprotein receptor expression and cellular lipid uptake.
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Small molecule fusion inhibitors: design, synthesis and biological evaluation of (Z)-3-(5-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidinylidene)methyl)-N-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxy)phenyl-2,5-dimethylpyrroles and related derivatives targeting HIV-1 gp41.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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By a scaffold elongation strategy, a series of (Z)-3-(5-(3-benzyl-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidinylidene)methyl)-N-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxy)phenyl-2,5-dimethylpyrroles and related derivatives with a linear multi-aromatic-ring skeleton were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in HIV-1 gp41 and cellular assays. Among them, the most active compounds, 12e, 12g, and 12k with a one-carbon linker (n=1) between the rhodanine (C) and phenyl (D) rings, exhibited very promising inhibitory potency with IC50 values of 1.8-2.6 ?M and EC50 values of 0.3-1.5 ?M against gp41 6-HB formation and HIV-1 replication in MT-2 cells, respectively. Additionally, they were almost equally effective against both T20-sensitive and resistant strains. The related SAR studies and molecular modeling results provided potential for further developing a new class of non-peptide small molecular fusion inhibitors targeting the HIV-1 gp41.
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Proteomic mapping of mitochondria in living cells via spatially restricted enzymatic tagging.
Science
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Microscopy and mass spectrometry (MS) are complementary techniques: The former provides spatiotemporal information in living cells, but only for a handful of recombinant proteins at a time, whereas the latter can detect thousands of endogenous proteins simultaneously, but only in lysed samples. Here, we introduce technology that combines these strengths by offering spatially and temporally resolved proteomic maps of endogenous proteins within living cells. Our method relies on a genetically targetable peroxidase enzyme that biotinylates nearby proteins, which are subsequently purified and identified by MS. We used this approach to identify 495 proteins within the human mitochondrial matrix, including 31 not previously linked to mitochondria. The labeling was exceptionally specific and distinguished between inner membrane proteins facing the matrix versus the intermembrane space (IMS). Several proteins previously thought to reside in the IMS or outer membrane, including protoporphyrinogen oxidase, were reassigned to the matrix by our proteomic data and confirmed by electron microscopy. The specificity of peroxidase-mediated proteomic mapping in live cells, combined with its ease of use, offers biologists a powerful tool for understanding the molecular composition of living cells.
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HIV-1 fusion is blocked through binding of GB Virus C E2D peptides to the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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A strategy for antiviral drug discovery is the elucidation and imitation of viral interference mechanisms. HIV-1 patients benefit from a coinfection with GB Virus C (GBV-C), since HIV-positive individuals with long-term GBV-C viraemia show better survival rates than HIV-1 patients without persisting GBV-C. A direct influence of GBV-C on HIV-1 replication has been shown in coinfection experiments. GBV-C is a human non-pathogenic member of the flaviviridae family that can replicate in T and B cells. Therefore, GBV-C shares partly the same ecological niche with HIV-1. In earlier work we have demonstrated that recombinant glycoprotein E2 of GBV-C and peptides derived from the E2 N-terminus interfere with HIV entry. In this study we investigated the underlying mechanism. Performing a virus-cell fusion assay and temperature-arrested HIV-infection kinetics, we provide evidence that the HIV-inhibitory E2 peptides interfere with late HIV-1 entry steps after the engagement of gp120 with CD4 receptor and coreceptor. Binding and competition experiments revealed that the N-terminal E2 peptides bind to the disulfide loop region of HIV-1 transmembrane protein gp41. In conjunction with computational analyses, we identified sequence similarities between the N-termini of GBV-C E2 and the HIV-1 glycoprotein gp120. This similarity appears to enable the GBV-C E2 N-terminus to interact with the HIV-1 gp41 disulfide loop, a crucial domain involved in the gp120-gp41 interface. Furthermore, the results of the present study provide initial proof of concept that peptides targeted to the gp41 disulfide loop are able to inhibit HIV fusion and should inspire the development of this new class of HIV-1 entry inhibitors.
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The TERT MNS16A polymorphism contributes to cancer susceptibility: meta-analysis of the current studies.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The MNS16A polymorphism in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene has been implicated in cancer risk in multiple populations and various types of cancers; however, the results of previous studies exploring this association were inconclusive. To more precisely evaluate the relationship between the TERT MNS16A polymorphism and cancer risk, we performed a meta-analysis based on 8 studies described in 7 articles comprising 7864 controls and 4355 cases. The summary odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the strength of the association in a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model where appropriate. Heterogeneity among articles and their publication bias were also tested. Overall, the pooled results indicated that the MNS16A polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk in the homozygote comparison model (SS vs. LL: OR=1.280, 95% CI 1.060-1.547) and the recessive model (SS vs. LL+SL: OR=1.201, 95% CI 1.004-1.436). In the stratified analyses, a statistically significant association was observed among Caucasians and in population-based studies. We also performed the analyses by cancer type, and a significantly increased risk of glioma was found in four genetic models. Our results suggest that the TERT MNS16A polymorphism most likely contributes to an increased risk of cancer. Moreover, the same relationship was found when the studies were stratified by cancer type, ethnicity and source of controls.
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Nature-inspired antimicrobial polymers--assessment of their potential for biomedical applications.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We explored the potential of poly(oxonorbornene)-based synthetic mimics of antimicrobial peptides (SMAMPs), a promising new class of antimicrobial polymers with cell-selectivity and low resistance development potential, for clinical applications. We evaluated their antimicrobial activity against a panel of seven clinical and regulatory relevant bacteria strains, and tested their toxicity with two different kinds of primary human cells. For the antimicrobial activity, we performed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and determined the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) according to the NCCLS guidelines. The results revealed specific problems that may occur when testing the antimicrobial activity of amphiphilic cationic polymers, and confirmed the working hypothesis that the more hydrophilic SMAMP polymers in our portfolio were doubly selective, i.e. they are not only selective for bacteria over mammalian cells, but also for Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria. The data also showed that we could improve the broad-band activity of one SMAMP, and in combination with the results from the cell toxicity experiments, identified this polymer as a promising candidate for further in-vitro and in-vivo testing. Transmission electron studies revealed that the cellular envelopes of both E. coli and S. aureus were severely damaged due to SMAMP action on the bacterial membrane, which strengthened the argument that SMAMPs closely resemble antimicrobial peptides. To test cell toxicity, we used the traditional hemolysis assay with human red blood cells, and the novel xCelligence assay with primary human fibroblasts. The data reported here is the first example in which a hemolysis assay is benchmarked against the xCelligence assay. It revealed that the same trends were obtained using these complementary methods. This establishes the xCelligence assay with primary human cells as a useful tool for SMAMP characterization.
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IDH1/IDH2 mutations define the prognosis and molecular profiles of patients with gliomas: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Isocitrate dehydrogenase isoforms 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) mutations have received considerable attention since the discovery of their relation with human gliomas. The predictive value of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas remains controversial. Here, we present the results of a meta-analysis of the associations between IDH mutations and both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in gliomas. The interrelationship between the IDH mutations and MGMT promoter hypermethylation, EGFR amplification, codeletion of chromosomes 1p/19q and TP53 gene mutation were also revealed.
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Genetic polymorphisms of DNA double-strand break repair pathway genes and glioma susceptibility.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genetic variations in DNA double-strand break repair genes can influence the ability of a cell to repair damaged DNA and alter an individuals susceptibility to cancer. We studied whether polymorphisms in DNA double-strand break repair genes are associated with an increased risk of glioma development.
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Mutations of Gln64 in the HIV-1 gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat render viruses resistant to peptide HIV fusion inhibitors targeting the gp41 pocket.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2011
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To prove that the peptidic HIV-1 fusion inhibitors containing the pocket-binding domain (PBD) mainly target the hydrophobic pocket in the gp41 N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR), we constructed pseudoviruses by replacement of Q64 in the gp41 pocket region with Ala (Q64A) or Leu (Q64L). These viruses were highly resistant to C34 and CP32M containing the PBD, while they were susceptible to T20 (enfuvirtide) lacking the PBD but containing the GIV-motif-binding domain (GBD) and lipid-binding domain (LBD). They were also sensitive to C52L, which contains the PBD, GBD, and LBD. Those mutations may disrupt the hydrophilic interaction between Q64 in the NHR and N113 in the peptides containing the PBD. This report provides insights into the mechanisms of drug resistance, with implications for the design of novel HIV fusion and entry inhibitors.
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[Effect of metformin on apoptosis of renal cell carcinoma cells in vitro and its mechanisms].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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To evaluate the effect of metformin on the apoptosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells in vitro and its mechanisms.
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Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-substituted 2,5-dimethyl-N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)pyrroles as novel potential HIV-1 gp41 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Based on the structure of HIV-1 gp41 binding site for small-molecule inhibitors, optimization of lead 2 resulted in the discovery of a new series of 2,5-dimethyl-3-(5-(N-phenylrhodaninyl)methylene)-N-(3-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)pyrrole compounds with improved anti-HIV-1 activity. The most active compounds 13a and 13j exhibited significant potency against gp41 6-HB formation with IC(50) values of 4.4 and 4.6 ?M and against HIV-1 replication in the MT-2 cells with EC(50) values of 3.2 and 2.2 ?M, respectively, thus providing a new starting point to develop highly potent small-molecule HIV fusion inhibitors targeting gp41.
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Design, synthesis, and biological activity of a novel series of 2,5-disubstituted furans/pyrroles as HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Based on molecular docking analysis of earlier results, we designed a series of 2,5-disubstituted furans/pyrroles (5a-h) as HIV-1 entry inhibitors. Compounds were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling, followed by a Knoevenagel condensation or Wittig reaction. Four of these compounds were found to be effective in inhibiting HIV-1 infection, with the best compounds being 5f and 5h, which exhibited significant inhibition on HIV-1(IIIB) infection at micromolar levels with low cytotoxicity. These compounds are also effective in blocking HIV-1 mediated cell-cell fusion and the gp41 six-helix bundle formation, suggesting that they are also HIV-1 fusion inhibitors targeting gp41 and have potential to be developed as a new class of anti-HIV-1 agents.
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Examination of the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients of ginger in humans.
AAPS J
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Ginger extracts have been studied in various clinical trials for different indications. However, the pharmacokinetics of the ginger active constituents in human biological matrices is not well investigated. This study aims to develop a LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous measurement of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol and study their pharmacokinetics in human plasma and colon tissues. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was established and validated with a low limit of quantification of 2-5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy ranged from -7.3% to 10.4% and from -9.4% to 9.8%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision ranged from 0.9% to 10.9% and from 2.0% to 12.4%, respectively. The glucuronide and sulfate metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol in plasma and colon tissues were quantified after hydrolysis with ?-glucuronidase and sulfatase. After oral dosing of 2.0 g ginger extracts in human, free 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol were detected in plasma with peak concentrations (9.5 ± 2.2 and 13.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL, respectively) at 1 h after oral administration, but no free 6-gingerol and 8-gingerol were detected in plasma from 0.25 to 24 h. The peak concentrations of glucuronide metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol were 0.47 ± 0.31, 0.17 ± 0.14, 0.37 ± 0.19, and 0.73 ± 0.54 ?g/mL at 1 h, respectively. The peak concentrations of the sulfate metabolites of 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol were 0.28 ± 0.15, 0.027 ± 0.018, 0.018 ± 0.006, and 0.047 ± 0.035 ?g/mL at 1 h, respectively. Very low concentrations (2-3 ng/mL) of 10-gingerol glucuronide and sulfate were found in colon tissues. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that half-lives of these four analytes and their metabolites were 1-3 h in human plasma. No accumulation was observed for 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerols and 6-shogaol and their metabolites in both plasma and colon tissues after multiple daily dosing.
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[Study on fat-soluble components in different parts of miao ethnomedicine Pileostegia viburnoides by the herbal blitzkrieg extractor].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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To study the fat-soluble components in different parts of Pileostegia viburnoides.
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In situ assembly of well-dispersed gold nanoparticles on electrospun silica nanotubes for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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The tubular nanocomposite with well-dispersed distribution of small gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) assembled on the inside and outside surfaces of silica nanotubes (SNTs) was fabricated by combining the single capillary electrospinning technique and an in situ reduction approach. The AuNPs/SNTs nanocomposite exhibited a good catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP).
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p57(Kip2) and p27(Kip1) cooperate to maintain hematopoietic stem cell quiescence through interactions with Hsc70.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Cell cycle regulators play critical roles in the balance between hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) dormancy and proliferation. In this study, we report that cell cycle entry proceeded normally in HSCs null for cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p57 due to compensatory upregulation of p27. HSCs null for both p57 and p27, however, were more proliferative and had reduced capacity to engraft in transplantation. We found that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) interacts with both p57 and p27 and that the subcellular localization of Hsc70 was critical to maintain HSC cell cycle kinetics. Combined deficiency of p57 and p27 in HSCs resulted in nuclear import of an Hsc70/cyclin D1 complex, concomitant with Rb phosphorylation, and elicited severe defects in maintaining HSC quiescence. Taken together, these data suggest that regulation of cytoplasmic localization of Hsc70/cyclin D1 complex by p57 and p27 is a key intracellular mechanism in controlling HSC dormancy.
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Trichoplein controls microtubule anchoring at the centrosome by binding to Odf2 and ninein.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The keratin cytoskeleton performs several functions in epithelial cells and provides regulated interaction sites for scaffold proteins, including trichoplein. Previously, we found that trichoplein was localized on keratin intermediate filaments and desmosomes in well-differentiated, non-dividing epithelia. Here, we report that trichoplein is widely expressed and has a major function in the correct localization of the centrosomal protein ninein in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Immunocytochemical analysis also revealed that this protein is concentrated at the subdistal to medial zone of both mother and daughter centrioles. Trichoplein binds the centrosomal proteins Odf2 and ninein, which are localized at the distal to subdistal ends of the mother centriole. Trichoplein depletion abolished the recruitment of ninein, but not Odf2, specifically at the subdistal end. However, Odf2 depletion inhibited the recruitment of trichoplein to a mother centriole, whereas ninein depletion did not. In addition, the depletion of each molecule impaired MT anchoring at the centrosome. These results suggest that trichoplein has a crucial role in MT-anchoring activity at the centrosome in proliferating cells, probably through its complex formation with Odf2 and ninein.
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Imaging LDL receptor oligomerization during endocytosis using a co-internalization assay.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Methods to probe receptor oligomerization are useful to understand the molecular mechanisms of receptor signaling. Here we report a fluorescence imaging method to determine receptor oligomerization state in living cells during endocytic internalization. The wild-type receptor is co-expressed with an internalization-defective mutant, and the internalization kinetics of each are independently monitored. If the receptor internalizes as an oligomer, then the wild-type and mutant isoforms will mutually influence each others trafficking properties, causing co-internalization of the mutant or co-retention of the wild-type at the cell surface. Using this approach, we found that the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor internalizes as an oligomer into cells, both in the presence and absence of LDL ligand. The internalization kinetics of the wild-type receptor are not changed by LDL binding. We also found that the oligomerization domain of the LDL receptor is located in its cytoplasmic tail.
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In vitro metabolism of 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in human liver microsomes.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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The objective of this study was to investigate the oxidative metabolism pathways of 17-(dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-DMAG), a geldanamycin (GA) derivative and 90-kDa heat shock protein inhibitor. In vitro metabolic profiles of 17-DMAG were examined by using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant CYP450 isozymes in the presence or absence of reduced GSH. In addition to 17-DMAG hydroquinone and 19-glutathionyl 17-DMAG, several oxidative metabolites of 17-DMAG were detected and characterized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Different from previously reported primary biotransformations of GA and GA derivatives, 17-DMAG was not metabolized primarily through the reduction of benzoquinone and GSH conjugation in HLMs. In contrast, the primary biotransformations of 17-DMAG in HLMs were hydroxylation and demethylation on its side chains. The most abundant metabolite was produced by demethylation from the methoxyl at position 12. The reaction phenotyping study showed that CYP3A4 and 3A5 were the major cytochrome P450 isozymes involved in the oxidative metabolism of 17-DMAG, whereas CYP2C8, 2D6, 2A6, 2C19, and 1A2 made minor contributions to the formation of metabolites. On the basis of the identified metabolite profiles, the biotransformation pathways for 17-DMAG in HLMs were proposed.
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[Preliminary study of "erythroblast island" in the bone marrow of hematocytopenic patients with positive BMMNC-Coombs test.]
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of erythroblast island (EI) formation in the bone marrow of patients with immun-related hemocytopenia (IRP). METHODS: The category of BM-auto antibody (au Ab) in 48 patients with IRP was detected with FCM. The BM-au Ab in the EI of these cases were explored with immuonhistofluorescence (IF). Clinical and laboratory characteristics of these cases were also analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: IgG could be detected in the EI on the BM smear of 14 cases (29.17%), BM-au Ab mainly deposited at the edge/membranes between macrophage and erythroblasts rather than cyto plasm. Positive reaction were seen in all the cases with GlycoAIgG. The red blood cell count [(1.8 ± 0.5) × 10(12)/L] and hemoglobin level [(59.6 ± 16.2)g/L] were significantly lower than that in the IF(-) group [(2.5 ± 0.9) × 10(12)/L and (83.4 ± 25.0) g/L] (P < 0.05). The percentage of reticulocyte [(2.0 ± 0.8)%], serum level of IBIL [(9.4 ± 4.7) µmol/L], percentage of erythroblats in sternum BM (0.441 ± 0.139) and response rate to therapy (85.7%) in IF(+) group were significantly higher than that in IF(-)group [(1.3 ± 1.0)%, (6.6 ± 6.7)µmol/L, 0.298 ± 0.082, 61.3%, respectively] (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Macrophage was connected with erythroblasts through autologous IgG in the EIs of some patients with IRP. EI were the places where macrophages devoured and destroyed erythroblasts rather than erythroid development and differentiation. The pathogenetic mechanism of IRP might be associated with macrophages phagocytosing and destroying BM hematopoietic cells.
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Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanotheranostics for targeted cancer cell imaging and pH-dependent intracellular drug release.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2010
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Studies were conducted to develop antibody- and fluorescence-labeled superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) nanotheranostics for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence imaging of cancer cells and pH-dependent intracellular drug release. SPIO nanoparticles (10 nm) were coated with amphiphilic polymers and PEGylated. The antibody HuCC49?CH2 and fluorescent dye 5-FAM were conjugated to the PEG of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs). Anticancer drugs doxorubicin (Dox), azido-doxorubicin (Adox), MI-219, and 17-DMAG containing primary amine, azide, secondary amine, and tertiary amine, respectively, were encapsulated into IONPs. The encapsulation efficiency and drug release at various pHs were determined using LC-MS/MS. The cancer targeting and imaging were monitored using MRI and fluorescent microscopy in a colon cancer cell line (LS174T). The pH-dependent drug release, intracellular distribution, and cytotoxicity were evaluated using microscopy and MTS assay. The PEGylation of SPIO and conjugation with antibody and 5-FAM increased SPIO size from 18 to 44 nm. Fluorescent imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Prussian blue staining demonstrated that HuCC49?CH2-SPIO increased cancer cell targeting. HuCC49?CH2-SPIO nanotheranostics decreased the T(2) values in MRI of LS174T cells from 117.3 ± 1.8 ms to 55.5 ± 2.6 ms. The loading capacities of Dox, Adox, MI-219, and 17-DMAG were 3.16 ± 0.77%, 6.04 ± 0.61%, 2.22 ± 0.42%, and 0.09 ± 0.07%, respectively. Dox, MI-219 and 17-DMAG showed pH-dependent release while Adox did not. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated the accumulation of HuCC49?CH2-SPIO nanotheranostics in endosomes/lysosomes. The encapsulated Dox was released in acidic lysosomes and diffused into cytosol and nuclei. In contrast, the encapsulated Adox only showed limited release in endosomes/lysosomes. HuCC49?CH2-SPIO nanotheranostics target-delivered more Dox to LS174T cells than nonspecific IgG-SPIO and resulted in a lower IC(50) (1.44 ?M vs 0.44 ?M). The developed HuCC49?CH2-SPIO nanotheranostics provides an integrated platform for cancer cell imaging, targeted anticancer drug delivery and pH-dependently drug release.
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[PKD3 contributes to up-regulation of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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To investigate the role of PKD3 in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) expression regulation in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells and explore the mechanism.
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[Protein kinase D3 is involved in negative regulation of MMP-7 in prostate cancer cells].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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To explore the role of protein kinase D3 (PKD3) in the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases 7 (MMP-7) expression in prostate cancer cells.
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The heparin-binding domain of HB-EGF mediates localization to sites of cell-cell contact and prevents HB-EGF proteolytic release.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a ligand for EGF receptor (EGFR) and possesses the ability to signal in juxtacrine, autocrine and/or paracrine mode, with these alternatives being governed by the degree of proteolytic release of the ligand. Although the spatial range of diffusion of released HB-EGF is restricted by binding heparan-sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in the extracellular matrix and/or cellular glycocalyx, ascertaining mechanisms governing non-released HB-EGF localization is also important for understanding its effects. We have employed a new method for independently tracking the localization of the extracellular EGF-like domain of HB-EGF and the cytoplasmic C-terminus. A striking observation was the absence of the HB-EGF transmembrane pro-form from the leading edge of COS-7 cells in a wound-closure assay; instead, this protein localized in regions of cell-cell contact. A battery of detailed experiments found that this localization derives from a trans interaction between extracellular HSPGs and the HB-EGF heparin-binding domain, and that disruption of this interaction leads to increased release of soluble ligand and a switch in cell phenotype from juxtacrine-induced growth inhibition to autocrine-induced proliferation. Our results indicate that extracellular HSPGs serve to sequester the transmembrane pro-form of HB-EGF at the point of cell-cell contact, and that this plays a role in governing the balance between juxtacrine versus autocrine and paracrine signaling.
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124I-HuCC49deltaCH2 for TAG-72 antigen-directed positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of LS174T colon adenocarcinoma tumor implants in xenograft mice: preliminary results.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2010
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18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) is widely used in diagnostic cancer imaging. However, the use of 18F-FDG in PET-based imaging is limited by its specificity and sensitivity. In contrast, anti-TAG (tumor associated glycoprotein)-72 monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for binding to a variety of adenocarcinomas, including colorectal cancer. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate a complimentary determining region (CDR)-grafted humanized CH2-domain-deleted anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibody (HuCC49deltaCH2), radiolabeled with iodine-124 (124I), as an antigen-directed and cancer-specific targeting agent for PET-based imaging.
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Structure, corrosion behavior and mechanical property of a novel poly(vinyl alcohol) composite in simulated body fluid.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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The data for long-term drug-delivery systems are scarce compared to the short-term systems because the required research efforts are more time-consuming. In this study, we report a novel cross-linked composite based on poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing cupric ions for long-term delivery, which is helpful for contraception and trace element balance in the human body. The composition, corrosion products, crystal structure, chemical structure and mechanical stability of the composite, after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for one year, were studied by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and mechanical testing. The results show that no other new elements, such as P, Cl and Ca, appear on the surface of the composite and no Cu(2)O was formed after immersion in SBF for one year. The effectiveness of copper can be greatly improved and the side-effects caused by these compounds might also be eliminated. Furthermore, this novel composite exhibits long-term mechanical stability in SBF. The present in vitro long-term data suggest that this novel copper-containing composite may serve as a substitute for conventional materials of copper-containing intrauterine devices (Cu-IUDs) and as a carrier for controlled-release material in a variety of other applications.
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Glucosylation of steroidal saponins by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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It is known that the sugar chains of steroidal saponins play an important role in the biological and pharmacological activities. In order to synthesize steroidal saponins with novel sugar chains in one step for further studies on pharmacological activity, we here describe the glucosylation of steroidal saponins, and 5 compounds, timosaponin AIII (1), saponin Ta (2), saponin Tb (3), trillin (4) and cantalasaponin I (5), were converted into their glucosylated products by Toruzyme 3.0 L, a cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase). 12 glucosylated products were isolated and their structures elucidated on the basis of spectral data; they were all characterized as new compounds. The results showed that Toruzyme 3.0 L had the specific ability to add the ?-D-glucopyranosyl group to the glucosyl group linked at the sugar chains of steroidal saponins, and the glucosyl group was the only acceptor. This is the first report of steroidal saponins with different degrees of glucosylation. The substrates and their glucosylated derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell by MTT assay. The substrates all exhibited high cytotoxicity (IC(50) ?150?µmol/L), and the cytotoxicity of most of the products showed no obvious changes compared with those of their substrates.
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Magnetic-field-assisted rapid ultrasensitive immunoassays using Fe3O4/ZnO/Au nanorices as Raman probes.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Rapid and ultrasensitive immunoassays were developed by using biofunctional Fe3O4/ZnO/Au nanorices as Raman probes. Taking advantage of the superparamagnetic property of the nanorices, the labeled proteins can rapidly be separated and purified with a commercial permanent magnet. The unsusceptible multiphonon resonant Raman scattering of the nanorices provided a characteristic spectroscopic fingerprint function, which allowed an accurate detection of the analyte. High specificity and selectivity of the assay were demonstrated. It was found that the diffusion barriers and the boundary layer effects had a great influence on the detection limit. Manipulation of the nanorice probes using an external magnetic field can enhance the assay sensitivity by several orders of magnitude, and reduce the detection time from 1 h to 3 min. This magnetic-field-assisted rapid and ultrasensitive immunoassay based on the resonant Raman scatting of semiconductor shows significant value for potential applications in biomedicine, food safety, and environmental defence.
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Multifunctional Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites with magnetic and optical properties.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Multifunctional Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposites were successfully synthesized through two-step solution-based methods. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as seeds for the deposit and growth of ZnO nanocrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) were employed to observe the morphology, size, structure, and crystalline phase of the nanocomposites and confirm their chemical composition. The results of magnetization curves, resonant Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectra revealed that the nanocomposites simultaneously possessed the super-paramagnetism of Fe3O4 and the multiphonon resonant Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) properties of ZnO. Compared with that of pure Fe3O4, the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 component within the nanocomposites was enhanced. The Raman spectroscopic fingerprint of ZnO component was preserved, and the fluorescent background was efficiently reduced. The interfacial effect was found to play an important role in modulating or improving the properties of the nanocomposites.
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Characterization of celastrol to inhibit hsp90 and cdc37 interaction.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2009
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The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is required for the stabilization and conformational maturation of various oncogenic proteins in cancer. The loading of protein kinases to Hsp90 is actively mediated by the cochaperone Cdc37. The crucial role of the Hsp90-Cdc37 complex has made it an exciting target for cancer treatment. In this study, we characterize Hsp90 and Cdc37 interaction and drug disruption using a reconstituted protein system. The GST pull-down assay and ELISA assay show that Cdc37 binds to ADP-bound/nucleotide-free Hsp90 but not ATP-bound Hsp90. Celastrol disrupts Hsp90-Cdc37 complex formation, whereas the classical Hsp90 inhibitors (e.g. geldanamycin) have no effect. Celastrol inhibits Hsp90 ATPase activity without blocking ATP binding. Proteolytic fingerprinting indicates celastrol binds to Hsp90 C-terminal domain to protect it from trypsin digestion. These data suggest that celastrol may represent a new class of Hsp90 inhibitor by modifying Hsp90 C terminus to allosterically regulate its chaperone activity and disrupt Hsp90-Cdc37 complex.
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Saponins from the processed rhizomes of Polygonatum kingianum.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Two new spirostanol saponins, named kingianoside H (1) and kingianoside I (2), were isolated from the processed rhizomes of Polygonatum kingianum, along with a known triterpenoid saponin ginsenoside-Rc (3), four known spirostanol saponins Tg (4), (5), polygonatoside C(1) (6) and ophiopogonin C (7). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods. Compounds 3 and 5 were first reported from the genus Polygonatum. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 are reported for the first time from the processed Polygonatum kingianum.
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Near-infrared fluorescence labeled anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies for tumor imaging in colorectal cancer xenograft mice.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2009
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Anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies target the tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 in various solid tumors. This study evaluated the use of anti-TAG-72 monoclonal antibodies, both murine CC49 and humanized CC49 (HuCC49deltaCH2), for near-infrared fluorescent (NIR) tumor imaging in colorectal cancer xenograft models. The murine CC49 and HuCC49deltaCH2 were conjugated with Cy7 monofunctional N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Cy7-NHS). Both in vitro and in vivo anti-TAG-72 antibody binding studies were performed. The in vitro study utilized the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS174T that was incubated with Cy7, antibody-Cy7 conjugates, or excessive murine CC49 followed by the antibody-Cy7 conjugates and was imaged by fluorescence microscopy. The in vivo study utilized xenograft mice, bearing LS174T subcutaneous tumor implants, that received tail vein injections of Cy7, murine CC49-Cy7, HuCC49deltaCH2-Cy7, or nonspecific IgG-Cy7 and were imaged by the Xenogen IVIS 100 system from 15 min to 288 h. The biodistribution of the fluorescence labeled antibodies was determined by imaging the dissected tissues. The in vitro study revealed that the antibody-Cy7 conjugates bound to LS174T cells and were blocked by excessive murine CC49. The in vivo study demonstrated that murine CC49 achieved a tumor/blood ratio of 15 at 96 h postinjection. In comparison, HuCC49deltaCH2-Cy7 cleared much faster than murine CC49-Cy7 from the xenograft mice, and HuCC49deltaCH2-Cy7 achieved a tumor/blood ratio of 12 at 18 h postinjection. In contrast, Cy7 and Cy7 labeled nonspecific IgG resulted in no demonstrable tumor accumulation. When mice were injected with excessive unlabeled murine CC49 at 6 h before the injection of murine CC49-Cy7 or HuCC49deltaCH2-Cy7, both the intensity and retention time of the fluorescence from the tumor were reduced. In summary, the Cy7 labeled murine CC49 and HuCC49deltaCH2 demonstrate tumor-targeting capabilities in living colorectal cancer xenograft mice and provide an alternative modality for tumor imaging.
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Two novel furostanol saponins from Ophiopogon japonicus.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Two novel furostanol saponins were isolated from the fresh tubers of Ophiopogon japonicus. Comprehensive spectroscopic analysis allowed the chemical structures of the compounds to be assigned as (25R)-26-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)]-22alpha-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-O-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1, ophiopogonin F) and (25R)-26-[(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)]-22alpha-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-O-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (2, ophiopogonin G). The rare furostanol saponins with two glucosyl residues at C-26 position were isolated from the natural source for the first time.
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The cytoplasmic domain of influenza M2 protein interacts with caveolin-1.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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The cytoplasmic domain of influenza M2 protein (M2c) consists of 54 amino acid (aa) residues from aa44 to aa97. In this paper, M2c and its deletion mutant M2c(delta47-55) were expressed using prokaryotic expression system. First, glutaraldehyde crosslinking assay showed that M2c had multimerization potential mediated by aa47-55. Then, M2c, instead of M2c(delta47-55), directed eGFP from the whole cell localization to a predominately perinuclear region in CHO cells, which indicated that aa47-55 of M2c mediated the localization. Moreover, M2c colocalized with caveolin-1 (Cav) when CHO cells were cotransfected with Cav. A caveolin-1 binding motif phixxxxphixxphi (phi represents aromatic amino acid residues) in aa47-55 of M2c was found by sequence alignment and analysis. Further overlay ELISA result showed that M2c, but not M2c(delta47-55), bound to prokaryotically expressed cholesterol-free Cav(2-101), which illustrated the interaction could be cholesterol-independent. That was the first report of cellular protein bound to M2c.
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Discovery, characterization and expression of a novel zebrafish gene, znfr, important for notochord formation.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Genes specifically expressed in the notochord may be crucial for proper notochord development. Using the digital differential display program offered by the National Center for Biotechnology Information, we identified a novel EST sequence from a zebrafish ovary library (No. XM_701450). The full-length cDNA of this transcript was cloned by performing 3 and 5-RACE and was further confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The resulting 614 bp gene was found to encode a novel 94 amino acid protein that did not share significant homology with any other known protein. Characterization of the genomic sequence revealed that the gene spanned 4.9 kb and was composed of four exons and three introns. RT-PCR gene expression analysis revealed that our gene of interest was expressed in ovary, kidney, brain, mature oocytes and during the early stages of embryogenesis. During embryonic development, znfr mRNA was found to be expressed in the embryonic shield, chordamesoderm and the vacuolated notochord cells by in situ hybridization. Based on this information, we hypothesize that this novel gene is an important maternal factor required for zebrafish notochord formation during early embryonic development. We have thus named this gene znfr (zebrafish notochord formation related).
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[Role of Radix Platycodi in Tianwang buxinwan decoction analyzed by fingerprints].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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To establish the fingerprints of the active fractions from Tian-wang-bu-xin-wan decoction by HPLC, and to explain the role of Radix Platycodi in the decoction prescription.
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C-terminal domain of SARS-CoV main protease can form a 3D domain-swapped dimer.
Protein Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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SARS coronavirus main protease (M(pro)) plays an essential role in the extensive proteolytic processing of the viral polyproteins (pp1a and pp1ab), and it is an important target for anti-SARS drug development. We have reported that both the M(pro) C-terminal domain alone (M(pro)-C) and the N-finger deletion mutant of M(pro) (M(pro)-Delta7) exist as a stable dimer and a stable monomer (Zhong et al., J Virol 2008; 82:4227-4234). Here, we report structures of both M(pro)-C monomer and dimer. The structure of the M(pro)-C monomer is almost identical to that of the C-terminal domain in the crystal structure of M(pro). Interestingly, the M(pro)-C dimer structure is characterized by 3D domain-swapping, in which the first helices of the two protomers are interchanged and each is enwrapped by four other helices from the other protomer. Each folding subunit of the M(pro)-C domain-swapped dimer still has the same general fold as that of the M(pro)-C monomer. This special dimerization elucidates the structural basis for the observation that there is no exchange between monomeric and dimeric forms of M(pro)-C and M(pro)-Delta7.
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Three new saponins from the fresh rhizomes of Polygonatum kingianum.
Chem. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Further studies on the fresh rhizomes of Polygonatum kingianum led to the isolation of one new spirostanol saponin (25R)-kingianoside G (1), and two pairs mixture of 25R and 25S stereoisomeric spirostanol saponins (25R, S)-pratioside D1 (2a, 2b) and (25R, S)-kingianoside A (3a, 3b), among them 2b and 3b were new spirostanol saponins, together with another two known compounds, disporopsin (4) and daucosterol (5). The structures of the new saponins were determined by detailed analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectra, and chemical evidences.
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