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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mutations in the ABCA3 gene are associated with cataract-microcornea syndrome.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cataract-microcornea syndrome (CCMC) is an autosomal dominant inherited disease characterized by the association of congenital cataract and microcornea without any other systemic anomaly or dysmorphism. Although mutations of several genes have been shown to cause dominant CCMC, in many patients the causative gene has not yet been identified. Our aim was to identify the disease-associated gene in Chinese patients with CCMC.
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Pirenzepine Inhibits Myopia in Guinea Pig Model by Regulating the Balance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 Expression and Increased Tyrosine Hydroxylase Levels.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of pirenzepine in a guinea pig model of myopia induced by exposure to monochromatic light. It was observed that pirenzepine inhibited the increase of diopter and extension of ocular axial length. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in pirenzepine group was significantly higher compared to the other treatment groups pointing to a highly positive correlation between TH expression levels and the diopter and axial length change. RT-PCR analysis further showed that pirenzepine treatment reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and enhanced the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) compared to the other treatment and control groups. To conclude, we demonstrate that pirenzepine may improve the prognosis of monochromatic light-induced myopia in guinea pigs, possibly by both regulating the balance of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in sclera and increasing the TH expression in retina.
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Prognostic value of serum nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase in patients with bladder cancer.
Croat. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Aim. To analyze the serum nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) level and its prognostic value in bladder cancer (BC). Methods. The study included 131 patients with transitional cell BC and 109 healthy controls from the West China Hospital of Sichuan University in the period between 2007 and 2013. Nampt concentration in serum was measured by commercial ELISA kits for human Nampt. Results. The serum Nampt protein level in patients with BC (mean±standard deviation, 16.02±7.95 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in the control group (6.46±2.08 ng/mL) (P<0.001). Serum Nampt level was an independent prognostic marker of non-muscle-invasive BC, with a higher serum Nampt level (>14.74 ng/mL) indicating shorter recurrence-free survival rate (hazard ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval, 1.01-8.06; P=0.048). Conclusion. Our results suggest that serum Nampt level may serve as a biomarker of BC and an independent prognostic marker of non-muscle-invasive BC.
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Association between polymorphisms in AXIN1 gene and atrial septal defect.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Abstract Context: AXIN1 is a central component of Wnt signalling pathway which is essential for embryonic development. Objective: To investigate whether polymorphisms of AXIN1 contribute to ASD susceptibility. Materials and methods: Three tag SNPs (rs12921862, rs370681 and rs1805105) in AXIN1 were genotyped in 208 ASD patients and 302 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in a Chinese population. Results: Significantly increased ASD risk was observed to be associated with the A allele of rs12921862 (p?
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[Ecological risk assessment of land use based on exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA): a case study of Haitan Island, Fujian Province].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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As a novel environment management tool, ecological risk assessment has provided a new perspective for the quantitative evaluation of ecological effects of land-use change. In this study, Haitan Island in Fujian Province was taken as a case. Based on the Landsat TM obtained in 1990, SPOT5 RS images obtained in 2010, general layout planning map of Pingtan Comprehensive Experimental Zone in 2030, as well as the field investigation data, we established an ecological risk index to measure ecological endpoints. By using spatial autocorrelation and semivariance analysis of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA), the ecological risk of Haitan Island under different land-use situations was assessed, including the past (1990), present (2010) and future (2030), and the potential risk and its changing trend were analyzed. The results revealed that the ecological risk index showed obvious scale effect, with strong positive correlation within 3000 meters. High-high (HH) and low-low (LL) aggregations were predominant types in spatial distribution of ecological risk index. The ecological risk index showed significant isotropic characteristics, and its spatial distribution was consistent with Anselin Local Moran I (LISA) distribution during the same period. Dramatic spatial distribution change of each ecological risk area was found among 1990, 2010 and 2030, and the fluctuation trend and amplitude of different ecological risk areas were diverse. The low ecological risk area showed a rise-to-fall trend while the medium and high ecological risk areas showed a fall-to-rise trend. In the planning period, due to intensive anthropogenic disturbance, the high ecological risk area spread throughout the whole region. To reduce the ecological risk in land-use and maintain the regional ecological security, the following ecological risk control strategies could be adopted, i.e., optimizing the spatial pattern of land resources, protecting the key ecoregions and controlling the scale of construction land use.
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Complications and Adverse Effects Associated with Intraoperative Nerve Monitoring During Thyroid Surgery Under General Anesthesia.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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This study covers a large cohort of patients (3,029 cases) who underwent thyroid surgery under intraoperative nerve monitoring (IONM). Most common problems and complications associated with the surgery were identified and analyzed. On the basis of this analysis, we provide some practical advices and suggestions which specialists in the field will find useful in their surgical practice. The data will help in developing clear surgical guidelines for thyroid surgery with IONM and for post-operative follow-up and monitoring.
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[Clinical Analysis of Reduced Conditioning Intensity Allo-HSCT Trentment for Relapsed ETO-positive AML].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was aimed to explore the effect and feasibility of reduced conditioning intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in the treatment of relapsed ETO positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Fifteen cases of relapsed AML received the reducing conditioning intensity allo-HSCT from January 2011 to January 2013 in Beijing Military Command General Hospital. All patients were high-risk type of relapsed or refractory AML, including 10 males and 5 females, aged from 16 to 48 years old with mean age of 32.5 years. Ten cases are HLA-identical matching and other 5 cases are HLA-haploidentical.donors received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) to mobilize the peripheral blood stem cell for transplantation. Conditioning regimen was fludarabine combined with busulfex, cytarabine and cyclophosphamide. The preventive donor's peripheral blood stem cell infusion were performed after 3 months of transplantation, and the toxicity, GVHD and disease-free survival were observed in patients after transplantation. The results showed that all patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution, the average time of neutrophils ? 0.5×10(9)/L and platelets ? 20×10(9)/L were 15.5 d and 16.8 d respectively. Implantation was confirmed by the evidence of 100% donor hematopoiesis. Follow-up to June 2014, with a median follow-up duration of 27.5 months (18-54 months), GVHD occurred in 8 cases of all patients, one died of complication, the other 4 cases died of relapse and the other three patients remained in disease-free survival. The disease-free survival rate of 2-year was 66.7%,the longest disease-free survival time was up to 54 months. It is concluded that the reduced conditioning intensity allo-HSCT is the effective and safe method for relapsed AML with ETO-positive, and it may be chosen as a treatment method for relapsed ETO positive AML patients.
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[Therapeutic Efficacy of Second Allo-HSCT for Aplastic Anemia after Failure of First Allo-HSCT].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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This study was purposed to evaluate the curative efficacy of second allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) after failure of the first allo-HSCT in aplastic anemia patients, the cause of implant failure after allo-HSCT and clinical data of 10 severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients in the second allo-HSCT were retrospectively analyszed. The second HSCT conditioning programs include: cyclophosphamide (CTX) + fludarabine (FLU)+ anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) combination chemotherapy for 3 cases; CTX + FLU + white busulfan (Bu) + ATG combination chemotherapy for 7 cases. The prevention regimen of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) include cyclosporine (CsA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and methotrexate (MTX). The median count of mononuclear cell infusion was 12.17 (5.99-18.12)×10(8)/kg. The CD34(+) cell count was 5.2 (3.8-10.9)×10(6)/kg. The results showed that 10 evaluable patients achieved hematopoietic reconstitution with absolute neutrophil >0.5×10(9)/L, platelets >20×10(9)/L at 15d (8-21d) and 17d (11-27d) after transplantation. The grade I aGVHD occurred in 2 case, grade II in 1 case, chronic GVHD in 3 cases. Transplant-related deaths occurred in 4 cases. The disease-free survival rate, transplant-related mortality, GVHD after transplantation were 60%, 40% and 50% respectively. It is concluded that the second allo-HSCT is an effective therapy for aplastic anemia after allo-HSCT implant failure.
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Agarose-Based Microfluidic Device for Point-of-Care Concentration and Detection of Pathogen.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Preconcentration of pathogens from patient samples represents a great challenge in point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Here, a low-cost, rapid, and portable agarose-based microfluidic device was developed to concentrate biological fluid from micro- to picoliter volume. The microfluidic concentrator consisted of a glass slide simply covered by an agarose layer with a binary tree-shaped microchannel, in which pathogens could be concentrated at the end of the microchannel due to the capillary effect and the strong water permeability of the agarose gel. The fluorescent Escherichia coli strain OP50 was used to demonstrate the capacity of the agarose-based device. Results showed that 90% recovery efficiency could be achieved with a million-fold volume reduction from 400 ?L to 400 pL. For concentration of 1 × 10(3) cells mL(-1) bacteria, approximately ten million-fold enrichment in cell density was realized with volume reduction from 100 ?L to 1.6 pL. Urine and blood plasma samples were further tested to validate the developed method. In conjugation with fluorescence immunoassay, we successfully applied the method to the concentration and detection of infectious Staphylococcus aureus in clinics. The agarose-based microfluidic concentrator provided an efficient approach for POC detection of pathogens.
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Balanced plane-mirror heterodyne interferometer with subnanometer periodic nonlinearity.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A balanced plane-mirror heterodyne interferometer with a polarizing beam splitter used to recombine the reference and measurement beams is proposed to reduce periodic nonlinearity and to eliminate thermal error. Experimental results indicated that the periodic error due to ghost reflection was kept within ±36??pm, and the interferometer proposed was immune from thermal error.
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Effect of Nicorandil in patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It is unclear whether nicorandil, a metabolic therapeutic drug, can be applied clinically to therapy of heart failure (HF). This meta-analysis evaluated therapeutic effects of nicorandil on HF patients. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies evaluating effect of nicorandil on HF patients. Studies were stratified according to controlled versus uncontrolled designs and analyzed using random-effects meta-analysis models. KEY RESULTS: We identified total 20 studies with total 1222 patients. In 5 randomized controlled studies, nicorandil treatment resulted in reduction in all-cause mortality and hospitalization for cardiac causes (HR: 0.35, p<0.001), and improved cardiac pump function (SMD: 0.31, p=0.02). In 15 observational studies, nicorandil therapy increases cardiac pump function (SMD: 0.75, p<0.001), improves NYHA functional class (WMD: -1.33, p<0.001), decreases PCWP (WMD: -6.86mmHg, p<0.001), and pulmonary arterial pressure (SMD: -0.84, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: use of nicorandil in HF patients exerts substantial beneficial effects, suggesting that it may be an additional therapeutic agent for HF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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SERS-Fluorescence Monitored Drug Release of a Redox-Responsive Nanocarrier Based on Graphene Oxide in Tumor Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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A redox-responsive drug carrier based on nanoscale graphene oxide (NGO) loaded with Ag nanoparticles, whose intracellular release behavior can be investigated by SERS-fluorescence combined spectroscopy, is presented. In this demonstrated drug carrier, to make the carrier integrated with the redox responsive property, we utilized disulfide linkages to load drug molecules to the surfaces of NGO directly, which can be cleaved by glutathione (GSH). Covalent drug loading and GSH-responsive release strategy can reduce the influence of the surface diffusion barriers introduced by multifunctionalization. Interestingly, the intracellular real-time drug release dynamics can be monitored by the combined SERS-fluorescence signals of the drugs, while the distribution of the drug carrier can simultaneously be tracked by the intrinsic SERS signals of NGO in the whole process. Our results show that upon the internalization of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanocarriers into living cells, DOX was efficiently released under a GSH regulated reducing environment. Because tumor cells generally exhibit a higher concentration of GSH than normal ones, this drug carrier should have potential in the field of tumor therapy.
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Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection and its Relation with Body Mass Index in a Chinese Population.
Helicobacter
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent worldwide. The association between obesity and H. pylori infection is controversial in the literature. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its relation with body mass index (BMI) in a Chinese population.
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Shenqi Fuzheng Injection () for advanced gastric cancer: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To evaluate the effectiveness of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection (, SFI) combined with chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.
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Tin Sulfide @Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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A nanocomposite of SnS2 nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide (SnS2@RGO) had been successfully synthesized as a substitute conventional Pt counter electrode (CE) in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system. The SnS2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed onto graphene sheets, which formed a nano-sized composite system. The effectiveness of this nanocomposite exhibited remarkable electro-catalytic property on reducing the triiodide, owning to synergetic effect of SnS2 nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheet and the improved conductivity. Consequently, the DSSC equipped with SnS2@RGO nanocomposite CE achieved a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12%, which was higher than those of use SnS2 nanoparticles (5.58%) or graphene sheet alone (3.73%) as CEs, and also comparable to 6.79% obtained with pure Pt CE for a reference.
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Enhanced resistive switching effect upon illumination in self-assembled NiWO4 nano-nests.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The resistive switching effect of devices with metal-oxide-metal structure is a fascinating candidate for next generation nonvolatile memory devices. Here, self-assembled NiWO4 nano-nests on a Ti substrate were synthesized by a hydrothermal process. Moreover, a resistive switching memory device with Ag/NiWO4/Ti structure is demonstrated. The device shows an enhanced bipolar resistive switching effect under white-light illumination. This study is useful for exploring multifunctional materials and their applications in light-controlled nonvolatile memory devices.
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Circulating miR-148a is a significant diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for patients with osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to detect the expression levels of circulating miR-148a in the peripheral blood of osteosarcoma patients and to further investigate the clinicopathological, diagnostic, and prognostic value of miR-148a. Eighty-nine patients with initially diagnosed osteosarcoma who successfully underwent surgical resection were enrolled in this prospective study. The expression levels of circulating miR-148a were detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS 18.0 statistical software to determine the potential values of circulating miR-148a on the clinicopathological factors, diagnosis, and prognosis. The expression levels of circulating miR-148a in osteosarcoma patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (P?
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Downregulation of microRNA-100 correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Dysregulation of microRNA-100 (miR-100) has been shown to be involved in cancer tumorigenesis and progression of several cancer types. However, its expression patterns in tumors are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and clinical significance of miR-100 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR-100 in 138 pairs of human CRC and adjacent normal tissues. The prognostic values of miR-100 in CRC were also analyzed. The results showed that the miR-100 expression was significantly downregulated in CRC tissues when compared to adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). Also, low miR-100 expression was observed to be significantly correlated with larger tumor size (P=0.023), higher incidence of lymph node metastasis (P=0.009), and advanced TNM stage (P=0.016). More importantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CRC patients with low miR-100 expression tended to have shorter overall survival. In multivariate analysis stratified for known prognostic variables, low miR-100 expression was identified as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In conclusion, our data indicated for the first time that the downregulation of miR-100 was associated with advanced clinical features and poor prognosis of CRC patients, suggesting that miR-100 downregulation may serve as an unfavorable prognostic biomarker in CRC.
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Non-polio enteroviruses from acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in Shandong Province, China, 1988-2013.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Enteroviruses (EVs) are important human pathogens associated with various clinical syndromes. This study represents an overview of non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) isolated from acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Shandong Province, China from 1988 to 2013. Altogether 792 and 170 NPEV isolates were isolated from stool specimens of 9263 AFP cases and 1059 contacts, respectively. Complete VP1 sequencing and typing on all 962 isolates revealed 53 NPEV types in which echovirus (E) 6 (7.6%), E14 (7.6%), E11 (7.4%), coxsackievirus (CV) B3 (7.4%), E25 (5.6%), CVB5 (4.9%), E7 (4.5%) and EV-A71 (4.4%) were the eight most commonly reported serotypes. Distinct summer-fall seasonality was observed, with June-October accounting for 79.3% of isolation from AFP cases with known month of specimen collection. Increase of isolation of EV-A71 and CVA--the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease--was observed in recent years. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region of EV-A71 and E6 suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. The results described in this study provide valuable information on the circulation and emergence of different EV types in the context of limited EV surveillance in China.
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The effects of rapamycin on regulatory T cells: Its potential time-dependent role in inducing transplant tolerance.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RAPA) has been used clinically to prevent graft rejection since 1999 because of its suppressive effects on T cell activation and proliferation. Recently, many studies have suggested that RAPA also has the potential to promote tolerance by driving the expansion of naturally occurring regulatory T (Treg) cells, and facilitating the de novo generation of induced Treg cells, which has aroused great interest in its potential ability to promote tolerance after transplantation. However, its effect on Treg cells remains controversial both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we systematically analyzed data on the effects of RAPA from both clinical and basic studies: (1) To compare its clinical effect with calcineurin inhibitors in transplant recipients, and discuss whether its effects on graft survival correlates with its effects on Treg cells. (2) To analyze the effects of RAPA on Treg cells from animal and in vitro studies, and to investigate whether the effects of RAPA on Treg cells was dependent on dosage and timing. (3) To discuss the mechanisms involved and how they might be applied to induce transplant tolerance.
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Association between a functional polymorphism rs712 within let-7-binding site and risk of papillary thyroid cancer.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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KRAS mutation is frequently detected in a series of cancers, including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Recently, a genetic variant of rs712 in the 3' untranslated region of the KRAS gene has been reported to be functional in the regulation of KRAS by disrupting complementary site of let-7 and miR-181. We aimed to investigate whether the polymorphism is a risk factor for PTC. We conducted an association study, including 252 PTC patients and 290 healthy controls. The KRAS rs712 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Although no significant difference of the KRAS rs712 distribution was observed between cases and controls in overall analysis, stratification analysis showed that patients carrying the KRAS rs712TT genotype were less likely to develop stages T3 and T4 under a recessive genetic model (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.82). These results supported the role of the KRAS rs712 polymorphism as a potential genetic biomarker for the extension of PTC. Further population-based association studies are of great value to confirm the results in diverse ethnicities.
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A wide range optical pH sensor for living cells using Au@Ag nanoparticles functionalized carbon nanotubes based on SERS signals.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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p-Aminothiophenol (pATP) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been demonstrated as an efficient pH sensor for living cells. The proposed sensor employs gold/silver core-shell nanoparticles (Au@Ag NPs) functionalized MWCNTs hybrid structure as the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and pATP molecules as the SERS reporters, which possess a pH-dependent SERS performance. By using MWCNTs as the substrate to be in a state of aggregation, the pH sensing range could be extended to pH 3.0?14.0, which is much wider than that using unaggregated Au@Ag NPs without MWCNTs. Furthermore, the pH-sensitive performance was well retained in living cells with a low cytotoxicity. The developed SERS-active MWCNTs-based nanocomposite is expected to be an efficient intracellular pH sensor for bio-applications.
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Dosage Effect of Rocuronium on Intraoperative Neuromonitoring in Patients Undergoing Thyroid Surgery.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The effect of different concentrations of rocuronium bromide used for anesthesia induction during thyroid surgery on the intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring was evaluated. One hundred patients undergoing thyroid operation were randomized into five groups (20 patients per group). Patients in group I were operated and monitored without the use of rocuronium bromide. Patients in groups II-V were respectively injected with 0.5x, 1x, 1.5x, and 2x ED95 rocuronium bromide intravenously. The time from injecting the rocuronium bromide to the beginning of tube insertion was recorded, the conditions of tracheal intubation were evaluated, and the changes in blood pressure and pulse during the intubation process were monitored. Vagus nerve/recurrent laryngeal nerve evoked muscle potential was monitored using the NIM-Response3.0 nerve electromyography monitor. The amplitude of electromyography signal was recorded every 5 min during 30 min after successful tracheal intubation. The tracheal intubation success rate was 100 % in all groups. Compared with group I, intubating condition scores (Cooper scores) in the patients of groups II-V were higher (P < 0.05). The stability of intraoperative neuromonitoring signal amplitude in groups I-III met the monitoring standards. The findings suggest that the use of 0.5x or 1x ED95 rocuronium bromide during the anesthesia induction can improve the tracheal tube conditions without affecting the intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve monitoring. The use of 1x ED95 rocuronium bromide induction was associated with the best results.
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Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Reaumuria soongorica.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and potential genetic resources for arid agronomy, it is important to analyze gene function. However, systematic evaluation of stable reference genes should be performed prior to such analyses. In this study, the stabilities of 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed under 4 kinds of abiotic stresses (drought, salt, dark, and heat) within 4 accessions (HG010, HG020, XGG030, and XGG040) from 2 different habitats using 3 algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). After validation of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (rbcL) expression pattern, our data suggested that histone H2A (H2A) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-2 (EIF4A2) were the most stable reference genes, cyclophilin (CYCL) was moderate, and elongation factor 1? (EF1?) was the worst choice. This first systematic analysis for stably expressed genes will facilitate future functional analyses and deep mining of genetic resources in R. soongorica and other species of the Reaumuria genus.
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Fabrication of Ultralong Hybrid Microfibers from Nanosheets of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides and their Application as Supercapacitors.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Two-dimensional materials have attracted increasing research interest owing to their unique electronic, physical, optical, and mechanical properties. We thus developed a general strategy for the fabrication of ultralong hybrid microfibers from a mixture of reduced graphene oxide and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including MoS2 , TiS2 , TaS2 , and NbSe2 . Furthermore, we prepared fiber-based solid-state supercapacitors as a proof-of-concept application. The performance of thus-prepared supercapacitors was greatly improved by the introduction of the TMDs.
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Rapid simultaneous detection of multi-pesticide residues on apple using SERS technique.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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A rapid and straightforward method has been employed to simultaneously detect two pesticides (thiram and methamidophos (MTD)) on apple surface using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. In the experiment, ethanol was dropped onto the contaminated apple surface for pesticide extraction and then gold@silver core-shell nanorods (Au@Ag NRs) were added to generate the SERS signals of the pesticides. Under a laser excitation at 632.8 nm, prominent SERS peaks of blended contaminants were observed, which were chosen to characterize and quantify their concentration. It was found that the SERS intensity of these two peaks changed as a function of the concentration ratio of thiram to MTD. In addition, a better SERS enhancement performance of Au@Ag NRs was demonstrated compared with that of gold nanorods. Our experimental results show that the lowest detectable concentration on apple surfaces is ?4.6 × 10(-7) M for thiram and ?4.4 × 10(-4) M for MTD. This study provides a straightforward method for the simultaneous detection of multiple pesticides on fruit surfaces, which is important for food safety and human health.
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FTO genetic variants, dietary intake and body mass index: insights from 177 330 individuals.
Qibin Qi, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Mary K Downer, Toshiko Tanaka, Caren E Smith, Ivonne Sluijs, Emily Sonestedt, Audrey Y Chu, Frida Renstrom, Xiaochen Lin, Lars H Angquist, Jinyan Huang, Zhonghua Liu, Yanping Li, Muhammad Asif Ali, Min Xu, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Jolanda M A Boer, Peng Chen, Makoto Daimon, Johan Eriksson, Markus Perola, Yechiel Friedlander, Yu-Tang Gao, Denise H M Heppe, John W Holloway, Denise K Houston, Stavroula Kanoni, Yu-Mi Kim, Maarit A Laaksonen, Tiina Jääskeläinen, Nanette R Lee, Terho Lehtimäki, Rozenn N Lemaitre, Wei Lu, Robert N Luben, Ani Manichaikul, Satu Mannisto, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Keri L Monda, Julius S Ngwa, Louis Pérusse, Frank J A van Rooij, Yong-Bing Xiang, Wanqing Wen, Mary K Wojczynski, Jingwen Zhu, Ingrid B Borecki, Claude Bouchard, Qiuyin Cai, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Luigi Ferrucci, Nita G Forouhi, Torben Hansen, Lene Christiansen, Albert Hofman, Ingegerd Johansson, Torben Jørgensen, Shigeru Karasawa, Kay-Tee Khaw, Mi-Kyung Kim, Kati Kristiansson, Huaixing Li, Xu Lin, Yongmei Liu, Kurt K Lohman, Jirong Long, Vera Mikkilä, Dariush Mozaffarian, Kari North, Oluf Pedersen, Olli Raitakari, Harri Rissanen, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Yvonne T van der Schouw, André G Uitterlinden, M Carola Zillikens, Oscar H Franco, E Shyong Tai, Xiao Ou Shu, David S Siscovick, Ulla Toft, W M Monique Verschuren, Peter Vollenweider, Nicholas J Wareham, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Wei Zheng, Paul M Ridker, Jae H Kang, Liming Liang, Majken K Jensen, Gary C Curhan, Louis R Pasquale, David J Hunter, Karen L Mohlke, Matti Uusitupa, L Adrienne Cupples, Tuomo Rankinen, Marju Orho-Melander, Tao Wang, Daniel I Chasman, Paul W Franks, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Frank B Hu, Ruth J F Loos, Jennifer A Nettleton, Lu Qi.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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FTO is the strongest known genetic susceptibility locus for obesity. Experimental studies in animals suggest the potential roles of FTO in regulating food intake. The interactive relation among FTO variants, dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) is complex and results from previous often small-scale studies in humans are highly inconsistent. We performed large-scale analyses based on data from 177 330 adults (154 439 Whites, 5776 African Americans and 17 115 Asians) from 40 studies to examine: (i) the association between the FTO-rs9939609 variant (or a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism) and total energy and macronutrient intake and (ii) the interaction between the FTO variant and dietary intake on BMI. The minor allele (A-allele) of the FTO-rs9939609 variant was associated with higher BMI in Whites (effect per allele = 0.34 [0.31, 0.37] kg/m(2), P = 1.9 × 10(-105)), and all participants (0.30 [0.30, 0.35] kg/m(2), P = 3.6 × 10(-107)). The BMI-increasing allele of the FTO variant showed a significant association with higher dietary protein intake (effect per allele = 0.08 [0.06, 0.10] %, P = 2.4 × 10(-16)), and relative weak associations with lower total energy intake (-6.4 [-10.1, -2.6] kcal/day, P = 0.001) and lower dietary carbohydrate intake (-0.07 [-0.11, -0.02] %, P = 0.004). The associations with protein (P = 7.5 × 10(-9)) and total energy (P = 0.002) were attenuated but remained significant after adjustment for BMI. We did not find significant interactions between the FTO variant and dietary intake of total energy, protein, carbohydrate or fat on BMI. Our findings suggest a positive association between the BMI-increasing allele of FTO variant and higher dietary protein intake and offer insight into potential link between FTO, dietary protein intake and adiposity.
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A large dipole moment to promote gelation for 4-nitrophenylacrylonitrile derivatives with gelation-induced emission enhancement properties.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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A series of 4-nitrophenylacrylonitrile and phenylacrylonitrile derivatives consisting of a carbazole moiety was synthesized. Some of these derivatives with longer alkyl chains and a nitro group could gelatinize some organic solvents, such as ethanol, n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and DMSO. By contrast, phenylacrylonitrile derivatives did not form gels in measured solvents. This result proved that the electron-withdrawing nitro moiety was important for gel formation because it conferred the molecules with large dipole moments, which enhanced the intermolecular interaction. Analyses by UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy showed that the gelator molecules could self-assemble into one-dimensional nanofibers with layer packing, which further twisted into thicker fibers and formed three-dimensional networks in the gel phase. The single crystal structure of C4CNPA implied that the gelators might adopt an anti-parallel molecular stacking because of their larger ground-state dipole moment. Interestingly, the organogels had enhanced fluorescence relative to solutions at the same concentrations.
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The first measles outbreak caused by imported genotype D9 measles virus in Shandong Province, China, 2013.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This study represents a measles outbreak caused by the genotype D9 measles virus (MeV), which was imported by Burmese individuals. Urine and throat swab specimens were collected from suspected measles cases. Viruses were isolated, and a 634-bp target fragment of the N gene was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR and sequenced. Phylogenetic results indicated that the 6 isolates belonged to genotype D9 MeV. Through appropriate prevention and control measures, the transmission of genotype D9 MeV was interrupted. Genotype D9 MeV was isolated for the first time in Shandong and was imported by Burmese individuals.
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[Risk factors of schistosomiasis cirrhosis esophageal varices bleeding].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To explore the risk factors of schistosomiasis cirrhosis esophageal varices hemorrhage.
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Crystal structure of DnaT84-153-dT10 ssDNA complex reveals a novel single-stranded DNA binding mode.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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DnaT is a primosomal protein that is required for the stalled replication fork restart in Escherichia coli. As an adapter, DnaT mediates the PriA-PriB-ssDNA ternary complex and the DnaB/C complex. However, the fundamental function of DnaT during PriA-dependent primosome assembly is still a black box. Here, we report the 2.83 Å DnaT(84-153)-dT10 ssDNA complex structure, which reveals a novel three-helix bundle single-stranded DNA binding mode. Based on binding assays and negative-staining electron microscopy results, we found that DnaT can bind to phiX 174 ssDNA to form nucleoprotein filaments for the first time, which indicates that DnaT might function as a scaffold protein during the PriA-dependent primosome assembly. In combination with biochemical analysis, we propose a cooperative mechanism for the binding of DnaT to ssDNA and a possible model for the assembly of PriA-PriB-ssDNA-DnaT complex that sheds light on the function of DnaT during the primosome assembly and stalled replication fork restart. This report presents the first structure of the DnaT C-terminal complex with ssDNA and a novel model that explains the interactions between the three-helix bundle and ssDNA.
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Meta-analysis of drug-eluting versus bare metal stents in patients with indications for oral anticoagulation undergoing coronary stenting.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Current expert consensus recommends the use of bare metal stent (BMS) for patients with an indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing coronary stenting. The use of drug-eluting stents (DES) should be limited. However, there is a lack of evidence to support these recommendations. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of DES to BMS in these patients.
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Polymorphism -433 C>T of the Osteopontin Gene is Associated with the Susceptibility to Develop Gliomas and their Prognosis in a Chinese Cohort.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To investigate role of the Osteopontin (OPN) genetic polymorphisms in the susceptibility to gliomas and their prognosis.
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Curvature of the localized surface plasmon resonance peak.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) occurring in noble metal nanoparticles (e.g., Au) is a widely used phenomenon to report molecular interactions. Traditional LSPR sensors typically monitor shifts in the peak position or extinction in response to local refractive index changes in the close vicinity of the nanoparticle surface. The ability to resolve minute shifts/extinction changes is to a large extent limited by instrumental noise. A new strategy to evaluate LSPR responses utilizing changes in the shape of the extinction spectrum (the curvature) is proposed. The response of curvature to refractive index changes is investigated theoretically using Mie theory and an analytical expression relating the curvature to the refractive index is presented. The experimentally derived curvatures for 13 nm spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) exposed to solvents with different bulk refractive indices confirm the theoretical predictions. Moreover, both the calculated and experimental findings suggest that the curvature is approximately a linear function of refractive index in regimes relevant to bio and chemical sensing. We demonstrate that curvature is superior over peak shift and extinction both in terms of signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and reliability of LSPR sensors. With a curvature, one could readily monitor submonolayer adsorption of a low molecular weight thiol molecule (M(w) = 458.6) onto 13 nm AuNPs. It is also worthwhile mentioning that curvature is virtually insensitive to instrumental instabilities and artifacts occurring during measurement. Instabilities such as baseline tilt and shift, shift in peak position as well as sharp spikes/steps in the extinction spectra do not induce artifacts in the sensorgrams of curvature.
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Characterizing the genetic differences between two distinct migrant groups from Indo-European and Dravidian speaking populations in India.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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India is home to many ethnically and linguistically diverse populations. It is hypothesized that history of invasions by people from Persia and Central Asia, who are referred as Aryans in Hindu Holy Scriptures, had a defining role in shaping the Indian population canvas. A shift in spoken languages from Dravidian languages to Indo-European languages around 1500 B.C. is central to the Aryan Invasion Theory. Here we investigate the genetic differences between two sub-populations of India consisting of: (1) The Indo-European language speaking Gujarati Indians with genome-wide data from the International HapMap Project; and (2) the Dravidian language speaking Tamil Indians with genome-wide data from the Singapore Genome Variation Project.
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Identification of prohibitin as an antigen in Behcet's disease.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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This study is intended to screen potential antigen for Behcet's disease (BD) by using human microvascular endothelial cells (HUVEC).
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Multiple correlations of mRNA expression and protein abundance in human cytokine profile.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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With the development of genomic study, researchers found that it is insufficient to predict protein expression from quantitative mRNA data in large scale, which is contrary to the traditional opinion that mRNA expression correlates with protein abundance at the single gene level. To try to solve the apparent conflicting views, here we set up a series of research models and chose soluble cytokines as targets. First, human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from one health donor was treated with 16 continuously changing conditions, the protein and mRNA profile were analyzed by multiplex Luminex and genomic microarray, respectively. Among the tested genes, around half mRNA correlated well with their corresponding proteins (? > 0.8), however if we put all the genes together, the correlation coefficient for the 16 conditions varied from 0.29 to 0.71. Second, PBMC from 14 healthy donors were stimulated with the same condition and it was found that the correlation coefficient went down (? < 0.6). Third, 28 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were tested for their response to the same external stimuli and it turned out different individual displayed different protein expression pattern as expect. Lastly, autoimmune disease cohorts (8 diseases including RA, 103 patients in total) were assayed on the whole view. It was observed that there was still some similarity in the protein profile among patients from the single disease type although completely different patterns were displayed across different disease categories. This study built a good bridge between single gene analysis and the whole genome study and may give a reasonable explanation for the two conflicting views in current biological science.
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Evaluation of resident evacuations in urban rainstorm waterlogging disasters based on scenario simulation: Daoli district (Harbin, China) as an example.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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With the acceleration of urbanization, waterlogging has become an increasingly serious issue. Road waterlogging has a great influence on residents' travel and traffic safety. Thus, evaluation of residents' travel difficulties caused by rainstorm waterlogging disasters is of great significance for their travel safety and emergency shelter needs. This study investigated urban rainstorm waterlogging disasters, evaluating the impact of the evolution of such disasters' evolution on residents' evacuation, using Daoli District (Harbin, China) as the research demonstration area to perform empirical research using a combination of scenario simulations, questionnaires, GIS spatial technology analysis and a hydrodynamics method to establish an urban rainstorm waterlogging numerical simulation model. The results show that under the conditions of a 10-year frequency rainstorm, there are three street sections in the study area with a high difficulty index, five street sections with medium difficulty index and the index is low at other districts, while under the conditions of a 50-year frequency rainstorm, there are five street sections with a high difficulty index, nine street sections with a medium difficulty index and the other districts all have a low index. These research results can help set the foundation for further small-scale urban rainstorm waterlogging disaster scenario simulations and emergency shelter planning as well as forecasting and warning, and provide a brand-new thought and research method for research on residents' safe travel.
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Formation of white oxide layer on Zr-14Nb alloy using thermal treatment.
Dent Mater J
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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This study aimed to develop a novel abutment material with good esthetic and mechanical properties by producing a white oxide layer on a zirconium-14 mass% niobium (Zr-14Nb) alloy substrate using a thermal oxidation process. Oxidation temperatures ranged 700-1000°C and oxidation time ranged 30-180 min. The color of the oxide layer varied depending on temperature and time. A white oxide layer was obtained under appropriate conditions. The oxide layer thickness increased with increased temperature and time, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the oxide layer was predominantly monoclinic ZrO2, tetragonal ZrO2, and Nb2O5. The oxide layer revealed good abrasion resistance and high adhesion to the substrate. This novel process for producing white materials with good mechanical properties will be useful for abutments and prostheses in dental implant treatment.
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Phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles confined in carbon nanorods for High Performance Supercapacitors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A facile and phase-controlled synthesis of ?-NiS nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in carbon nanorods (CRs) is reported by in-situ sulfurating the preformed Ni/CRs. The nanopore confinement by the carbon matrix is essential for the formation of ?-NiS and preventing its transition to ?-phase, which is in strong contrast to large aggregated ?-NiS particles grown freely without the confinement of CRs. When used as electrochemical electrode, the hybrid electrochemical charge storage of the ultrasmall ?-NiS nanoparticels dispersed in CRs is benefit for the high capacitor (1092, 946, 835, 740?F g(-1) at current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10?A g(-1), respectively.). While the high electrochemical stability (approximately 100% retention of specific capacitance after 2000 charge/discharge cycles) is attributed to the supercapacitor-battery electrode, which makes synergistic effect of capacitor (CRs) and battery (NiS NPs) components rather than a merely additive composite. This work not only suggests a general approach for phase-controlled synthesis of nickel sulfide but also opens the door to the rational design and fabrication of novel nickel-based/carbon hybrid supercapacitor-battery electrode materials.
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Disease-specific survival after radical lymphadenectomy for penile cancer: prediction by lymph node count and density.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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To investigate the value of removed lymph node (LN) count and LN density (LND) for predicting disease-specific survival (DSS) rate following radical lymphadenectomy in patients with penile cancer.
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Chloride-bridged, defect-dicubane {Ln4} core clusters: syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Three chloride-bridged lanthanide compounds, [Ln4Cl6(CH3OH)12(OH)2]·4Cl·2CH3OH [Ln = Gd (), Dy () and Er ()], have been unexpectedly isolated by the reactions of LnCl3·6H2O and N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-(phenylene-diamine) (H2L). X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals a triclinic cell with a unique defect-dicubane {Ln4} core and the structure across this series is nominally isomorphic. Measurements of direct current magnetic susceptibility and isothermal magnetization give insight into the relevant cluster Hamiltonians for , , and , and alternating current susceptibility shows slow relaxation in , but not in or down to 2 K and up to 1 kHz.
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CMPK1 and RBP3 are associated with corneal curvature in Asian populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Corneal curvature (CC) measures the steepness of the cornea and is an important parameter for clinically diseases such as astigmatism and myopia. Despite the high heritability of CC, only two associated genes have been discovered to date. We performed a three-stage genome-wide association study meta-analysis in 12 660 Asian individuals. Our Stage 1 was done in multiethnic cohorts comprising 7440 individuals, followed by a Stage 2 replication in 2473 Chinese and Stage 3 in 2747 Japanese. The SNP array genotype data were imputed up to the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 cosmopolitan panel. The SNP association with the radii of CC was investigated in the linear regression model with the adjustment of age, gender and principal components. In addition to the known genes, MTOR (also known as FRAP1) and PDGFRA, we discovered two novel genes associated with CC: CMPK1 (rs17103186, P = 3.3 × 10(-12)) and RBP3 (rs11204213 [Val884Met], P = 1.1 × 10(-13)). The missense RBP3 SNP, rs11204213, was also associated with axial length (AL) (P = 4.2 × 10(-6)) and had larger effects on both CC and AL compared with other SNPs. The index SNPs at the four indicated loci explained 1.9% of CC variance across the Stages 1 and 2 cohorts, while 33.8% of CC variance was explained by the genome-wide imputation data. We identified two novel genes influencing CC, which are related to either corneal shape or eye size. This study provides additional insights into genetic architecture of corneal shape.
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Heteroatom-doped graphene materials: syntheses, properties and applications.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Heteroatom doping can endow graphene with various new or improved electromagnetic, physicochemical, optical, and structural properties. This greatly extends the arsenal of graphene materials and their potential for a spectrum of applications. Considering the latest developments, we comprehensively and critically discuss the syntheses, properties and emerging applications of the growing family of heteroatom-doped graphene materials. The advantages, disadvantages, and preferential doping features of current synthesis approaches are compared, aiming to provide clues for developing new and controllable synthetic routes. We emphasize the distinct properties resulting from various dopants, different doping levels and configurations, and synergistic effects from co-dopants, hoping to assist a better understanding of doped graphene materials. The mechanisms underlying their advantageous uses for energy storage, energy conversion, sensing, and gas storage are highlighted, aiming to stimulate more competent applications.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in multiethnic Asians identifies two loci for age-related nuclear cataract.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Age-related cataract is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, especially in developing countries where access to cataract surgery remains limited. Previous linkage and candidate gene studies suggested genetic influences on age-related nuclear cataract but few genetic markers have been identified thus far. We conducted genome-wide association studies on 4569 Asians (including 2369 Malays and 2200 Indians), and replicated our analysis in 2481 Chinese from two independent cohorts (1768 Chinese in Singapore and 803 Chinese in Beijing). We confirmed two genome-wide significant loci for nuclear cataract in the combined meta-analysis of four cohorts (n = 7140). The first locus was at chromosome 3q25.31 in KCNAB1 (rs7615568, fixed-effect Pmeta = 2.30 × 10(-8); random-effect Pmeta = 1.08 × 10(-8)). The second locus was at chromosome 21 in the proximity of CRYAA (rs11911275, fixed-effect Pmeta = 2.77 × 10(-8); random-effect Pmeta = 1.98 × 10(-9)), a major protein component of eye lens. The findings were further supported by up-regulation and down-regulation of KCNAB1 and CRYAA in human lens capsule, respectively, as the severity of nuclear cataract increases. The results offer additional insights into the pathogenesis of nuclear cataract in Asians.
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Ag@4ATP-coated liposomes: SERS traceable delivery vehicles for living cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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A liposome-Ag nanohybrid has been demonstrated as a SERS traceable intracellular drug nanocarrier. Liposomes have been introduced for their special qualities in drug delivery systems. In essence, 4-aminothiophenol (4ATP) tagged Ag nanoparticles (Ag@4ATP) were adsorbed onto the surfaces of liposomes via electrostatic interactions, in which 4ATP was used as a SERS reporter. In such a nanohybrid, the locations of the carrier can be tracked by SERS signals while those of the drugs can be monitored through their fluorescence, allowing the simultaneous investigation of the intracellular distribution of both the carriers and the drugs. Our experimental results suggest that the reported liposomal system has substantial potential for intracellular drug delivery.
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[Research progress in human enterovirus recombination].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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Complex genetic variation has been known to occur during the transmission of human enterovirus (HEV), and the HEV virulence and pathogenicity enhanced by genetic recombination also pose a serious threat to human health. In recent years, the interest in recombination mechanism of genetic plasticity has been renewed with the emergence of pathogenic recombinant circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, which were implicated in poliomyelitis outbreaks in several regions of the world with insufficient vaccination coverage. This paper reviews recent research progress in HEV genome, including evolutionary characteristics, recombination types, and in vitro recombinant construction.
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Clinicopathologic features and prognostic implications of NOK/STYK1 protein expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The expression of novel oncogenic kinase (NOK), a member of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) family, has been observed in several human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the clinic relevance of NOK expression in NSCLC remains unclear.
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Free-standing electrochemical electrode based on Ni(OH)2/3D graphene foam for nonenzymatic glucose detection.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Three-dimensional graphene foam (3DGF) is a superior sensing material because of its high conductivity, large specific surface area and wide electrochemical potential windows. In this work, hexagonal Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are deposited on the surface of chemical vapor deposition-grown 3DGF through a facial hydrothermal process without any auxiliary reagents. The morphology and structure of the composite are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Based on the Ni(OH)2/3DGF composite, a free-standing electrochemical electrode is fabricated. Being employed as a nonenzymatic glucose detection electrochemical electrode, it exhibits a high sensitivity (?2.65 mA mM(-1) cm(-2)), low detection limit (0.34 ?M) and excellent selectivity with a linear response from 1 ?M to 1.17 mM. The excellent sensing properties of the Ni(OH)2/3DGF electrode may be attributed to the synergistic effect of the high electrocatalytic activity of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets and the high conductivity and large surface area of 3DGF.
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RUNX3 is inactivated by promoter hypermethylation in malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of epigenetic inactivation of the runt-related transcription factor 3 gene (RUNX3) in the malignant transformation of ovarian endometriosis. Samples obtained by microdissection and scraping included 30 malignant ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 30 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis-associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC) group, 19 benign ovarian endometriotic cyst tissues and 22 corresponding eutopic endometrium tissues from the endometriosis (EM) group and 22 normal eutopic endometrium tissues from the control endometrium (CE) group. RUNX3 methylation status was determined by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing, while levels of RUNX3 and ER? protein expression were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the benign ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EM group. The percentage of RUNX3 methylation and negative RUNX3 protein expression in the eutopic endometrium from the EAOC group was significantly higher than that in the EM and CE groups. An inverse correlation between positive RUNX3 protein expression and methylation was observed and a positive correlation was shown between RUNX3 methylation and ER? protein expression. In the malignant ovarian endometriotic cysts from the EAOC group, there was no significant correlation between methylation frequency of the RUNX3 gene and histological type. However, the percentage of RUNX3 gene methylation was significantly higher in the tissue samples from patients with surgical stage IC EAOC than the percentage in patients with stage IA and IB disease. These results suggest that RUNX3 inactivation by promoter hypermethylation plays a role in the progression of malignant transformation of ovarian EM and is closely related to estrogen metabolism. Negative protein expression and abnormal RUNX3 methylation in the eutopic endometrium could be used as diagnostic markers in patients with ovarian EM who may be at an increased risk of developing EAOC.
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Supplementation of Saturated Long-chain Fatty Acids Maintains Intestinal Eubiosis and Reduces Ethanol-induced Liver Injury in Mice.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of mortality. Chronic alcohol consumption is accompanied by intestinal dysbiosis, and development of alcoholic liver disease requires gut-derived bacterial products. However, little is known about how alterations to the microbiome contribute to pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease.
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Novel ¹?F-labeled dibenzylideneacetone derivatives as potential positron emission tomography probes for in vivo imaging of ?-amyloid plaques.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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A series of dibenzylideneacetones were synthesized and evaluated as imaging probes for ?-amyloid plaques. They displayed high binding affinity to A?(1-42) aggregates (K(i) = 6.4 for 8, K(i) = 3.0 for 9), and the high binding were confirmed by in vitro autoradiography with AD human and transgenic mouse brain sections. Two of them were selected for (18)F-labeling directly on the benzene ring. In biodistribution experiments, [(18)F]8 and [(18)F]9 displayed high initial uptakes (9.29 ± 0.41 and 5.38 ± 0.68% ID/g) and rapid washouts from the normal brain (brain(2 min)/brain(60 min) ratios of 21.6 and 13.4). These preliminary results suggest that [(18)F]8 and [(18)F]9 may be used as potential PET imaging agents for the detection of A? plaques in the brain.
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Comparative ecophysiological study of salt stress for wild and cultivated soybean species from the Yellow River Delta, China.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Osmotic and ionic stresses were the primary and instant damage produced by salt stress. They can also bring about other secondary stresses. Soybean is an important economic crop and the wild soybean aroused increasing attention for its excellent performance in salt resistance. For this reason, we compared the different performances of Glycine max L. (ZH13) and Glycine soja L. (BB52) in both young and mature seedlings, hoping to clarify the specific reasons. Our research revealed that, compared to the cultivated soybean, the wild soybean was able to maintain higher water potential and relative water content (RWC), accumulate more amount of proline and glycine betaine, reduce the contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) by faster efflux, and cut down the efflux of the K(+) as well as keep higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio. And what is more is that, almost all the excel behaviors became particularly obvious under higher NaCl concentration (300 mM). Therefore, according to all the detections and comparisons, we concluded that the wild soybean had different tolerance mechanisms and better salt resistance. It should be used as eminent germplasm resource to enhance the resistant ability of cultivated soybean or even other crops.
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Ubiquitylation of autophagy receptor Optineurin by HACE1 activates selective autophagy for tumor suppression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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In selective autophagy, receptors are central for cargo selection and delivery. However, it remains yet unclear whether and how multiple autophagy receptors might form complex and function concertedly to control autophagy. Optineurin (OPTN), implicated genetically in glaucoma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was a recently identified autophagy receptor. Here we report that tumor-suppressor HACE1, a ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitylates OPTN and promotes its interaction with p62/SQSTM1 to form the autophagy receptor complex, thus accelerating autophagic flux. Interestingly, the Lys48-linked polyubiquitin chains that HACE1 conjugates onto OPTN might predominantly target OPTN for autophagic degradation. By demonstrating that the HACE1-OPTN axis synergistically suppresses growth and tumorigenicity of lung cancer cells, our findings may open an avenue for developing autophagy-targeted therapeutic intervention into cancer.
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Estrogen-related receptor alpha confers methotrexate resistance via attenuation of reactive oxygen species production and P53 mediated apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant tumor mainly occurring in children and adolescents. Methotrexate (MTX), a chemotherapy agent, is widely used in treating OS. However, treatment failures are common due to acquired chemoresistance, for which the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, we report that overexpression of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERR ? ), an orphan nuclear receptor, promoted cell survival and blocked MTX-induced cell death in U2OS cells. We showed that MTX induced ROS production in MTX-sensitive U2OS cells while ERR ? effectively blocked the ROS production and ROS associated cell apoptosis. Our further studies demonstrated that ERR ? suppressed ROS induction of tumor suppressor P53 and its target genes NOXA and XAF1 which are mediators of P53-dependent apoptosis. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ERR ? plays an important role in the development of MTX resistance through blocking MTX-induced ROS production and attenuating the activation of p53 mediated apoptosis signaling pathway, and points to ERR ? as a novel target for improving osteosarcoma therapy.
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Dysbiosis-induced intestinal inflammation activates TNFRI and mediates alcoholic liver disease in mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Intestinal barrier dysfunction is an important contributor to alcoholic liver disease. Translocated microbial products trigger an inflammatory response in the liver and contribute to steatohepatitis. Our aim was to investigate mechanisms of barrier disruption following chronic alcohol feeding. A Lieber-DeCarli model was used to induce intestinal dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability and liver disease in mice. Alcohol feeding for 8 weeks induced intestinal inflammation in the jejunum, which is characterized by an increased number of TNF? producing monocytes and macrophages. These findings were confirmed in duodenal biopsies from patients with chronic alcohol abuse. Intestinal decontamination with non-absorbable antibiotics restored eubiosis, decreased intestinal inflammation and permeability, and reduced alcoholic liver disease in mice. TNF-receptor I (TNFRI) mutant mice were protected from intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease. To investigate whether TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells mediates intestinal barrier dysfunction and alcoholic liver disease, we used TNFRI mutant mice carrying a conditional gain-of-function allele for this receptor. Reactivation of TNFRI on intestinal epithelial cells resulted in increased intestinal permeability and liver disease that is similar to wild type mice after alcohol feeding, suggesting that enteric TNFRI promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a downstream target of TNF? and was phosphorylated in intestinal epithelial cells following alcohol administration. Using MLCK deficient mice, we further demonstrate a partial contribution of MLCK to intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver disease following chronic alcohol feeding. In conclusion, dysbiosis-induced intestinal inflammation and TNFRI signaling on intestinal epithelial cells are mediating a disruption of the intestinal barrier. Therefore, intestinal TNFRI is a crucial mediator of alcoholic liver disease. (Hepatology 2014).
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Band-gap manipulations of monolayer graphene by phenyl radical adsorptions: a density functional theory study.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Phenyl radical (Ph?) adsorption on monolayer graphene sheets is used to investigate the band-gap manipulation of graphene through density functional theory. Adsorption of a single Ph? on graphene breaks the aromatic ?-bond and generates an unpaired electron, which is delocalized to the ortho or para position. Adsorption of a second radical at the ortho or para position saturates the radical by electron pairing and results in semiconducting graphene. Adsorption of a second radical at the ortho position (ortho-ortho pairing) is found to be more favorable than adsorption at the para position (ortho-para pairing), and the ortho-ortho pairing has stronger effects on band-gap opening compared with ortho-para pairing. Adsorption of even numbers of Ph? on graphene by ortho-ortho and ortho-para pairings, in general, increases the band gap. Our study shows promise of band-gap manipulation in monolayer graphene by Ph? adsorption, leading to potential wider applications of graphene.
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Gene-age interactions in blood pressure regulation: a large-scale investigation with the CHARGE, Global BPgen, and ICBP Consortia.
Jeannette Simino, Gang Shi, Joshua C Bis, Daniel I Chasman, Georg B Ehret, Xiangjun Gu, Xiuqing Guo, Shih-Jen Hwang, Eric Sijbrands, Albert V Smith, Germaine C Verwoert, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Gemma Cadby, Peng Chen, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tanguy Corre, Rudolf A de Boer, Anuj Goel, Toby Johnson, Chiea-Chuen Khor, , Carla Lluis-Ganella, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Ilja M Nolte, Xueling Sim, Siim Sõber, Peter J van der Most, Niek Verweij, Jing Hua Zhao, Najaf Amin, Eric Boerwinkle, Claude Bouchard, Abbas Dehghan, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Roberto Elosua, Oscar H Franco, Christian Gieger, Tamara B Harris, Serge Hercberg, Albert Hofman, Alan L James, Andrew D Johnson, Mika Kähönen, Kay-Tee Khaw, Zoltan Kutalik, Martin G Larson, Lenore J Launer, Guo Li, Jianjun Liu, Kiang Liu, Alanna C Morrison, Gerjan Navis, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, George J Papanicolau, Brenda W Penninx, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie J Raffel, Olli T Raitakari, Kenneth Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Lynda M Rose, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, David S Siscovick, Ronald P Stolk, André G Uitterlinden, Dhananjay Vaidya, Melanie M van der Klauw, Ramachandran S Vasan, Eranga Nishanthie Vithana, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Hugh Watkins, Terri L Young, Tin Aung, Murielle Bochud, Martin Farrall, Catharina A Hartman, Maris Laan, Edward G Lakatta, Terho Lehtimäki, Ruth J F Loos, Gavin Lucas, Pierre Meneton, Lyle J Palmer, Rainer Rettig, Harold Snieder, E Shyong Tai, Yik-Ying Teo, Pim van der Harst, Nicholas J Wareham, Cisca Wijmenga, Tien Yin Wong, Myriam Fornage, Vilmundur Gudnason, Daniel Levy, Walter Palmas, Paul M Ridker, Jerome I Rotter, Cornelia M van Duijn, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aravinda Chakravarti, Dabeeru C Rao.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Although age-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported, they have not been systematically investigated in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs). We leveraged the infrastructure of three well-established consortia (CHARGE, GBPgen, and ICBP) and a nonstandard approach (age stratification and metaregression) to conduct a genome-wide search of common variants with age-dependent effects on systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure. In a two-staged design using 99,241 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 20 genome-wide significant (p ? 5 × 10(-8)) loci by using joint tests of the SNP main effect and SNP-age interaction. Nine of the significant loci demonstrated nominal evidence of age-dependent effects on BP by tests of the interactions alone. Index SNPs in the EHBP1L1 (DBP and MAP), CASZ1 (SBP and MAP), and GOSR2 (PP) loci exhibited the largest age interactions, with opposite directions of effect in the young versus the old. The changes in the genetic effects over time were small but nonnegligible (up to 1.58 mm Hg over 60 years). The EHBP1L1 locus was discovered through gene-age interactions only in whites but had DBP main effects replicated (p = 8.3 × 10(-4)) in 8,682 Asians from Singapore, indicating potential interethnic heterogeneity. A secondary analysis revealed 22 loci with evidence of age-specific effects (e.g., only in 20 to 29-year-olds). Age can be used to select samples with larger genetic effect sizes and more homogenous phenotypes, which may increase statistical power. Age-dependent effects identified through novel statistical approaches can provide insight into the biology and temporal regulation underlying BP associations.
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Profiling human protein degradome delineates cellular responses to proteasomal inhibition and reveals a feedback mechanism in regulating proteasome homeostasis.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Global change in protein turnover (protein degradome) constitutes a central part of cellular responses to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. However, profiling protein degradome remains technically challenging. Recently, inhibition of the proteasome, e.g., by using bortezomib (BTZ), has emerged as a major chemotherapeutic strategy for treating multiple myeloma and other human malignancies, but systematic understanding of the mechanisms for BTZ drug action and tumor drug resistance is yet to be achieved. Here we developed and applied a dual-fluorescence-based Protein Turnover Assay (ProTA) to quantitatively profile global changes in human protein degradome upon BTZ-induced proteasomal inhibition. ProTA and subsequent network analyses delineate potential molecular basis for BTZ action and tumor drug resistance in BTZ chemotherapy. Finally, combined use of BTZ with drugs targeting the ProTA-identified key genes or pathways in BTZ action reduced BTZ resistance in multiple myeloma cells. Remarkably, BTZ stabilizes proteasome subunit PSMC1 and proteasome assembly factor PSMD10, suggesting a previously under-appreciated mechanism for regulating proteasome homeostasis. Therefore, ProTA is a novel tool for profiling human protein degradome to elucidate potential mechanisms of drug action and resistance, which might facilitate therapeutic development targeting proteostasis to treat human disorders.
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An interwoven network of MnO? nanowires and carbon nanotubes as the anode for bendable lithium-ion batteries.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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A porous interwoven network is synthesized, consisting of ultralong MnO2 nanowires and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Serving as the anode for a lithium-ion battery, this nanocomposite demonstrates excellent performance due to the synergistic integration of these two 1D materials. Taking advantage of the excellent flexibility and strength of this MnO2-MWCNT network, a full, bendable battery is made that offers high capacity, cycling stability, and low cost.
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Association between serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and fatty liver disease: a cross-sectional study.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To investigate the association between serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and fatty liver disease (FLD) in a Chinese population.
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Optically encoded nanoprobes using single walled carbon nanotube as the building scaffold for magnetic field guided cell imaging.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We construct a novel fluorescent, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) encoded and magnetic nanoprobe for live cell imaging. To fabricate this nanoprobe, single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) is used as the building scaffold while gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and quantum dots (QDs) are employed as the building blocks. Here, Au NPs serve as the SERS substrate and QDs act as the fluorescent agent. Au NPs and SPIONs are first adsorbed on the SWNT via electrostatic interactions. Then a silica layer is coated on the SWNT. Finally, QDs are attached on the silica shell. With such a structure, various optical signals can be readily encoded to the nanoprobe simply by using different Raman molecules and QDs with different emission wavelengths. Experimental results show that the as-prepared nanoprobe exhibits well fluorescence and SERS performance. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe can fulfill magnetic field guided fluorescence and SERS dual mode imaging of live cells. As a fascinating optical encoding material and a multifunctional nanoplatform, the presented nanoprobe holds genuine potential in future biosensing applications.
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Serum amyloid A promotes osteosarcoma invasion via upregulating ?v?3 integrin.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Serum amyloid A (SAA) is regarded as an important acute phase protein involved in tumor progression and metastasis. However, at present there is no evidence of its involvement in osteosarcoma. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of SAA on the invasion of osteosarcoma cells. The effects of SAA on the migration and invasion of osteosarcoma cells were detected using scratch wound healing and transwell assays, respectively. The expression of ?v?3 integrin was detected at the protein and mRNA levels in U2OS cells. Agonists, inhibitors or siRNA of formyl peptide receptor like?1 (FPRL?1), mitogen?activated protein kinases and ?v?3 integrin were used to investigate the mechanism underlying the effects of SAA on the regulation of U2OS cell migration and invasion. The present study revealed that SAA promoted osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion. SAA upregulated the expression of ?v?3 integrin in a concentration? and time?dependent manner. When inhibiting ?v?3 integrin with its antagonist, the migration and invasion abilities of the U2OS cells were markedly inhibited. SAA?induced ?v?3 integrin production was significantly downregulated by inhibiting FPRL?1 with siRNA and inhibitors. The present study also found that extracellular signal?regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but not c?Jun N?terminal kinase or p38, was important in this process. These findings demonstrated that SAA regulated osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion via the FPRL?1/ERK/?v?3 integrin pathway.
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Study on the effect of BMSCs-EGFP-tk as mediator of HSV1-tk/GCV suicide gene therapy directed against A549 in vitro.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aims to observe the expression of HSV1-tk in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs-EGFP-tk) and detect the inhibition and killing effects of BMSCs as mediator of HSV1-tk/GCV on A549 cells in vitro, which can provide the experimental basis for gene therapy of lung cancer. We constructed the recombinant plasmid Vector pDON-AI-2 Neo-HSV1-tk-IRES2-EGFP with genetic engineering methods. Then we obtained the virus-like particles with infection ability after packaging the virus. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. The expressions of EGFP in cells were observed by fluorescence microscopy and HSV1-tk gene was detected with RT-PCR. At last, the A549 cells and BMSCs-EGFP-tk cells were co-cultured with in vitro contact method, and the effect of BMSCs-EGFP-tk/GCV system was determined by MTT. Results indicated that the biological characteristics of BMSCs-EGFP-tk were consistent with those of BMSCs and fluorescent light expression and HSV1-tk gene expression can persist at least 15 days. The A549 cells and BMSCs-EGFP-tk cells were co-cultured and BMSCs-EGFP-tk:A549 = 2:1, adding 1 ?g/mL GCV, the theory mortality is 58.44%, but actually the mortality is 90%. There is almost no difference between BMSCs-EGFP-tk and BMSCs cells in biological characteristics. The growth of A549 cells have an obviously inhibition and the bystander effect is outstanding in vitro after co-culture and this experiment lays solid foundation for the future research.
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Biomass enzymatic saccharification is determined by the non-KOH-extractable wall polymer features that predominately affect cellulose crystallinity in corn.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Corn is a major food crop with enormous biomass residues for biofuel production. Due to cell wall recalcitrance, it becomes essential to identify the key factors of lignocellulose on biomass saccharification. In this study, we examined total 40 corn accessions that displayed a diverse cell wall composition. Correlation analysis showed that cellulose and lignin levels negatively affected biomass digestibility after NaOH pretreatments at p<0.05 & 0.01, but hemicelluloses did not show any significant impact on hexoses yields. Comparative analysis of five standard pairs of corn samples indicated that cellulose and lignin should not be the major factors on biomass saccharification after pretreatments with NaOH and H2SO4 at three concentrations. Notably, despite that the non-KOH-extractable residues covered 12%-23% hemicelluloses and lignin of total biomass, their wall polymer features exhibited the predominant effects on biomass enzymatic hydrolysis including Ara substitution degree of xylan (reverse Xyl/Ara) and S/G ratio of lignin. Furthermore, the non-KOH-extractable polymer features could significantly affect lignocellulose crystallinity at p<0.05, leading to a high biomass digestibility. Hence, this study could suggest an optimal approach for genetic modification of plant cell walls in bioenergy corn.
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Arsenic trioxide-based therapy in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review.
Onco Targets Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal malignancy characterized by the proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the production of monoclonal immunoglobulin. Although some newly approved drugs (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) demonstrate significant benefit for MM patients with improved survival, all MM patients still relapse. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is the most active single agent in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the antitumor activity of which is partly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species. Due to its multifaceted effects observed on MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells, Phase I/II trials have been conducted in heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory MM. Therapy regimens varied dramatically as to the dosage of ATO and monotherapy versus combination therapy with other agents available for the treatment of MM. Although ATO-based combination treatment was well tolerated by most patients, most trials found that ATO has limited effects on MM patients. However, since small numbers of patients were randomized to different treatment arms, trials have not been statistically powered to determine the differences in progression-free survival and overall survival among the experimental arms. Therefore, large Phase III studies of ATO-based randomized controlled trials will be needed to establish whether ATO has any potential beneficial effects in the clinical setting.
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A boswellic acid-containing extract ameliorates schistosomiasis liver granuloma and fibrosis through regulating NF-?B signaling in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Boswellic acid (BA)-containing extracts such as BSE have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. In chronic schistosomiasis, the hepatic granuloma and fibrosis induced by egg deposition in the liver is the most serious pathological manifestations. However, little is known regarding the role of BAs in Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) egg-induced liver granuloma and fibrosis. In order to investigate the effect of a water-soluble complex preparation of BSE, BSE-CD, on S. japonicum egg-induced liver pathology, liver granuloma and fibrosis were induced by infecting C57BL/6 mice with 18-22 cercariae of S. japonicum. S. japonicum cercariae infected mice were injected with BSE-CD at the onset of egg granuloma formation (early phase BSE-CD treatment after 4 weeks infection) or after the formation of liver fibrosis (late phase BSE-CD treatment after 7 weeks infection). Our data show that treatment of infected mice with BSE-CD significantly reduced both the extent of hepatic granuloma and fibrosis. Consistent with an inhibition of NF-?B signaling as evidenced by reduced I?B kinase (IKK) activation, the mRNA expression of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF), TNF-? (tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-?) and MCP-1 (monocyte chemotactic protein 1, MCP-1) was decreased. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis (IHC) revealed that the content of ?-SMA in liver tissue of BSE-CD treated mice was dramatically decreased. Our findings suggest that BSE-CD treatment attenuates S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granulomas and fibrosis, at least partly due to reduced NF-?B signaling and the subsequently decreased expression of VEGF, TNF-?, and MCP-1. Suppression of the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) may also be involved in the therapeutic efficacy of BSE-CD.
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Apelin attenuates oxidative stress in human adipocytes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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It has been recently recognized that the increased oxidative stress (ROS overproduction) in obese condition is a key contributor to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Apelin is an adipocytokine secreted by adipocytes, and known for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetic properties. In obesity, both oxidative stress and plasma level of apelin are increased. However, the regulatory roles of apelin on oxidative stress in adipocytes remain unknown. In the present study, we provide evidence that apelin, through its interaction with apelin receptor (APJ), suppresses production and release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocytes. This is further supported by the observations that apelin promotes the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes via MAPK kinase/ERK and AMPK pathways, and suppresses the expression of pro-oxidant enzyme via AMPK pathway. We further demonstrate that apelin is able to relieve oxidative-stress induced dysregulations of the expression of anti- and pro-oxidant enzymes, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, as well as release of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipocytokines. This study, for the first time, reveals the antioxidant properties of apelin in adipocytes, and suggests its potential as a novel therapeutic target for metabolic diseases.
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Interconnected tin disulfide nanosheets grown on graphene for li-ion storage and photocatalytic applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheet-supported SnS2 nanosheets are prepared by a one-step microwave-assisted technique. These SnS2 nanosheets are linked with each other and dispersed uniformly on RGO surface. The SnS2-RGO sheet-on-sheet nanostructure exhibits good electrochemical performances as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. It shows larger-than-theoretical reversible capacities at 0.1 C and excellent high-rate capability at 1 C and 5 C. The composite is also for the first time identified as an excellent visible light-driven catalyst of rhodamine B and phenol with high degradation efficiencies. The removal rates of rhodamine B and phenol are 100 and 83.2%, respectively, for the SnS2-RGO composite, whereas these values are only 64.8 and 51.5% for pristine SnS2 after the same irradiation times. The outstanding electrochemical or photocatalytic performances of the composite have been attributed to the complementary effect of RGO and SnS2 in the perfect sheet-on-sheet composition nanostructure.
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