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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of delayed vs early umbilical cord clamping on iron status and neurodevelopment at age 12 months: a randomized clinical trial.
JAMA Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Prevention of iron deficiency in infancy may promote neurodevelopment. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) can prevent iron deficiency during the first 6 months of life. However, no data are available on long-term effects on infant outcomes in relation to time for umbilical cord clamping.
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Infections with the tick-borne bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" mimic noninfectious conditions in patients with B cell malignancies or autoimmune diseases.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis is a newly discovered noncultivatable bacterium spread among ticks and rodents in Europe and Asia that can infect humans, particularly immunocompromised patients.
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Catalytic-site conformational equilibrium in nerve-agent adducts of acetylcholinesterase: possible implications for the HI-6 antidote substrate specificity.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Nerve agents such as tabun, cyclosarin and Russian VX inhibit the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorylating the catalytic serine residue. Nucleophiles, such as oximes, are used as antidotes as they can reactivate and restore the function of the inhibited enzyme. The oxime HI-6 shows a notably low activity on tabun adducts but can effectively reactivate adducts of cyclosarin and Russian VX. To examine the structural basis for the pronounced substrate specificity of HI-6, we determined the binary crystal structures of Mus musculus AChE (mAChE) conjugated by cyclosarin and Russian VX and found a conformational mobility of the side chains of Phe338 and His447. The interaction between HI-6 and tabun-adducts of AChE were subsequently investigated using a combination of time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Our findings show that HI-6 binds to tabun inhibited Homo sapiens AChE (hAChE) with an IC50 value of 300?M and suggest that the reactive nucleophilic moiety of HI-6 is excluded from the phosphorus atom of tabun. We propose that a conformational mobility of the side-chains of Phe338 and His447 is a common feature in nerve-agent adducts of AChE. We also suggest that the conformational mobility allow HI-6 to reactivate conjugates of cyclosarin and Russian VX while a reduced mobility in tabun conjugated AChE results in steric hindrance that prevents efficient reactivation.
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Effects of delayed cord clamping on neurodevelopment and infection at four months of age: a randomised trial.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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To investigate the effect that delayed and early umbilical cord clamping have on neurodevelopment, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and symptoms of infection during the first 4 months of life.
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Effect of delayed versus early umbilical cord clamping on neonatal outcomes and iron status at 4 months: a randomised controlled trial.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on infant iron status at 4 months of age in a European setting.
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Improved outcome for very elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the immunochemotherapy era.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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The prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has improved significantly since the introduction of immunochemotherapy (rituximab [R] with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone [CHOP]). However, few outcome data are available for very elderly patients (? 80 years). Therefore, we compared all patients with DLBCL aged ? 80 years diagnosed in the Gothenburg area during two time periods (2006-2009, "post-R" and 1997-2000, "pre-R"). Forty and 30 patients were identified, corresponding to 23.5% and 20.5%, respectively, of the entire population with DLBCL. Estimated 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival was better post-R than pre-R: 41% vs. 17% (p = 0.015) and 41% vs. 17% (p = 0.01), respectively. Fifty-three percent of post-R patients were treated with curative intent with a moderately reduced R-CHOP regimen (median relative dose intensity: 0.86). At a median follow-up of 29 months, the 3-year PFS and OS were 70% (p = 0.018) and 76% (p = 0.0089), respectively. In conclusion, moderately reduced R-CHOP is tolerable and effective for a considerable number of very elderly patients with DLBCL and high age by itself should not be a reason for excluding a patient with DLBCL from such treatment.
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Human primary bronchial epithelial cells respond differently to titanium dioxide nanoparticles than the lung epithelial cell lines A549 and BEAS-2B.
Nanotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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We have compared the cellular uptake and responses of five preparations of nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) between normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and epithelial cell lines (A549 and BEAS-2B). The P25 nanoparticles, containing both anatase and rutile modifications, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secretion of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 in all three cell types used. Pure anatase and rutile particles provoked differential IL-8 response in A549 and no response in BEAS-2B cells despite similar formation of ROS. The pure TiO(2) modifications also provoked release of the inflammatory mediators: IL-6, G-CSF and VEGF, in NHBE cells but not in the two cell lines. We conclude that the responsiveness of lung epithelial cells is strongly dependent on both the physicochemical properties of TiO(2) nanoparticles and the type of responder cells. The differential pro-inflammatory responsiveness of primary lung epithelial cells compared with immortalized cell lines should be considered in the assessment of adverse reactions to inhaled nanoparticles.
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Tumour-loaded ?-type 1-polarized dendritic cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia produce a superior NK-, NKT- and CD8+ T cell-attracting chemokine profile.
Scand. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2011
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Tumour-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) matured using an ?-type 1-polarized DC cocktail (IL-1?/TNF-?/IFN-?/IFN-?/poly-I:C;?DC1) were recently shown to induce more functional CD8(+) T cells against autologous tumour cells in vitro than DCs matured with the standard cocktail (IL-1?/TNF-?/IL-6/PGE(2) ;PGE(2) DCs). However, the ability of vaccine DCs to induce a type 1-polarized immune response in vivo probably relies on additional features, including their ability to induce a CXCR3-dependent recruitment of NK cells into vaccine-draining lymph nodes. Moreover, their guiding of rare tumour-specific CD8(+) T cells to sites of DC-CD4(+) T cell interactions by secretion of CCL3 and CCL4 is needed. We therefore analysed the chemokine profile and the lymphocyte-attracting ability in vitro of monocyte-derived PGE(2) DCs and ?DC1s from patients with CLL. ?DC1s produced much higher levels of CXCR3 ligands (CXCL9/CXCL10/CXCL11) than PGE(2) DCs. Functional studies further demonstrated that ?DC1s were superior recruiters of both NK and NKT cells. Moreover, ?DC1s produced higher levels of CCL3/CCL4 upon CD40 ligation. These findings suggest that functional ?DC1s, derived from patients with CLL, produce a desirable NK-, NKT- and CD8(+) T cell-attracting chemokine profile which may favour a guided and Th1-deviated priming of CD8(+) T cells, supporting the idea that ?DC1-based vaccines have a higher immunotherapeutic potential than PGE(2) DCs.
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Melphalan 100 mg/m2 with stem cell support as first relapse treatment is safe and effective for myeloma patients with long remission after autologous stem cell transplantation.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Today, a number of therapeutic options are available as the patient with myeloma relapses from initial treatment with high-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For patients who experience a durable response to primary ASCT, retreatment with high-dose melphalan is recommended by many current guidelines. Yet, toxicity is an important aspect in the choice of relapse treatment, and a second ASCT in this setting could be associated with enhanced toxicity. As the goal for the treatment for relapsed myeloma should be disease control while maintaining quality of life, lower doses of melphalan might be preferable.
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In situ detection of warfarin using time-correlated single-photon counting.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Here we report on a novel method for the direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin using time correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. The method is highly robust over the clinically significant concentration range, and demonstrates the potential of the binding site mimics in conjunction with the spectroscopic strategy employed here for the determination of this important pharmaceutical in clinical or even environmental samples.
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Polymorph- and size-dependent uptake and toxicity of TiO? nanoparticles in living lung epithelial cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The cellular uptake and distribution of five types of well-characterized anatase and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) in A549 lung epithelial cells is reported. Static light scattering (SLS), in-vitro Raman microspectroscopy (?-Raman) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) reveal an intimate correlation between the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the NPs, particle agglomeration, and cellular NP uptake. It is shown that ?-Raman facilitates chemical-, polymorph-, and size-specific discrimination of endosomal-particle cell uptake and the retention of particles in the vicinity of organelles, including the cell nucleus, which quantitatively correlates with TEM and SLS data. Depth-profiling ?-Raman coupled with hyperspectral data analysis confirms the location of the NPs in the cells and shows that the NPs induce modifications of the biological matrix. NP uptake is found to be kinetically activated and strongly dependent on the hard agglomeration size-not the primary particle size-which quantitatively agrees with the measured intracellular oxidative stress. Pro-inflammatory responses are also found to be sensitive to primary particle size.
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Synthetic human serum albumin Sudlow I binding site mimics.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) derived mimics of the human serum albumin (HSA) Sudlow I site-the binding site for the anticoagulant warfarin. MIP design was based upon a combination of experimental ((1)H NMR) and computational (molecular dynamics) methods. Two MIPs and corresponding nonimprinted reference polymers were synthesized and characterized (scanning electron microscopy; nitrogen sorption; and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). MIP-ligand recognition was examined using radioligand binding studies, where the largest number of selective sites was found in a warfarin-imprinted methacrylic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate copolymer (MAA-MIP). The warfarin selectivity of this MIP was confirmed using radioligand displacement and zonal chromatographic studies. A direct comparison of MIP-warfarin binding characteristics with those of the HSA Sudlow I binding site was made, and similarities in site population (per gram polymer or protein) and affinities were observed. The warfarin selectivity of the MIP suggests its potential for use as a recognition element in a MIP-based warfarin sensor and even as a model to aid in understanding and steering blood-plasma protein-regulated transport processes or even for the development of warfarin sensors.
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High immunohistochemical expression of p-AKT predicts inferior survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Chemotherapy and rituximab (R) is current standard therapy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but a substantial proportion of patients still fail to reach sustained remission. In vitro studies have indicated that rituximab resistance could be accompanied by dysregulated apoptotic pathways, such as the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway, which can be constitutively activated in DLBCL. In this retrospective, immunohistochemical study on 106 patients treated with R-CHO(E)P (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, rituximab [+etoposide]), we investigated the prognostic role of proteins involved in different apoptotic pathways; phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT), bcl-2, MCL1, bcl-xL, Bax and Bak. High p-AKT expression (>108 cells/mm2, highest quartile, n=27) predicted worse progression-free (PFS) (P=0.02) and overall (OS) (P=0.01) survival, independent of International Prognostic Index and sex. Also bcl-2+ (cut-off 50%) predicted worse PFS (P=0.005) and OS (P=0.05) but after adjustment for clinical factors only the influence on PFS (P=0.03) remained significant. The prognostic impact of p-AKT overexpression was independent of bcl-2 status. MCL1, bcl-xL, Bax and Bak expression did not add any prognostic information. Our results suggest that high p-AKT expression predicts worse outcome, possibly indicating that inhibition of the activated PI3K/AKT pathway could be of clinical interest in DLBCL patients. In addition, bcl-2 status could have prognostic importance also in the era of immunochemotherapy.
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Selective and irreversible inhibitors of mosquito acetylcholinesterases for controlling malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2009
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New insecticides are urgently needed because resistance to current insecticides allows resurgence of disease-transmitting mosquitoes while concerns for human toxicity from current compounds are growing. We previously reported the finding of a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in some insects but not in mammals, birds, and fish. These insects have two AChE genes (AP and AO), and only AP-AChE carries the Cys residue. Most of these insects are disease vectors such as the African malaria mosquito (Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto) or crop pests such as aphids. Recently we reported a Cys-targeting small molecule that irreversibly inhibited all AChE activity extracted from aphids while an identical exposure caused no effect on the human AChE. Full inhibition of AChE in aphids indicates that AP-AChE contributes most of the enzymatic activity and suggests that the Cys residue might serve as a target for developing better aphicides. It is therefore worth investigating whether the Cys-targeting strategy is applicable to mosquitocides. Herein, we report that, under conditions that spare the human AChE, a methanethiosulfonate-containing molecule at 6 microM irreversibly inhibited 95% of the AChE activity extracted from An. gambiae s. str. and >80% of the activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti L.) or the northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens L.) that is a vector of St. Louis encephalitis. This type of inhibition is fast ( approximately 30 min) and due to conjugation of the inhibitor to the active-site Cys of mosquito AP-AChE, according to our observed reactivation of the methanethiosulfonate-inhibited AChE by 2-mercaptoethanol. We also note that our sulfhydryl agents partially and irreversibly inhibited the human AChE after prolonged exposure (>4 hr). This slow inhibition is due to partial enzyme denaturation by the inhibitor and/or micelles of the inhibitor, according to our studies using atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These results support our view that the mosquito-specific Cys is a viable target for developing new mosquitocides to control disease vectors and to alleviate resistance problems with reduced toxicity toward non-target species.
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Molecular insights on the two fluorescence lifetimes displayed by warfarin from fluorescence anisotropy and molecular dynamics studies.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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A series of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy experiments has been performed to demonstrate the presence of a deprotonated open side chain form of warfarin in organic environments. We explain the observed emission-wavelength-dependent anisotropy of warfarin in ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile due to the coexistence of neutral isomers and deprotonated open side chain forms displaying different fluorescence decay kinetics. To investigate solvent-solute interactions in more detail, a series of molecular dynamics simulations was performed to study warfarin solvation and to predict the time scale of rotational diffusion displayed by this compound. Predictions obtained provide an explanation for the nonzero values in anisotropy observed for neutral isomers of warfarin associated with the short fluorescence lifetime (tau<0.1 ns) and for an approximately zero anisotropy observed for the deprotonated open side chain form, which is associated with the longer fluorescence lifetime (tau=0.5-1.6 ns). Finally, we address the potential use of fluorescence anisotropy for an increased understanding of the structural diversity of warfarin in protein binding pockets.
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Distinct transcriptional control in major immunogenetic subsets of chronic lymphocytic leukemia exhibiting subset-biased global DNA methylation profiles.
Epigenetics
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can be divided into prognostic subgroups based on the IGHV gene mutational status, and is further characterized by multiple subsets of cases with quasi-identical or stereotyped B cell receptors that also share clinical and biological features. We recently reported differential DNA methylation profiles in IGHV-mutated and IGHV-unmutated CLL subgroups. For the first time, we here explore the global methylation profiles of stereotyped subsets with different prognosis, by applying high-resolution methylation arrays on CLL samples from three major stereotyped subsets: the poor-prognostic subsets #1 (n = 15) and #2 (n = 9) and the favorable-prognostic subset #4 (n = 15). Overall, the three subsets exhibited significantly different methylation profiles, which only partially overlapped with those observed in our previous study according to IGHV gene mutational status. Specifically, gene ontology analysis of the differentially methylated genes revealed a clear enrichment of genes involved in immune response, such as B cell activation (e.g., CD80, CD86 and IL10), with higher methylation levels in subset #1 than subsets #2 and #4. Accordingly, higher expression of the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 was demonstrated in subset #4 vs. subset #1, pointing to a key role for these molecules in the crosstalk of CLL subset #4 cells with the microenvironment. In summary, investigation of three prototypic, stereotyped CLL subsets revealed distinct DNA methylation profiles for each subset, which suggests subset-biased patterns of transcriptional control and highlights a key role for epigenetics during leukemogenesis.
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Targeting p53 in vivo: a first-in-human study with p53-targeting compound APR-246 in refractory hematologic malignancies and prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET) is a novel drug that restores transcriptional activity of unfolded wild-type or mutant p53. The main aims of this first-in-human trial were to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of APR-246.
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Effects of delayed compared with early umbilical cord clamping on maternal postpartum hemorrhage and cord blood gas sampling: a randomized trial.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
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To investigate the effect of delayed cord clamping (DCC) compared with early cord clamping (ECC) on maternal postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and umbilical cord blood gas sampling.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.