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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Principal components analysis of diet and alternatives for identifying the combination of foods that are associated with the risk of disease: a simulation study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Dietary patterns derived empirically using principal components analysis (PCA) are widely employed for investigating diet-disease relationships. In the present study, we investigated whether PCA performed better at identifying such associations than an analysis of each food on a FFQ separately, referred to here as an exhaustive single food analysis (ESFA). Data on diet and disease were simulated using real FFQ data and by assuming a number of food intakes in combination that were associated with the risk of disease. In each simulation, ESFA and PCA were employed to identify the combinations of foods that are associated with the risk of disease using logistic regression, allowing for multiple testing and adjusting for energy intake. ESFA was also separately adjusted for principal components of diet, foods that were significant in the unadjusted ESFA and propensity scores. For each method, we investigated the power with which an association between diet and disease could be identified, and the power and false discovery rate (FDR) for identifying the specific combination of food intakes. In some scenarios, ESFA had greater power to detect a diet-disease association than PCA. ESFA also typically had a greater power and a lower FDR for identifying the combinations of food intakes that are associated with the risk of disease. The FDR of both methods increased with increasing sample size, but when ESFA was adjusted for foods that were significant in the unadjusted ESFA, FDR were controlled at the desired level. These results question the widespread use of PCA in nutritional epidemiology. The adjusted ESFA identifies the combinations of foods that are causally linked to the risk of disease with low FDR and surprisingly good power.
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Health-related quality of life in food-allergic adults from eight European countries.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Food allergy can impair health-related quality of life (HRQL). Food Allergy Quality of Life Questionnaires (FAQLQs) have been developed and validated, including an adult form (FAQLQ-AF). HRQL has not, to date, been measured across different European countries using a uniform methodology.
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Association of ambient air pollution with the prevalence and incidence of COPD.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The role of air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains uncertain. The aim was to assess the impact of chronic exposure to air pollution on COPD in four cohorts using the standardised ESCAPE exposure estimates. Annual average particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and road traffic exposure were assigned to home addresses using land-use regression models. COPD was defined by NHANES reference equation (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) less than the lower limit of normal) and the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criterion (FEV1/FVC <0.70) and categorised by severity in non-asthmatics. We included 6550 subjects with assigned NOx and 3692 with PM measures. COPD was not associated with NO2 or PM10 in any individual cohort. In meta-analyses only NO2, NOx, PM10 and the traffic indicators were positively, although not significantly, associated with COPD. The only statistically significant associations were seen in females (COPD prevalence using GOLD: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.11-2.23; and incidence: OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.68). None of the principal results were statistically significant, the weak positive associations of exposure with COPD and the significant subgroup findings need to be evaluated in further well standardised cohorts followed up for longer time, and with time-matched exposure assignments.
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Natural history of perceived food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in a cohort of adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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No longitudinal studies exist on the natural history of food hypersensitivity and IgE sensitisation to food allergens in adults.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality and prevalence: the associations with smoking and poverty--a BOLD analysis.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a commonly reported cause of death and associated with smoking. However, COPD mortality is high in poor countries with low smoking rates. Spirometric restriction predicts mortality better than airflow obstruction, suggesting that the prevalence of restriction could explain mortality rates attributed to COPD. We have studied associations between mortality from COPD and low lung function, and between both lung function and death rates and cigarette consumption and gross national income per capita (GNI).
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Foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization: EuroPrevall-International Cooperation study.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2013
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An inverse association between markers of exposure to foodborne and orofecal pathogens and allergic sensitization has been reported. However, the findings of epidemiological studies have not been consistent. This study investigated the relationship between antibodies to hepatitis A, Toxoplasma gondii and salmonella and allergic sensitization to food and aeroallergens in children from different geographical areas.
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Prevalence of COPD and Tobacco Smoking in Tunisia - Results from the BOLD Study.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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In Tunisia, there is a paucity of population-based data on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) prevalence. To address this problem, we estimated the prevalence of COPD following the Burden of Lung Disease Initiative. We surveyed 807 adults aged 40+ years and have collected information on respiratory history and symptoms, risk factors for COPD and quality of life. Post-bronchodilator spirometry was performed and COPD and its stages were defined according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. Six hundred and sixty one (661) subjects were included in the final analysis. The prevalence of GOLD Stage I and II or higher COPD were 7.8% and 4.2%, respectively (Lower Limit of Normal modified stage I and II or higher COPD prevalence were 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively). COPD was more common in subjects aged 70+ years and in those with a BMI < 20 kg/m2. Prevalence of stage I+ COPD was 2.3% in <10 pack years smoked and 16.1% in 20+ pack years smoked. Only 3.5% of participants reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In this Tunisian population, the prevalence of COPD is higher than reported before and higher than self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD. In subjects with COPD, age is a much more powerful predictor of lung function than smoking.
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The impact of COPD on health status: findings from the BOLD study.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The aim of this study was to describe the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on health status in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) populations. We conducted a cross-sectional, general population-based survey in 11 985 subjects from 17 countries. We measured spirometric lung function and assessed health status using the Short Form 12 questionnaire. The physical and mental health component scores were calculated. Subjects with COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity <0.70, n = 2269) had lower physical component scores (44±10 versus 48±10 units, p<0.0001) and mental health component scores (51±10 versus 52±10 units, p = 0.005) than subjects without COPD. The effect of reported heart disease, hypertension and diabetes on physical health component scores (-3 to -4 units) was considerably less than the effect of COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease grade 3 (-8 units) or 4 (-11 units). Dyspnoea was the most important determinant of a low physical and mental health component scores. In addition, lower forced expiratory volume in 1 s, chronic cough, chronic phlegm and the presence of comorbidities were all associated with a lower physical health component score. COPD is associated with poorer health status but the effect is stronger on the physical than the mental aspects of health status. Severe COPD has a greater negative impact on health status than self-reported cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
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The influence of sensitisation to pollens and moulds on seasonal variations in asthma attacks.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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No large study has described the seasonal variation in asthma attacks in population-based asthmatics in whom sensitisation to allergen has been measured. 2,637 young adults with asthma living in 15 countries reported the months in which they usually had attacks of asthma and had skin-prick tests performed. Differences in seasonal patterns by sensitisation status were assessed using generalised estimating equations. Most young adults with asthma reported periods of the year when their asthma attacks were more common (range: 47% in Sweden to 86% in Spain). Seasonal variation in asthma was not modified by sensitisation to house dust mite or cat allergens. Asthmatics sensitised to grass, birch and Alternaria allergens had different seasonal patterns to those not sensitised to each allergen, with some geographical variation. In southern Europe, those sensitised to grass allergens were more likely to report attacks occurred in spring or summer than in winter (OR March/April 2.60, 95% CI 1.70-3.97; OR May/June 4.43, 95% CI 2.34-8.39) and smaller later peaks were observed in northern Europe (OR May/June 1.25, 95% CI 0.60-2.64; OR July/August 1.66, 95% CI 0.89-3.10). Asthmatics reporting hay fever but who were not sensitised to grass showed no seasonal variations. Seasonal variations in asthma attacks in young adults are common and are different depending on sensitisation to outdoor, but not indoor, allergens.
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UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to examine the patterns of health loss in the UK, the leading preventable risks that explain some of these patterns, and how UK outcomes compare with a set of comparable countries in the European Union and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010.
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Can an airway challenge test predict respiratory diseases? A population-based international study.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Evidence on the longitudinal association of airway responsiveness with respiratory diseases is scarce. The best indicator of responsiveness is still undetermined.
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Risk factors for COPD spirometrically defined from the lower limit of normal in the BOLD project.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is predicted to become the third most common cause of death and disability worldwide by 2020. The prevalence of COPD defined by the lower limit of normal was estimated using high-quality spirometry in surveys of 14 populations aged ? 40 yrs. The strength and consistency of associations were assessed using random effects meta-analysis. Pack-years of smoking were associated with risk of COPD at each site. After adjusting for this effect, we still observed significant associations of COPD risk with age (OR 1.52 for a 10 yr age difference, 95% CI 1.35-1.71), body mass index in obese compared with normal weight (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.37-0.67), level of education completed (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67-0.87), hospitalisation with a respiratory problem before age 10 yrs (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.42-3.91), passive cigarette smoke exposure (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47), tuberculosis (OR 1.78, 95%CI 1.17-2.72) and a family history of COPD (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.19-1.90). Although smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD, other risk factors are also important. More research is required to elucidate relevant risk factors in low- and middle-income countries where the greatest impact of COPD will occur.
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Smoking, stages of change and decisional balance in Iceland and Sweden.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Smoking remains a significant health problem. Smoking interventions are important but selection of successful quitters can be difficult.
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Interactive effects of antioxidant genes and air pollution on respiratory function and airway disease: a HuGE review.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Susceptibility to the respiratory effects of air pollution varies between individuals. Although some evidence suggests higher susceptibility for subjects carrying variants of antioxidant genes, findings from gene-pollution interaction studies conflict in terms of the presence and direction of interactions. The authors conducted a systematic review on antioxidant gene-pollution interactions which included 15 studies, with 12 supporting the presence of interactions. For the glutathione S-transferase M1 gene (GSTM1) (n=10 studies), only 1 study found interaction with the null genotype alone, although 5 observed interactions when GSTM1 was evaluated jointly with other genes (mainly NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1)). All studies on the glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) Ile105Val polymorphism (n=11) provided some evidence of interaction, but findings conflicted in terms of risk allele. Results were negative for glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) (n=3) and positive for heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX-1) (n=2). Meta-analysis could not be performed because there were insufficient data available for any specific gene-pollutant-outcome combination. Overall the evidence supports the presence of gene-pollution interactions, although which pollutant interacts with which gene is unclear. However, issues regarding multiple testing, selective reporting, and publication bias raise the possibility of false-positive findings. Larger studies with greater accuracy of pollution assessment and improved quality of conduct and reporting are required.
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Risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a European cohort of young adults.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Few studies have investigated the factors associated with the early inception of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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COPD in never smokers: results from the population-based burden of obstructive lung disease study.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Never smokers comprise a substantial proportion of patients with COPD. Their characteristics and possible risk factors in this population are not yet well defined.
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[Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA2LEN) addresses the epidemic of allergy and asthma].
Cas. Lek. Cesk.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN, an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle Allergy in its globality. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper.
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Patterns of dietary intake and relation to respiratory disease, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, and decline in 5-y forced expiratory volume.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The independent effect of individual foods on the risk of respiratory disease is difficult to establish because intakes of specific foods are generally strongly correlated. To date, few studies have examined the relation between dietary food patterns and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) or respiratory symptoms.
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Uniform definition of asthma severity, control, and exacerbations: document presented for the World Health Organization Consultation on Severe Asthma.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Asthma is a global health problem affecting around 300 million individuals of all ages, ethnic groups and countries. It is estimated that around 250,000 people die prematurely each year as a result of asthma. Concepts of asthma severity and control are important in evaluating patients and their response to treatment, as well as for public health, registries, and research (clinical trials, epidemiologic, genetic, and mechanistic studies), but the terminology applied is not standardized, and terms are often used interchangeably. A common international approach is favored to define severe asthma, uncontrolled asthma, and when the 2 coincide, although adaptation may be required in accordance with local conditions. A World Health Organization meeting was convened April 5-6, 2009, to propose a uniform definition of severe asthma. An article was written by a group of experts and reviewed by the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases review group. Severe asthma is defined by the level of current clinical control and risks as "Uncontrolled asthma which can result in risk of frequent severe exacerbations (or death) and/or adverse reactions to medications and/or chronic morbidity (including impaired lung function or reduced lung growth in children)." Severe asthma includes 3 groups, each carrying different public health messages and challenges: (1) untreated severe asthma, (2) difficult-to-treat severe asthma, and (3) treatment-resistant severe asthma. The last group includes asthma for which control is not achieved despite the highest level of recommended treatment and asthma for which control can be maintained only with the highest level of recommended treatment.
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Assessment of allergen sensitization in a general population-based survey (European Community Respiratory Health Survey I).
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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Exposed to a common environment, the IgE-mediated immune response differs, for instance, among sensitized subjects, some of them reacting toward one allergen (monosensitized) whereas others are sensitized to a wide array of allergens (polysensitized). However, a better phenotypic characterization is needed for epidemiologic studies. Using the data collected during the ECRHS I (European Community Respiratory Health Survey), several assessments of skin prick tests and serum-specific IgE to identify mono- and polysensitized patients were compared.
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Dietary patterns and risk of asthma: results from three countries in European Community Respiratory Health Survey-II.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2009
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Dietary patterns offer an alternative to the analysis of individual foods or nutrients in nutritional epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns common to different European countries and examine their associations with asthma. In five study centres (two in Germany, two in the UK and one in Norway), 1174 adults aged 29-55 years completed a FFQ and respiratory symptoms questionnaire. A meta-analytic approach was used to identify the dietary patterns and analyse them in relation to current asthma, asthma symptoms and bronchial responsiveness (BHR). Two patterns emerged, generally correlating with the same foods at different centres: one associated with intake of meats and potatoes; the other with fish, fruits and vegetables. There was no evidence that the fish, fruits and vegetables pattern was associated with asthma (OR 1.11 (95 % CI 0.93, 1.33)), symptom score (ratio of means 1.07 (0.98, 1.17)) or BHR (regression coefficient - 0.01 ( - 0.12, 0.10)), though these CI appeared to rule out large protective effects of consuming these foods. There was no overall evidence that the meat and potato pattern was associated with asthma (OR 1.02 (0.79, 1.31)), symptom score (ratio of means 1.07 (0.84, 1.36)) or BHR (regression coefficient - 0.08 ( - 0.27, 0.10)), but there was heterogeneity between centres in the association with symptom score: a negative association at the two German centres; a positive association at the others. Heterogeneity in a multi-centre observational study of diet could suggest alternative explanations for apparent effects of diet, such as uncontrolled confounding.
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[GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), the perspective of the German speaking centers].
Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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Allergic diseases represent a major health problem in Europe. They are increasing in prevalence, severity and costs. GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network), an FP6 Network of Excellence, was created in 2005 as a vehicle to ensure excellence in research bringing together research and clinical institutions to combat fragmentation in the European research area and to tackle allergy as a whole. GA2LEN benefited greatly from the voluntary efforts of researchers who are strongly committed to this model of pan-European collaboration. The network was organized in order to increase networking for scientific projects in allergy and asthma around Europe and to make GA2LEN the world leader in the field. Besides these activities, research has been jointly made and the first papers are being published. GA2LEN achievements in general can be grouped as those for a durable infrastructure built up during the project phase those which are project-related work based on these novel infrastructures, and the development and implementations of guidelines. The major achievements of GA2LEN are reported in this paper.
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Long-term outcomes in mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the European community respiratory health survey.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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Little is known about the long-term outcomes of individuals with mild/moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to spirometric criteria.
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Ascaris, atopy, and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in rural and urban South African children.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2009
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Populations with endemic parasitosis have high levels of IgE but low levels of allergic disease. We investigated the association between infection with the parasite Ascaris allergic sensitization, and exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB).
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Evolution of asthma severity in a cohort of young adults: is there any gender difference?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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Little is known about the distribution of asthma severity in men and women in the general population. The objective of our study was to describe asthma severity and change in severity according to gender in a cohort of adult asthmatics
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Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Christopher J L Murray, Theo Vos, Rafael Lozano, Mohsen Naghavi, Abraham D Flaxman, Catherine Michaud, Majid Ezzati, Kenji Shibuya, Joshua A Salomon, Safa Abdalla, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Ilana Ackerman, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Mohammed K Ali, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Adil N Bahalim, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Lope H Barrero, David H Bartels, María-Gloria Basáñez, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Eduardo Bernabé, Kavi Bhalla, Bishal Bhandari, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, James A Black, Hannah Blencowe, Jed D Blore, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Audrey Bonaventure, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Tasanee Braithwaite, Carol Brayne, Lisa Bridgett, Simon Brooker, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M Budke, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Roy Burstein, Bianca Calabria, Benjamin Campbell, Charles E Canter, Hélène Carabin, Jonathan Carapetis, Loreto Carmona, Claudia Cella, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Manu Dahiya, Nabila Dahodwala, James Damsere-Derry, Goodarz Danaei, Adrian Davis, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert Dellavalle, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Sarah Derrett, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh Dherani, César Diaz-Torné, Helen Dolk, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Suad Eltahir Ali, Holly Erskine, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Stalin E Ewoigbokhan, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery Feigin, David T Felson, Alize Ferrari, Cleusa P Ferri, Eric M Fèvre, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Louise Flood, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Belinda J Gabbe, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Hammad A Ganatra, Bianca Garcia, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Gerhard Gmel, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Richard Gosselin, Rebecca Grainger, Bridget Grant, Justina Groeger, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Ramyani Gupta, Juanita Haagsma, Holly Hagan, Yara A Halasa, Wayne Hall, Diana Haring, Josep Maria Haro, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Hideki Higashi, Catherine Hill, Bruno Hoen, Howard Hoffman, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, John J Huang, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Deborah Jarvis, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Jost B Jonas, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Charles H King, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Francine Laden, Ratilal Lalloo, Laura L Laslett, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Yong Yi Lee, James Leigh, Daphna Levinson, Stephen S Lim, Elizabeth Limb, John Kent Lin, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Wei Liu, Maria Loane, Summer Lockett Ohno, Ronan Lyons, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Sivabalan Manivannan, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, Neil McGill, John McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Michele Meltzer, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Ana-Claire Meyer, Valeria Miglioli, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Philip B Mitchell, Charles Mock, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Terrie E Moffitt, Ali A Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Andrew Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Michael K Mwaniki, Kovin Naidoo, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Paul K Nelson, Robert G Nelson, Michael C Nevitt, Charles R Newton, Sandra Nolte, Paul Norman, Rosana Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Simon O'Hanlon, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Andrew Page, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Scott B Patten, Neil Pearce, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Michael R Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, Sébastien Pion, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C Arden Pope, Svetlana Popova, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Rachel L Pullan, Kapa D Ramaiah, Dharani Ranganathan, Homie Razavi, Mathilda Regan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, James Graham Scott, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Donald S Shepard, Hwashin Shin, Rupak Shivakoti, David Singh, Gitanjali M Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Jessica Singleton, David A Sleet, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Jennifer L Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Andrew Steer, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Sana Syed, Giorgio Tamburlini, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R Taylor, Jennifer A Taylor, William J Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, W Murray Thomson, George D Thurston, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris, Clotilde Ubeda, Eduardo A Undurraga, Marieke J van der Werf, Jim van Os, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, David J Weatherall, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Myrna M Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Natasha Wiebe, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Sean R M Williams, Emma Witt, Frederick Wolfe, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Anita K M Zaidi, Zhi-Jie Zheng, David Zonies, Alan D Lopez, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Measuring disease and injury burden in populations requires a composite metric that captures both premature mortality and the prevalence and severity of ill-health. The 1990 Global Burden of Disease study proposed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) to measure disease burden. No comprehensive update of disease burden worldwide incorporating a systematic reassessment of disease and injury-specific epidemiology has been done since the 1990 study. We aimed to calculate disease burden worldwide and for 21 regions for 1990, 2005, and 2010 with methods to enable meaningful comparisons over time.
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Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Theo Vos, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohsen Naghavi, Rafael Lozano, Catherine Michaud, Majid Ezzati, Kenji Shibuya, Joshua A Salomon, Safa Abdalla, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Ilana Ackerman, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Mohammed K Ali, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Adil N Bahalim, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Lope H Barrero, David H Bartels, María-Gloria Basáñez, Amanda Baxter, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Eduardo Bernabé, Kavi Bhalla, Bishal Bhandari, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, James A Black, Hannah Blencowe, Jed D Blore, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Audrey Bonaventure, Soufiane Boufous, Rupert Bourne, Michel Boussinesq, Tasanee Braithwaite, Carol Brayne, Lisa Bridgett, Simon Brooker, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Chiara Bucello, Rachelle Buchbinder, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M Budke, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Roy Burstein, Bianca Calabria, Benjamin Campbell, Charles E Canter, Hélène Carabin, Jonathan Carapetis, Loreto Carmona, Claudia Cella, Fiona Charlson, Honglei Chen, Andrew Tai-Ann Cheng, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Manu Dahiya, Nabila Dahodwala, James Damsere-Derry, Goodarz Danaei, Adrian Davis, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Robert Dellavalle, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Sarah Derrett, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh Dherani, César Diaz-Torné, Helen Dolk, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Suad Eltahir Ali, Holly Erskine, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Stalin E Ewoigbokhan, Farshad Farzadfar, Valery Feigin, David T Felson, Alize Ferrari, Cleusa P Ferri, Eric M Fèvre, Mariel M Finucane, Seth Flaxman, Louise Flood, Kyle Foreman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Richard Franklin, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Belinda J Gabbe, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Hammad A Ganatra, Bianca Garcia, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Gerhard Gmel, Richard Gosselin, Rebecca Grainger, Justina Groeger, Francis Guillemin, David Gunnell, Ramyani Gupta, Juanita Haagsma, Holly Hagan, Yara A Halasa, Wayne Hall, Diana Haring, Josep Maria Haro, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Hideki Higashi, Catherine Hill, Bruno Hoen, Howard Hoffman, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, John J Huang, Sydney E Ibeanusi, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Deborah Jarvis, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Jost B Jonas, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Norito Kawakami, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Charles H King, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Ratilal Lalloo, Laura L Laslett, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Yong Yi Lee, James Leigh, Stephen S Lim, Elizabeth Limb, John Kent Lin, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Wei Liu, Maria Loane, Summer Lockett Ohno, Ronan Lyons, Jixiang Ma, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Reza Malekzadeh, Leslie Mallinger, Sivabalan Manivannan, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, Neil McGill, John McGrath, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Michele Meltzer, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Ana-Claire Meyer, Valeria Miglioli, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Philip B Mitchell, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Terrie E Moffitt, Ali A Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Andrew Moran, Lidia Morawska, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Michael K Mwaniki, Kovin Naidoo, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Paul K Nelson, Robert G Nelson, Michael C Nevitt, Charles R Newton, Sandra Nolte, Paul Norman, Rosana Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Simon O'Hanlon, Casey Olives, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Andrew Page, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Scott B Patten, Neil Pearce, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Michael R Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, Sébastien Pion, Guilherme V Polanczyk, Suzanne Polinder, C Arden Pope, Svetlana Popova, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Rachel L Pullan, Kapa D Ramaiah, Dharani Ranganathan, Homie Razavi, Mathilda Regan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Carolyn Robinson, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Luca Ronfani, Robin Room, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, James Graham Scott, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Donald S Shepard, Hwashin Shin, Rupak Shivakoti, David Singh, Gitanjali M Singh, Jasvinder A Singh, Jessica Singleton, David A Sleet, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Jennifer L Smith, Nicolas J C Stapelberg, Andrew Steer, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Sana Syed, Giorgio Tamburlini, Mohammad Tavakkoli, Hugh R Taylor, Jennifer A Taylor, William J Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, W Murray Thomson, George D Thurston, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marcello Tonelli, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris, Clotilde Ubeda, Eduardo A Undurraga, Marieke J van der Werf, Jim van Os, Monica S Vavilala, N Venketasubramanian, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, David J Weatherall, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Myrna M Weissman, Richard A White, Harvey Whiteford, Steven T Wiersma, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Sean R M Williams, Emma Witt, Frederick Wolfe, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Anita K M Zaidi, Zhi-Jie Zheng, David Zonies, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaustive set of disorders at the global and regional level. Neither effort quantified uncertainty in prevalence or years lived with disability (YLDs).
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Common values in assessing health outcomes from disease and injury: disability weights measurement study for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Joshua A Salomon, Theo Vos, Daniel R Hogan, Michael Gagnon, Mohsen Naghavi, Ali Mokdad, Nazma Begum, Razibuzzaman Shah, Muhammad Karyana, Soewarta Kosen, Mario Reyna Farje, Gilberto Moncada, Arup Dutta, Sunil Sazawal, Andrew Dyer, Jason Seiler, Victor Aboyans, Lesley Baker, Amanda Baxter, Emelia J Benjamin, Kavi Bhalla, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Fiona Blyth, Rupert Bourne, Tasanee Braithwaite, Peter Brooks, Traolach S Brugha, Claire Bryan-Hancock, Rachelle Buchbinder, Peter Burney, Bianca Calabria, Honglei Chen, Sumeet S Chugh, Rebecca Cooley, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Nabila Dahodwala, Adrian Davis, Louisa Degenhardt, César Diaz-Torné, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Karen Edmond, Alexis Elbaz, Majid Ezzati, Valery Feigin, Cleusa P Ferri, Abraham D Flaxman, Louise Flood, Marlene Fransen, Kana Fuse, Belinda J Gabbe, Richard F Gillum, Juanita Haagsma, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Abdullah Hel-Baqui, Hans W Hoek, Howard Hoffman, Emily Hogeland, Damian Hoy, Deborah Jarvis, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Tim Lathlean, Janet L Leasher, Stephen S Lim, Steven E Lipshultz, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Ronan Lyons, Reza Malekzadeh, Wagner Marcenes, Lyn March, David J Margolis, Neil McGill, John McGrath, George A Mensah, Ana-Claire Meyer, Catherine Michaud, Andrew Moran, Rintaro Mori, Michele E Murdoch, Luigi Naldi, Charles R Newton, Rosana Norman, Saad B Omer, Richard Osborne, Neil Pearce, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, Konrad Pesudovs, David Phillips, Farshad Pourmalek, Martin Prince, Jürgen T Rehm, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Kathryn Richardson, Robin Room, Sukanta Saha, Uchechukwu Sampson, Lidia Sanchez-Riera, Maria Segui-Gomez, Saeid Shahraz, Kenji Shibuya, David Singh, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Timothy Steiner, Wilma A Stolk, Lars Jacob Stovner, Christopher Sudfeld, Hugh R Taylor, Imad M Tleyjeh, Marieke J van der Werf, Wendy L Watson, David J Weatherall, Robert Weintraub, Marc G Weisskopf, Harvey Whiteford, James D Wilkinson, Anthony D Woolf, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Christopher J L Murray, Jost B Jonas.
Lancet
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Measurement of the global burden of disease with disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) requires disability weights that quantify health losses for all non-fatal consequences of disease and injury. There has been extensive debate about a range of conceptual and methodological issues concerning the definition and measurement of these weights. Our primary objective was a comprehensive re-estimation of disability weights for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 through a large-scale empirical investigation in which judgments about health losses associated with many causes of disease and injury were elicited from the general public in diverse communities through a new, standardised approach.
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Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.
Rafael Lozano, Mohsen Naghavi, Kyle Foreman, Stephen Lim, Kenji Shibuya, Victor Aboyans, Jerry Abraham, Timothy Adair, Rakesh Aggarwal, Stephanie Y Ahn, Miriam Alvarado, H Ross Anderson, Laurie M Anderson, Kathryn G Andrews, Charles Atkinson, Larry M Baddour, Suzanne Barker-Collo, David H Bartels, Michelle L Bell, Emelia J Benjamin, Derrick Bennett, Kavi Bhalla, Boris Bikbov, Aref Bin Abdulhak, Gretchen Birbeck, Fiona Blyth, Ian Bolliger, Soufiane Boufous, Chiara Bucello, Michael Burch, Peter Burney, Jonathan Carapetis, Honglei Chen, David Chou, Sumeet S Chugh, Luc E Coffeng, Steven D Colan, Samantha Colquhoun, K Ellicott Colson, John Condon, Myles D Connor, Leslie T Cooper, Matthew Corriere, Monica Cortinovis, Karen Courville de Vaccaro, William Couser, Benjamin C Cowie, Michael H Criqui, Marita Cross, Kaustubh C Dabhadkar, Nabila Dahodwala, Diego De Leo, Louisa Degenhardt, Allyne Delossantos, Julie Denenberg, Don C Des Jarlais, Samath D Dharmaratne, E Ray Dorsey, Tim Driscoll, Herbert Duber, Beth Ebel, Patricia J Erwin, Patricia Espindola, Majid Ezzati, Valery Feigin, Abraham D Flaxman, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Francis Gerry R Fowkes, Richard Franklin, Marlene Fransen, Michael K Freeman, Sherine E Gabriel, Emmanuela Gakidou, Flavio Gaspari, Richard F Gillum, Diego Gonzalez-Medina, Yara A Halasa, Diana Haring, James E Harrison, Rasmus Havmoeller, Roderick J Hay, Bruno Hoen, Peter J Hotez, Damian Hoy, Kathryn H Jacobsen, Spencer L James, Rashmi Jasrasaria, Sudha Jayaraman, Nicole Johns, Ganesan Karthikeyan, Nicholas Kassebaum, Andre Keren, Jon-Paul Khoo, Lisa Marie Knowlton, Olive Kobusingye, Adofo Koranteng, Rita Krishnamurthi, Michael Lipnick, Steven E Lipshultz, Summer Lockett Ohno, Jacqueline Mabweijano, Michael F MacIntyre, Leslie Mallinger, Lyn March, Guy B Marks, Robin Marks, Akira Matsumori, Richard Matzopoulos, Bongani M Mayosi, John H McAnulty, Mary M McDermott, John McGrath, George A Mensah, Tony R Merriman, Catherine Michaud, Matthew Miller, Ted R Miller, Charles Mock, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Ali A Mokdad, Andrew Moran, Kim Mulholland, M Nathan Nair, Luigi Naldi, K M Venkat Narayan, Kiumarss Nasseri, Paul Norman, Martin O'Donnell, Saad B Omer, Katrina Ortblad, Richard Osborne, Doruk Ozgediz, Bishnu Pahari, Jeyaraj Durai Pandian, Andrea Panozo Rivero, Rogelio Pérez Padilla, Fernando Perez-Ruiz, Norberto Perico, David Phillips, Kelsey Pierce, C Arden Pope, Esteban Porrini, Farshad Pourmalek, Murugesan Raju, Dharani Ranganathan, Jürgen T Rehm, David B Rein, Guiseppe Remuzzi, Frederick P Rivara, Thomas Roberts, Felipe Rodriguez De Leòn, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Lesley Rushton, Ralph L Sacco, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Ella Sanman, David C Schwebel, Maria Segui-Gomez, Donald S Shepard, David Singh, Jessica Singleton, Karen Sliwa, Emma Smith, Andrew Steer, Jennifer A Taylor, Bernadette Thomas, Imad M Tleyjeh, Jeffrey A Towbin, Thomas Truelsen, Eduardo A Undurraga, N Venketasubramanian, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Theo Vos, Gregory R Wagner, Mengru Wang, Wenzhi Wang, Kerrianne Watt, Martin A Weinstock, Robert Weintraub, James D Wilkinson, Anthony D Woolf, Sarah Wulf, Pon-Hsiu Yeh, Paul Yip, Azadeh Zabetian, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray, Mohammad A AlMazroa, Ziad A Memish.
Lancet
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Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex.
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Can spirometric norms be set using pre- or post- bronchodilator test results in older people?
Respir. Res.
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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is defined by post-bronchodilator spirometry. Data on "normal values" come predominantly from pre-bronchodilator spirometry. The effects of this on diagnosis are unknown.
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Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA.
Nikolaos G Papadopoulos, Ioana Agache, Sevim Bavbek, Beatrice M Bilo, Fulvio Braido, Victòria Cardona, Adnan Custovic, Jan Demonchy, Pascal Demoly, Philippe Eigenmann, Jacques Gayraud, Clive Grattan, Enrico Heffler, Peter W Hellings, Marek Jutel, Edward Knol, Jan Lötvall, Antonella Muraro, Lars K Poulsen, Graham Roberts, Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier, Chrysanthi Skevaki, Massimo Triggiani, Ronald Vanree, Thomas Werfel, Breda Flood, Susanna Palkonen, Roberta Savli, Pia Allegri, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Francesco Annunziato, Dario Antolin-Amerigo, Christian Apfelbacher, Miguel Blanca, Ewa Bogacka, Patrizia Bonadonna, Matteo Bonini, Onur Boyman, Knut Brockow, Peter Burney, Jeroen Buters, Indre Butiene, Moises Calderon, Lars Olaf Cardell, Jean-Christoph Caubet, Sevcan Celenk, Ewa Cichocka-Jarosz, Cemal Cingi, Mariana Couto, Nicolette Dejong, Stefano Del Giacco, Nikolaos Douladiris, Filippo Fassio, Jean-Luc Fauquert, Javier Fernández, Montserrat Fernandez Rivas, Marta Ferrer, Carsten Flohr, James Gardner, Jon Genuneit, Philippe Gevaert, Anna Groblewska, Eckard Hamelmann, Hans Jürgen Hoffmann, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Lilit Hovhannisyan, Valérie Hox, Frode L Jahnsen, Omer Kalayci, Ayse Füsun Kalpaklioglu, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, George Konstantinou, Marcin Kurowski, Susanne Lau, Roger Lauener, Antti Lauerma, Kirsty Logan, Antoine Magnan, Joanna Makowska, Heidi Makrinioti, Paraskevi Mangina, Felicia Manole, Adriano Mari, Angel Mazon, Clare Mills, Ervinç Mingomataj, Bodo Niggemann, Gunnar Nilsson, Markus Ollert, Liam O'Mahony, Serena O'Neil, Gianni Pala, Alberto Papi, Gianni Passalacqua, Michael Perkin, Oliver Pfaar, Constantinos Pitsios, Santiago Quirce, Ulrike Raap, Monika Raulf-Heimsoth, Claudio Rhyner, Paula Robson-Ansley, Rodrigo Rodrigues Alves, Zeljka Roje, Carmen Rondón, Odilija Rudzeviciene, Franziska Rueff, Maia Rukhadze, Gabriele Rumi, Cansin Sackesen, Alexandra F Santos, Annalisa Santucci, Christian Scharf, Carsten Schmidt-Weber, Benno Schnyder, Jürgen Schwarze, Gianenrico Senna, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Andrea Siracusa, Isabel Skypala, Milena Sokolowska, François Spertini, Radoslaw Spiewak, Aline Sprikkelman, Gunter Sturm, Ines Swoboda, Ingrid Terreehorst, Elina Toskala, Claudia Traidl-Hoffmann, Carina Venter, Berber Vlieg-Boerstra, Paul Whitacker, Margitta Worm, Paraskevi Xepapadaki, Cezmi A Akdis.
Clin Transl Allergy
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In less than half a century, allergy, originally perceived as a rare disease, has become a major public health threat, today affecting the lives of more than 60 million people in Europe, and probably close to one billion worldwide, thereby heavily impacting the budgets of public health systems. More disturbingly, its prevalence and impact are on the rise, a development that has been associated with environmental and lifestyle changes accompanying the continuous process of urbanization and globalization. Therefore, there is an urgent need to prioritize and concert research efforts in the field of allergy, in order to achieve sustainable results on prevention, diagnosis and treatment of this most prevalent chronic disease of the 21st century.The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is the leading professional organization in the field of allergy, promoting excellence in clinical care, education, training and basic and translational research, all with the ultimate goal of improving the health of allergic patients. The European Federation of Allergy and Airways Diseases Patients Associations (EFA) is a non-profit network of allergy, asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) patients organizations. In support of their missions, the present EAACI Position Paper, in collaboration with EFA, highlights the most important research needs in the field of allergy to serve as key recommendations for future research funding at the national and European levels.Although allergies may involve almost every organ of the body and an array of diverse external factors act as triggers, there are several common themes that need to be prioritized in research efforts. As in many other chronic diseases, effective prevention, curative treatment and accurate, rapid diagnosis represent major unmet needs. Detailed phenotyping/endotyping stands out as widely required in order to arrange or re-categorize clinical syndromes into more coherent, uniform and treatment-responsive groups. Research efforts to unveil the basic pathophysiologic pathways and mechanisms, thus leading to the comprehension and resolution of the pathophysiologic complexity of allergies will allow for the design of novel patient-oriented diagnostic and treatment protocols. Several allergic diseases require well-controlled epidemiological description and surveillance, using disease registries, pharmacoeconomic evaluation, as well as large biobanks. Additionally, there is a need for extensive studies to bring promising new biotechnological innovations, such as biological agents, vaccines of modified allergen molecules and engineered components for allergy diagnosis, closer to clinical practice. Finally, particular attention should be paid to the difficult-to-manage, precarious and costly severe disease forms and/or exacerbations. Nonetheless, currently arising treatments, mainly in the fields of immunotherapy and biologicals, hold great promise for targeted and causal management of allergic conditions. Active involvement of all stakeholders, including Patient Organizations and policy makers are necessary to achieve the aims emphasized herein.
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EuroPrevall survey on prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania.
Medicina (Kaunas)
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The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed. RESULTS. Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cows milk and hazelnuts. CONCLUSIONS. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools.
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Case-finding options for COPD: results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study.
Eur. Respir. J.
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This study aimed to compare strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) case finding using data from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study. Population-based samples of adults aged ?40 yrs (n = 9,390) from 14 countries completed a questionnaire and spirometry. We compared the screening efficiency of differently staged algorithms that used questionnaire data and/or peak expiratory flow (PEF) data to identify persons at risk for COPD and, hence, needing confirmatory spirometry. Separate algorithms were fitted for moderate/severe COPD and for severe COPD. We estimated the cost of each algorithm in 1,000 people. For moderate/severe COPD, use of questionnaire data alone permitted high sensitivity (97%) but required confirmatory spirometry in 80% of participants. Use of PEF necessitated confirmatory spirometry in only 19-22% of subjects, with 83-84% sensitivity. For severe COPD, use of PEF achieved 91-93% sensitivity, requiring confirmatory spirometry in <9% of participants. Cost analysis suggested that a staged screening algorithm using only PEF initially, followed by confirmatory spirometry as needed, was the most cost-effective case-finding strategy. Our results support the use of PEF as a simple, cost-effective initial screening tool for conducting COPD case-finding in adults aged ?40 yrs. These findings should be validated in real-world settings such as the primary care environment.
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Worldwide patterns of bronchodilator responsiveness: results from the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study.
Thorax
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Criteria for a clinically significant bronchodilator response (BDR) are mainly based on studies in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Little is known about the BDR in healthy general populations, and even less about the worldwide patterns.
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PM10-induced hospital admissions for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the modifying effect of individual characteristics.
Epidemiology
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Evidence suggests that oxidative stress is a unifying feature underlying the toxic actions of particulate matter (PM). We have investigated whether individual plasma antioxidant concentrations (uric acid and vitamins C, A, and E) and 10 antioxidant genes modify the response to PM with respect to hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma.
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Gender differences in prevalence, diagnosis and incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma: a population-based cohort.
Thorax
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Although women with severe non-allergic asthma may represent a substantial proportion of adults with asthma in clinical practice, gender differences in the incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma have been little investigated in the general population.
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