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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dynamics of leukemia stem-like cell extinction in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Many tumors are believed to be maintained by a small number of cancer stem-like cells, where cure is thought to require eradication of this cell population. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) before and during therapy with regard to disease initiation, progression, and therapeutic response. This investigation used a mathematical model of hematopoiesis and a dataset derived from the North American Intergroup Study INT0129. The known phenotypic constraints of APL could be explained by a combination of differentiation blockade of PML-RAR?-positive cells and suppression of normal hematopoiesis. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) neutralizes the differentiation block and decreases the proliferation rate of leukemic stem cells in vivo. Prolonged ATRA treatment after chemotherapy can cure patients with APL by eliminating the stem-like cell population over the course of approximately one year. To our knowledge, this study offers the first estimate of the average duration of therapy that is required to eliminate stem-like cancer cells from a human tumor, with the potential for the refinement of treatment strategies to better manage human malignancy.
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Inching toward cure of acute myeloid leukemia: a summary of the progress made in the last 50 years.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Despite some claims to the contrary, I believe substantial progress has been made in the last half century toward cure of acute myeloid leukemia in children and adults. The tried and true mechanism for this progress has been clinical trial and error. This method has been supplemented with an ever-increasing amount of work at the clinical laboratory interface that is beginning to allow us to develop specific therapy for afflicted individuals. This review details where we stand today and how we got here.
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Optimal therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission.
Curr Treat Options Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Although it is absolutely clear that postremission therapy is currently necessary to obtain disease-free long-term survivorship for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR), it is not entirely clear what form that treatment should take. High-dose cytarabine is clearly effective and there definitely is a dose-response relationship for cytarabine and remission duration. High-dose cytarabine is effective for younger patients but not elderly patients. It is effective for patients with favorable cytogenetics but it is not clear whether it is effective for patients with intermediate or unfavorable cytogenetics. Furthermore, it is not clear what the most effective and least toxic dose and schedule of high-dose cytarabine is.
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Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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There are limited data on the outcomes of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma. We analyzed transplantation outcomes in 141 subjects with biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1990 and 2009. Two groups were identified: autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 108) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 33). Fewer auto-HCTs were done for transformed follicular lymphoma in 2003 to 2009, with a shift favoring allo-HCT. Auto-HCT was associated with a 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 14%), 5-year progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), and 5-year overall survival of 50% (95% CI, 40% to 59%). In contrast, allo-HCT was associated with a 1-year NRM of 41% (95% CI, 23% to 58%), 5-year progression-free survival of 18% (95% CI, 6% to 35%), and 5-year overall survival of 22% (95% CI, 8% to 41%). Auto-HCT for transformed follicular lymphoma achieves sustained remission in a high proportion of subjects. The high NRM of allo-HCT offset any benefit that might be associated with this transplantation modality.
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Unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation after failure of autologous transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia: a study from the center for international blood and marrow transplantation research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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The survival of patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is very poor. We studied the outcomes of 302 patients who underwent secondary allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) using either myeloablative (n = 242) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC; n = 60) regimens reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research. After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 2 to 160 months), the probability of treatment-related mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-50%) at 1-year. The 5-year incidence of relapse was 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), and that of overall survival was 22% (95% CI, 18%-27%). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly better overal survival with RIC regimens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75; P <.001), with Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82: P = .001) and in cytomegalovirus-negative recipients (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94; P = .022). A longer interval (>18 months) from auto-HCT to URD allo-HCT was associated with significantly lower riak of relapse (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.38; P <.001) and improved leukemia-free survival (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.84; P = .006). URD allo-HCT after auto-HCT relapse resulted in 20% long-term leukemia-free survival, with the best results seen in patients with a longer interval to secondary URD transplantation, with a Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90%, in complete remission, and using an RIC regimen. Further efforts to reduce treatment-related mortaility and relapse are still needed.
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Lenalidomide in lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Lenalidomide , a thalidomide analog, is representative of a new class of antineoplastic drugs which has been especially effective in certain hematologic malignancies such as myeloma and myelodysplasia. Lenalidomide has anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory properties, and targets tumor cells by direct cytotoxicity and, indirectly by interfering with several components of the tumor microenvironment [1]. Lenalidomide retains antitumor activity equal to or greater than the parent compound, thalidomide, but with less toxicity [2].
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The clinical characteristics, therapy and outcome of 85 adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 prospectively treated in the UKALLXII/ECOG2993 trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The biology and outcome of adult t(4;11)(q21;q23)/MLL-AFF1 acute lymphoblastic leukemia are poorly understood. We describe the outcome and delineate prognostic factors and optimal post-remission therapy in 85 consecutive patients (median age 38 years) treated uniformly in the prospective trial UKALLXII/ECOG2993. The immunophenotype of this leukemia was pro-B (CD10(NEG)). Immaturity was further suggested by high expression of the stem-cell antigens, CD133 and CD135, although CD34 expression was significantly lower than in t(4;11)-negative patients. Complete remission was achieved in 77 (93%) patients but only 35% survived 5 years (95% CI: 25-45%); the relapse rate was 45% (95% CI: 33-58%). Thirty-one patients underwent allogeneic transplantation in first remission (15 sibling donors and 16 unrelated donors): with 5-year survival rates of 56% and 67% respectively, only 2/31 patients relapsed. This compares with a 24% survival rate and 59% relapse rate in 46 patients who received post-remission chemotherapy. A major determinant of outcome was age with 71% of patients aged <25 years surviving. Younger patients had lower relapse rates (19%) but most received allografts in first complete remission. In conclusion, multivariate analysis did not demonstrate an advantage of allografting over chemotherapy but only five younger patients received chemotherapy. Prospective trials are required to determine whether poor outcomes in older patients can be improved by reduced-intensity conditioning allografts. NCT00002514 www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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All-trans retinoic acid and late relapses in acute promyelocytic leukemia: very long-term follow-up of the North American Intergroup Study I0129.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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We report a long-term follow-up (median 11.8 years) of the First North American Intergroup Study. 379 patients were randomized to induction with ATRA or to chemotherapy. All complete responders (CR) received consolidation chemotherapy, then randomized to 1 year ATRA or observation. 245 patients received ATRA sometime during the study: 195 (80%) achieved a CR. Nine (4.6%) relapsed late (>3 years from CR), the last occurred after 4.6 years; 7 of them were still alive after 5.5-15 years. In APL patients, late relapses are uncommon, and those who sustain CR >5 years can be considered cured.
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ETV6 mutations in early immature human T cell leukemias.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Early immature T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) account for ~5-10% of pediatric T-ALLs and are associated with poor prognosis. However, the genetic defects that drive the biology of these tumors remain largely unknown. In this study, analysis of microarray gene expression signatures in adult T-ALL demonstrated a high prevalence of early immature leukemias and revealed a close relationship between these tumors and myeloid leukemias. Many adult immature T-ALLs harbored mutations in myeloid-specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors including IDH1, IDH2, DNMT3A, FLT3, and NRAS. Moreover, we identified ETV6 mutations as a novel genetic lesion uniquely present in immature adult T-ALL. Our results demonstrate that early immature adult T-ALL represents a heterogeneous category of leukemias characterized by the presence of overlapping myeloid and T-ALL characteristics, and highlight the potential role of ETV6 mutations in these tumors.
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia of adulthood: progress or not?
Curr Treat Options Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Much new information about ALL in adults has recently been learned from major clinical and laboratory studies. However, much of the recently reported improved management of this leukemia pertains only to younger patients. Elderly patients do not fair very well with modern therapy, including intensified treatment approaches. The question arises whether current treatment may be unnecessarily intensive, not only for elderly patients but for most patients. There are no prospective, randomized studies that clearly demonstrate that anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide or cytarabine are required for optimal results in this leukemia. Eliminating drugs of marginal value but with the potential for considerable toxicity may allow us to intensify treatment with drugs that are most effective at a cost of even less toxicity than usually expected.
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Single-agent rituximab in treatment-refractory or poor prognosis patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Rituximab in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide has significantly improved outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and an improvement in overall survival has recently been shown for the first time in the history of CLL treatment. However, the chemotherapy portion of this regimen may be unsuitable for elderly patients or those with significant comorbidities. We investigated the safety and tolerability of single-agent rituximab in 23 consecutive patients presenting with CLL at a single institution.
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Trends in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: a CIBMTR analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in multiple myeloma is limited by prior reports of high treatment-related mortality. We analyzed outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma in 1207 recipients in 3 cohorts based on the year of transplantation: 1989-1994 (n = 343), 1995-2000 (n = 376), and 2001-2005 (n = 488). The most recent cohort was significantly older (53% > 50 years) and had more recipients after prior autotransplantation. Use of unrelated donors, reduced-intensity conditioning and the blood cell grafts increased over time. Rates of acute graft-versus-host (GVHD) were similar, but chronic GVHD rates were highest in the most recent cohort. Overall survival (OS) at 1-year increased over time, reflecting a decrease in treatment-related mortality, but 5-year relapse rates increased from 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33%-44%) in 1989-1994 to 58% (95% CI, 51%-64%; P < .001) in the 2001-2005 cohort. Projected 5-year progression-free survival and OS are 14% (95% CI, 9%-20%) and 29% (95% CI, 23%-35%), respectively, in the latest cohort. Increasing age, longer interval from diagnosis to transplantation, and unrelated donor grafts adversely affected OS in multivariate analysis. Survival at 5 years for subjects with none, 1, 2, or 3 of these risk factors were 41% (range, 36%-47%), 32% (range, 27%-37%), 25% (range, 19%-31%), and 3% (range, 0%-11%), respectively (P < .0001).
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Outcome of patients with IgD and IgM multiple myeloma undergoing autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective CIBMTR study.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
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Immunoglobulin D (IgD) and IgM multiple myeloma represent uncommon immunoglobulin isotypes, accounting for 2% and 0.5% of cases, respectively. Limited information is available regarding the prognosis of these isotypes, but they have been considered to have a more aggressive course than the more common immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA isotypes. In particular, the outcome after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) has not been well defined.
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Phase II study of interleukin-4 in indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a study of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (E5Y92).
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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Recombinant interleukin (IL)-4, 5??g/kg thrice weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week rest period (1 cycle) was administered to 32 eligible previously treated B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (7 patients) or low-grade B-cell lymphoma patients (25 patients). Two cycles were given before response was evaluated. IL-6 serum levels were evaluated before therapy in all patients and at 12 weeks on study in 7 patients. None of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients responded. A partial response was observed in 3 lymphoma patients of 1.2, 3.0, and 3.5 months duration and stable disease (median 1.5?mo) was observed in another 7 lymphoma patients. The median survival from registration on study was 29.7 months with 7 patients alive at the time of analysis for a median follow-up of 72.8 months. Toxicity was generally mild with no grade 4 nonhematologic toxicity observed. Recombinant IL-4 treatment was well tolerated in this study but had minimal antitumor activity.
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Does microgranular variant morphology of acute promyelocytic leukemia independently predict a less favorable outcome compared with classical M3 APL? A joint study of the North American Intergroup and the PETHEMA Group.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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Few studies have examined the outcome of large numbers of patients with the microgranular variant (M3V) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in the all-trans retinoic acid era. Here, the outcome of 155 patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid-based therapy on 3 clinical trials, North American Intergroup protocol I0129 and Programa para el Estudio de la Terapéutica en Hemopatía Maligna protocols LPA96 and LPA99, are reported. The complete remission rate for all 155 patients was 82%, compared with 89% for 748 patients with classical M3 disease. The incidence of the APL differentiation syndrome was 26%, compared with 25% for classical M3 patients, and the early death rate was 13.6% compared with 8.4% for patients with classical M3 morphology. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 3.6-14.5), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse for patients with M3V were 70%, 73%, and 24%, respectively. With a median follow-up time among survivors of 7.6 years (range 0.6-14.3), the 5-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and cumulative incidence of relapse among patients with classical M3 morphology were 80% (P = .006 compared with M3V), 81% (P = .07), and 15% (P = .005), respectively. When outcomes were adjusted for the white blood cell count or the relapse risk score, none of these outcomes were significantly different between patients with M3V and classical M3 APL.
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FLT3 inhibitors for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2010
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The fms-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3), which is important for the normal development of hematopoietic stem cells and cells of the immune system, is frequently mutated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3 is, therefore, a potential therapeutic target in AML. Recently, FLT3 inhibitors have shown therapeutic activity in AML patients with FLT3 mutations. Sorafenib and sunitinib were the first FLT3 inhibitors to be studied in the clinic and have the most clinically relevant data. Limited data are available for midostaurin (PKC412), lestaurtinib (CEP-701), tandutinib (MLN518), AC220, and KW-2449. It is likely that optimal application of these agents will involve combinations of inhibitors and combinations of inhibitors and chemotherapy, potentially with a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor such as everolimus or temsirolimus. This review discusses the theoretical rationale for the use of these agents and summarizes the relevant clinical data.
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Adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia who achieve complete remission after 1 or 2 cycles of induction have a similar prognosis: a report on 1980 patients registered to 6 studies conducted by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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Patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often have residual leukemia in the bone marrow 10 to 14 days after the start of induction therapy. Some cooperative groups administer a second cycle of similar induction therapy on Day 14 if there is residual leukemia. It is a common perception that the presence of residual leukemia at that point predicts a worse prognosis irrespective of the therapy received. The objective of this study was to determine whether patients who required a second cycle of induction (given on or about Day 14) to achieve complete remission (CR) had a worse prognosis than patients who achieved CR after only 1 cycle, because a worse prognosis may alter postremission therapy.
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The TLX1 oncogene drives aneuploidy in T cell transformation.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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The TLX1 oncogene (encoding the transcription factor T cell leukemia homeobox protein-1) has a major role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, the specific mechanisms of T cell transformation downstream of TLX1 remain to be elucidated. Here we show that transgenic expression of human TLX1 in mice induces T-ALL with frequent deletions and mutations in Bcl11b (encoding B cell leukemia/lymphoma-11B) and identify the presence of recurrent mutations and deletions in BCL11B in 16% of human T-ALLs. Most notably, mouse TLX1 tumors were typically aneuploid and showed a marked defect in the activation of the mitotic checkpoint. Mechanistically, TLX1 directly downregulates the expression of CHEK1 (encoding CHK1 checkpoint homolog) and additional mitotic control genes and induces loss of the mitotic checkpoint in nontransformed preleukemic thymocytes. These results identify a previously unrecognized mechanism contributing to chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy active at the earliest stages of tumor development in the pathogenesis of cancer.
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A phase 2 trial of immunotherapy with mitumprotimut-T (Id-KLH) and GM-CSF following rituximab in follicular B-cell lymphoma.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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We evaluated the efficacy and safety of patient-specific immunotherapy with mitumprotimut-T idiotype keyhole limpet hemocyanin and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) following rituximab in patients with follicular B-cell lymphoma. Patients with previously untreated or relapsed/refractory CD20+ follicular lymphoma received 4 weekly infusions of rituximab and those with a complete response (CR), partial response (PR), or stable disease received mitumprotimut-T and GM-CSF injections subcutaneously. Courses were given monthly for 6 doses, every 2 months for 6 doses, and then every 3 months until disease progression. Computed tomography scans were obtained every 3 to 6 months and reviewed centrally. The primary endpoint was event-free survival (EFS). Among 103 patients treated with rituximab, 92 (54 relapsed/refractory and 38 previously untreated) received mitumprotimut-T/GM-CSF; median age was 53 years, 91% had stage III to IV disease, and 59% had failed earlier therapy. The premitumprotimut-T objective response rate was 47% (2 CRs, 41 PRs). During the mitumprotimut-T treatment phase, 16 patients converted to CR resulting in an overall objective response rate of 60% (18 CRs, 37 PRs). Median EFS was 15.2, 20.8, and 13.5 months for all, treatment-naive, and relapsed/refractory disease patients, respectively. Anti-Id cellular immune responses were detected in 13 of 18 (72%) patients and humoral immune responses in 17 of 83 (20%) patients. Adverse events were usually mild-to-moderate. The most common adverse event was injection site reactions. Mitumprotimut-T/GM-CSF-induced anti-Id cellular immune responses in most patients. The occurrence of late CRs and favorable EFS suggested a clinical benefit of active immunotherapy and led to a placebo-controlled phase 3 trial.
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PHF6 mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Tumor suppressor genes on the X chromosome may skew the gender distribution of specific types of cancer. T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy with an increased incidence in males. In this study, we report the identification of inactivating mutations and deletions in the X-linked plant homeodomain finger 6 (PHF6) gene in 16% of pediatric and 38% of adult primary T-ALL samples. Notably, PHF6 mutations are almost exclusively found in T-ALL samples from male subjects. Mutational loss of PHF6 is importantly associated with leukemias driven by aberrant expression of the homeobox transcription factor oncogenes TLX1 and TLX3. Overall, these results identify PHF6 as a new X-linked tumor suppressor in T-ALL and point to a strong genetic interaction between PHF6 loss and aberrant expression of TLX transcription factors in the pathogenesis of this disease.
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Detection of a new embryonic antigen (ESA-10) in the blood of patients with cancer: preliminary results in the United States.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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ESA-10 is an embryonic antigen expressed by tumor cells. A method to detect the antigen in the blood based on alterations in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate that occur when antiserum to ESA-10 is bound to the antigen in blood was devised and used here to determine the sensitivity and predictive value of the test in patients with biopsy proven non-hematologic malignancies, and in normal control subjects. The test was positive in 22 of 24 cancer patients tested, and negative in 30 of 35 control subjects. Of the five positive control subjects, one female had recently given birth and was lactating. Another control subject was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer, just months after having participated in this study. Therefore, this tumor marker test (Turtest(®)) had a sensitivity of 91.7% and a positive predictive value of 81.5% in patients with biopsy proven cancer, and a specificity and negative predictive value in control subjects of 88.2 and 93.8%, respectively, if the control subject who subsequently developed prostate cancer is removed from the control group. Therefore, this simple test has potential as a clinically useful tumor marker with sensitivity and specificity equal to or greater than other commercially available tumor markers and should be explored further in larger studies.
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Treatment of hematologic neoplasms with new immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).
Curr Treat Options Oncol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
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Thalidomide and its derivatives represent a new class of antineoplastic drugs (IMiDs), which has been especially effective in certain hematologic malignancies. These agents have anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties, and target tumor cells by direct cytotoxicity and indirectly by interfering with several components of the bone marrow microenvironment. Thalidomide analogs that retain antitumor activity equal to or greater than the parent compound, but with less toxicity, have been developed. This paper summarizes what is known about the mechanisms of action of these agents, and recent clinical results. The data suggest that thalidomide analogs will play a major role in the management of certain hematologic neoplasms in the near future.
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Radiation therapy compared with chemotherapy for consolidation of chemotherapy-induced remission of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma: a study by the Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group (E1476) with >20 years follow-up.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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MOPP-Bleo (nitrogen mustard, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone and bleomycin) induction therapy was given to 253 evaluable patients with Hodgkin lymphoma, stages IIIB, III(s), or IV. Complete response (CR) occurred in 145 patients (57%) and partial response (PR) in 93 (37%). Of those 238 responders, 178 were randomized to consolidation therapy, and 164 were eligible and analyzable, including 114 CRs [55 patients randomized to ABVD and 59 to radiation therapy (RT)] and 50 partial responders (PRs) (25 each randomized to ABVD and RT). Among the 50 patients with PR, 34 (68%) converted to CR (16 with ABVD and 18 with RT). Therefore, of 253 patients, 182(72%) achieved CR and 56 (22%), PR. Median follow-up for all patients is 22.3 years and the estimated overall survival (OS) rate at 20 years is 48%. Of the 148 eligible, analyzable patients with CR, the estimated proportion remaining in CR at 20 years is 62%. OS at 20 years was significantly greater for patients receiving ABVD consolidation (66%) when compared with those who received RT consolidation (43%) (p = 0.002). Treatment toxicity was acceptable. After MOPP-Bleo induction for advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, ABVD provides better consolidation than local RT.
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Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces durable responses in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkins Lymphoma.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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Lenalidomide is a novel immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activities. Given its efficacy in a wide range of hematologic malignancies, we conducted a phase II trial (NHL-001) of single-agent lenalidomide in indolent non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL).
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Race and outcomes of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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Blacks are twice as likely to develop and die from multiple myeloma (MM), and are less likely to receive an autologous hematopoietic-cell transplant (AHCT) for MM compared to Whites. The influence of race on outcomes of AHCT for MM is not well described. We compared the probability of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease progression, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) among Black (N=303) and White (N=1892) recipients of AHCT for MM, who were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1995 to 2005. The Black cohort was more likely to be female, and had better Karnofsky performance scores, but lower hemoglobin and albumin levels at diagnosis. Black recipients were younger and more likely to be transplanted later in their disease course. Disease stage and treatment characteristics prior to AHCT were similar between the 2 groups. Black and White recipients had similar probabilities of 5-year OS (52% versus 47%, P=.19) and PFS (19% versus 21%, P=.64) as well as cumulative incidences of disease progression (72% versus 72%, P=.97) and NRM (9% versus 8%, P=.52). In multivariate analyses, race was not associated with any of these endpoints. Black recipients of AHCT for MM have similar outcomes compared to Whites, suggesting that the reasons underlying lower rates of AHCT in Blacks need to be studied further to ensure equal access to effective therapy.
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Treatment of children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: results of the first North American Intergroup trial INT0129.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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This report focuses on the children enrolled on the first North American Intergroup study of APL (INT0129). This study was designed to compare the rates of CR, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity of therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) for remission induction and/or maintenance compared to conventional chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated APL.
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Mutations in a gene encoding a midbody kelch protein in familial and sporadic classical Hodgkin lymphoma lead to binucleated cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2009
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Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is a malignancy of B-cell origin in which the neoplastic cells, known as "Reed-Sternberg" (RS) cells, are characteristically binucleated. Here we describe a family where multiple individuals developing cHL have inherited a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 2 and 3. The translocation disrupts KLHDC8B, an uncharacterized gene from a region (3p21.31) previously implicated in lymphoma and related malignancies, resulting in its loss of expression. We tested KLHDC8B as a candidate gene for cHL and found that a 5-UTR polymorphism responsible for decreasing its translational expression is associated with cHL in probands from other families with cHL and segregates with disease in those pedigrees. In one of three informative sporadic cases of cHL, we detected loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for KLHDC8B in RS cells, but not reactive T lymphocytes, purified from a malignant lymph node. KLHDC8B encodes a protein predicted to contain seven kelch repeat domains. KLHDC8B is expressed during mitosis, where it localizes to the midbody structure connecting cells about to separate during cytokinesis, and it is degraded after cell division. Depletion of KLHDC8B through RNA interference leads to an increase in binucleated cells, implicating its reduced expression in the formation of cHLs signature RS cell.
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A pilot study of carboplatin and mitoxantrone in blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2009
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The efficacy and toxicity of carboplatin plus mitoxantrone in blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CMLBC) were evaluated. Between 1990 and 1996, 20 patients (11 males and nine females, median age of 49 years [range 30-75 years]) were treated with carboplatin, 250 mg/m(2)/day x 5 days as an infusion and mitoxantrone, 10 mg/m(2)/day x 3 days, IV bolus. Median time from diagnosis of CML to BC was 4.25 years (range 0-11 years). CMLBC was myeloid in 13 patients, lymphoid in six, and megakaryocytic in one. All patients were Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome positive; four had a single Ph chromosome, five had double Ph chromosome, three had abnormalities of chromosome 17, and eight had complex cytogenetic abnormalities. Prior treatment for chronic phase included hydroxyurea (12 patients), interferon-alpha (11 patients), cytarabine or all-trans retinoic acid, three patients each and other agents (four patients). Eight patients (five myeloid and three lymphoid) had an objective response (median duration, 3 months). Five had complete responses (CR) of 2, 3, 3, 6, and 6+ months duration, and three had partial responses (PR) for 1, 2, and 4 months. Seven patients died too early to evaluate (TETE): three died pancytopenic in <30 days from initiation of chemotherapy, two patients had pancytopenia for >30 days but had only blasts in their day 30 bone marrow, and two patients were pancytopenic >30 days but demonstrated trilineage marrow regeneration. Three of eight responders survived > or =1 year. Toxicity was primarily hematologic. The objective response rate was 61% (8/13) among those who did not die TETE and 40% among all treated patients. Carboplatin plus mitoxantrone are highly active in CMLBC, with marrow aplasia as the dose-limiting toxicity, and these agents deserve further study in CMLBC, perhaps in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Outcome of transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder incurable with conventional strategies. Several small series have reported long-term disease-free survival (DSF) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we analyze the outcomes of 289 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation for primary myelofibrosis between 1989 and 2002, from the database of the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The median age was 47 years (range: 18-73 years). Donors were HLA identical siblings in 162 patients, unrelated individuals in 101 patients, and HLA nonidentical family members in 26 patients. Patients were treated with a variety of conditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. Splenectomy was performed in 65 patients prior to transplantation. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 18% for HLA identical sibling transplants, 35% for unrelated transplants, and 19% for transplants from alternative related donors. Corresponding 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 37%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. DFS rates were 33%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. DFS for patients receiving reduced-intensity transplants was comparable: 39% for HLA identical sibling donors and 17% for unrelated donors at 3 years. In this large retrospective series, allogeneic transplantation for myelofibrosis resulted in long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) in about one-third of patients.
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WT1 mutations in T-ALL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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The molecular mechanisms involved in disease progression and relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are poorly understood. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis to analyze paired diagnostic and relapsed T-ALL samples to identify recurrent genetic alterations in T-ALL. This analysis showed that diagnosis and relapsed cases have common genetic alterations, but also that relapsed samples frequently lose chromosomal markers present at diagnosis, suggesting that relapsed T-ALL emerges from an ancestral clone different from the major leukemic population at diagnosis. In addition, we identified deletions and associated mutations in the WT1 tumor suppressor gene in 2 of 9 samples. Subsequent analysis showed WT1 mutations in 28 of 211 (13.2%) of pediatric and 10 of 85 (11.7%) of adult T-ALL cases. WT1 mutations present in T-ALL are predominantly heterozygous frameshift mutations resulting in truncation of the C-terminal zinc finger domains of this transcription factor. WT1 mutations are most prominently found in T-ALL cases with aberrant rearrangements of the oncogenic TLX1, TLX3, and HOXA transcription factor oncogenes. Survival analysis demonstrated that WT1 mutations do not confer adverse prognosis in pediatric and adult T-ALL. Overall, these results identify the presence of WT1 mutations as a recurrent genetic alteration in T-ALL.
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Impact of pre-transplant rituximab on survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into front-line regimens to treat diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has resulted in improved survival. Despite this progress, however, many patients develop refractory or recurrent DLBCL and then undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AuHCT). It is unclear to what extent pre-transplant exposure to rituximab affects outcomes after AuHCT. Outcomes of 994 patients receiving AuHCT for DLBCL between 1996 and 2003 were analyzed according to whether rituximab was (n = 176; +R cohort) or was not (n = 818; -R cohort) administered with front-line or salvage therapy before AuHCT. The +R cohort had superior progression-free survival (PFS; 50% vs 38%; P = .008) and overall survival (OS; 57% vs 45%; P = .006) at 3 years. Platelet and neutrophil engraftment were not affected by exposure to rituximab. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, the +R cohort had improved PFS (relative risk of relapse/progression or death, 0.64; P < .001) and improved OS (relative risk of death, 0.74; P = .039). We conclude that pre-transplant rituximab is associated with a lower rate of progression and improved survival after AuHCT for DLBCL, with no evidence of impaired engraftment or increased NRM.
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Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces a high response rate in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a poor prognosis following first relapse. We present a subgroup analysis of an open-label phase II trial investigating the efficacy and safety of lenalidomide in patients with relapsed or refractory MCL. Oral lenalidomide 25 mg was self-administered once daily on days 1-21 every 28 d for up to 52 weeks, according to tolerability or until disease progression. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) and secondary endpoints were duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Among 15 patients with MCL with a median disease duration of 5.1 years and a median of four prior treatments, the ORR was 53%. Three patients (20%) had a complete response and 5 (33%) had a partial response. The median duration of response was 13.7 months and median PFS was 5.6 months. Four of five patients who relapsed after transplantation and two of five patients who previously received bortezomib responded to lenalidomide. The most common grade 4 adverse event was thrombocytopenia (13%) and the most common grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (40%), leucopenia (27%) and thrombocytopenia (20%). In conclusion, oral lenalidomide monotherapy is well tolerated and active in relapsed or refractory MCL.
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Prospective outcome data on 267 unselected adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia confirms superiority of allogeneic transplantation over chemotherapy in the pre-imatinib era: results from the International ALL T
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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Prospective data on the value of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are limited. The UKALLXII/ECOG 2993 study evaluated the outcome of assigning alloHSCT with a sibling (sib) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) to patients younger than 55 years of age achieving complete remission (CR). The CR rate of 267 patients, median age 40, was 82%. Twenty-eight percent of patients proceeded to alloHSCT in first CR. Age older than 55 years or a pre-HSCT event were the most common reasons for failure to progress to alloHSCT. At 5 years, overall survival (OS) was 44% after sib alloHSCT, 36% after MUD alloHSCT, and 19% after chemotherapy. After adjustment for sex, age, and white blood count and excluding chemotherapy-treated patients who relapsed or died before the median time to alloHSCT, only relapse-free survival remained significantly superior in the alloHSCT group (odds ratio 0.31, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.61). An intention-to-treat analysis, using the availability or not of a matched sibling donor, showed 5-year OS to be nonsignificantly better at 34% with a donor versus 25% with no donor. This prospective trial in adult Ph(+) ALL indicates a modest but significant benefit to alloHSCT. This trial has been registered with clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00002514 and as ISRCTN77346223.
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Cocaine-levamisole thrombotic vasculopathy.
Semin. Thromb. Hemost.
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The syndrome of cocaine-levamisole thrombotic vasculopathy is a tetrad of cutaneous manifestations, arthralgia, leukopenia, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antigen (ANCA). Cocaine is cut with levamisole to potentiate its euphoric effects. However, along with this are the adverse reactions of levamisole such as fatal agranulocytosis, flu-like symptoms, and cutaneous thrombotic vasculopathy. High index of suspicion is needed for its diagnosis. This article will review on its toxicities, especially its prothrombotic effects.
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Conditioning regimens for allotransplants for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: myeloablative or reduced intensity?
Blood
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The best conditioning regimen before allogeneic transplantation for high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains to be clarified. We analyzed data from 396 recipients of allotransplants for DLBCL receiving myeloablative (MAC; n = 165), reduced intensity (RIC; n = 143), or nonmyeloablative conditioning (NMAC; n = 88) regimens. Acute and chronic GVHD rates were similar across the groups. Five-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was higher in MAC than RIC and NMAC (56% vs 47% vs 36%; P = .007). Five-year relapse/progression was lower in MAC than in RIC/NMAC (26% vs 38% vs 40%; P = .031). Five-year progression-free survival (15%-25%) and overall survival (18%-26%) did not differ significantly between the cohorts. In multivariate analysis, NMAC and more recent transplant year were associated with lower NRM, whereas a lower Karnofsky performance score (< 90), prior relapse resistant to therapy, and use of unrelated donors were associated with higher NRM. NMAC transplants, no prior use of rituximab, and prior relapse resistant to therapy were associated with a greater risk of relapse/progression. In conclusion, allotransplantation with RIC or NMAC induces long-term progression-free survival in selected DLBCL patients with a lower risk of NRM but with higher risk of lymphoma progression or relapse.
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Prognostic implications of additional chromosome abnormalities among patients with de novo acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(15;17).
Med. Oncol.
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This retrospective study performed by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and the Southwest Oncology Group enrolled 140 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients with t(15;17) to determine the influence of additional karyotypic abnormalities on treatment outcome. Karyotypes were centrally reviewed by both study groups. The complete response rate after induction for patients with t(15;17) treated with chemotherapy, or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as induction therapy was not affected by additional cytogenetic aberrations. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were unaffected by additional cytogenetic abnormalities if treatment was chemotherapy without ATRA. Patients with t(15;17) only, treated with ATRA with or without chemotherapy, had an improved DFS (P = 0.06) and a better OS (P = 0.01) compared with ATRA-treated patients with additional cytogenetic abnormalities. Patients with APL and t(15;17) alone are significantly more sensitive to treatment with ATRA than are patients with t(15;17) and additional cytogenetic abnormalities.
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An activating intragenic deletion in NOTCH1 in human T-ALL.
Blood
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Oncogenic activating mutations in NOTCH1 occur in more than 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs). In the present study, we describe a novel mechanism of NOTCH1 activation in T-ALL in which a deletion removing the 5 portion of NOTCH1 abolishes the negative regulatory control of the extracellular domain and leads to constitutively active NOTCH1 signaling. Polypeptides translated from truncated transcripts encoded by the NOTCH1 deletion allele retain the transmembrane domain of the receptor and are constitutively cleaved by the ?-secretase complex, resulting in high levels of NOTCH1 signaling that can be effectively blocked by ?-secretase inhibitors. Our results expand the spectrum of oncogenic lesions activating NOTCH1 signaling in human T-ALL.
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Preclinical analysis of the ?-secretase inhibitor PF-03084014 in combination with glucocorticoids in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
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T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) and lymphomas are aggressive hematologic cancers frequently associated with activating mutations in NOTCH1. Early studies identified NOTCH1 as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of T-ALL through the use of ?-secretase inhibitors (GSI). Here, we characterized the interaction between PF-03084014, a clinically relevant GSI, and dexamethasone in preclinical models of glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL. Combination treatment of the GSI PF-03084014 with glucocorticoids induced a synergistic antileukemic effect in human T-ALL cell lines and primary human T-ALL patient samples. Mechanistically PF-03084014 plus glucocorticoid treatment induced increased transcriptional upregulation of the glucocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid target genes. Treatment with PF-03084014 and glucocorticoids in combination was highly efficacious in vivo, with enhanced reduction of tumor burden in a xenograft model of T-ALL. Finally, glucocorticoid treatment effectively reversed PF-03084014-induced gastrointestinal toxicity via inhibition of goblet cell metaplasia. These results warrant the analysis of PF-03084014 and glucocorticoids in combination for the treatment of glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL.
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Reverse engineering of TLX oncogenic transcriptional networks identifies RUNX1 as tumor suppressor in T-ALL.
Nat. Med.
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The TLX1 and TLX3 transcription factor oncogenes have a key role in the pathogenesis of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we used reverse engineering of global transcriptional networks to decipher the oncogenic regulatory circuit controlled by TLX1 and TLX3. This systems biology analysis defined T cell leukemia homeobox 1 (TLX1) and TLX3 as master regulators of an oncogenic transcriptional circuit governing T-ALL. Notably, a network structure analysis of this hierarchical network identified RUNX1 as a key mediator of the T-ALL induced by TLX1 and TLX3 and predicted a tumor-suppressor role for RUNX1 in T cell transformation. Consistent with these results, we identified recurrent somatic loss-of-function mutations in RUNX1 in human T-ALL. Overall, these results place TLX1 and TLX3 at the top of an oncogenic transcriptional network controlling leukemia development, show the power of network analyses to identify key elements in the regulatory circuits governing human cancer and identify RUNX1 as a tumor-suppressor gene in T-ALL.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.