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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Superoxide Dismutase Enzymosomes: Carrier Capacity Optimization, in Vivo Behaviour and Therapeutic Activity.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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A strategy not usually used to improve carrier-mediated delivery of therapeutic enzymes is the attachment of the enzymes to the outer surface of liposomes. The aim of our work was to design a new type of enzymosomes with a sufficient surface-exposed enzyme load while preserving the structural integrity of the liposomal particles and activity of the enzyme.
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Al(18) F labeling of peptides and proteins.
J Labelled Comp Radiopharm
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Radiolabeled receptor-binding peptides and proteins have emerged as an important class of radiopharmaceuticals that have changed radionuclide imaging in clinical practice. Many strategies have been developed to radiolabel these peptide and proteins with fluorine-18. The majority of these methods is time-consuming and suffer from low yields. A more straightforward approach was proposed a few years ago, based on the chelation of aluminum fluoride by (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). This approach has been optimized with regard to labeling yield and specific activity. In addition, crystallography studies have led to the design of optimized chelators. Subsequently, the Al(18) F technology is finding widespread use in labeling peptides and proteins. Various hapten peptides for pre-targeting studies have been labeled with Al(18) F, as well as ?v ?3 integrin-binding peptides have been studied, and also larger peptides, such as exendin-4 and affibody molecules and heat-labile proteins have been labeled with Al(18) F. Here, we summarize the development, optimization, and applications of the Al(18) F labeling technology.
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ImmunoPET imaging of renal cell carcinoma with (124)I- and (89)Zr-labeled anti-CAIX monoclonal antibody cG250 in mice.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Monoclonal antibody (mAb) cG250 recognizes carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), overexpressed on clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). (124)I-cG250 is currently under clinical investigation for the detection of ccRCC. However, the (124)I label is rapidly excreted from the tumor cells after internalization of the radiolabeled mAb. We hypothesized that labeling cG250 with the residualizing positron emitter (89)Zr would lead to higher tumor uptake and more sensitive detection of ccRCC lesions.
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The biological performance of injectable calcium phosphate/PLGA cement in osteoporotic rats.
Biomed Mater
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) including poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microparticles are promising candidates for bone regenerative applications. Previous studies with CPC/PLGA demonstrated that the material is non-toxic, biocompatible and osteoconductive. However, the outcome of these studies was based on healthy individuals and consequently does not provide information on bone substitute material performance in a compromised situation, such as osteoporosis. Therefore, this study comparatively evaluated the performance of injectable CPC/PLGA in healthy (SHAM) and osteoporotic rats (OVX) using a rat femoral condyle defect with implantation periods of 4 and 12 weeks. It was hypothesized that in OVX rats the degradation of CPC/PLGA would increase due to a higher osteoclastic activity present in osteoporotic animals and that the obtained space would be rapidly filled with newly formed bone. The results revealed an accelerated degradation of the used CPC/PLGA in osteoporotic animals, but bone formation was less compared to that in healthy animals at 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. In addition, after 4 weeks, the amount of newly formed bone under osteoporotic conditions was less in the femoral condyle defect compared to that present in a non-defect, osteoporotic control femoral condyle, but equal after 12 weeks. On the other hand, in healthy animals, the amount of newly formed bone in the femoral condyle defect was equal to that present in a non-defect control femoral condyle at 4 weeks, while higher after 12 weeks. This indicates that bone regeneration at a defect site under osteoporotic conditions is slower, but can reach native amounts after longer time periods. Consequently, bone regenerative treatments under osteoporotic conditions seem to require additional empowerment of bone substitute materials.
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Imaging integrin alpha-v-beta-3 expression in tumors with an 18F-labeled dimeric RGD peptide.
Contrast Media Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Integrin ?v ?3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth. Many radiolabeled probes utilize the tight and specific association between the arginine-glycine-aspartatic acid (RGD) peptide and integrin ?v ?3 , but one main obstacle for any clinical application of these probes is the laborious multistep radiosynthesis of (18)F. In this study, the dimeric RGD peptide, E-[c(RGDfK)]2, was conjugated with NODAGA and radiolabeled with (18)F in a simple one-pot process with a radiolabeling yield of 20%, the whole process lasting only 45 min. NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 labeled with (18)F at a specific activity of 1.8 MBq nmol(-1) and a radiochemical purity of 100% could be achieved. The logP value of (18)F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 was -4.26 ± 0.02. In biodistribution studies, (18)F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 cleared rapidly from the blood with 0.03 ± 0.01 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID g(-1)) in the blood at 2 h p.i., mainly via the kidneys, and showed good in vivo stability. Tumor uptake of (18)F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (3.44 ± 0.20 %ID g(-1), 2 h p.i.) was significantly lower than that of reference compounds (68) Ga-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (6.26 ± 0.76 %ID g(-1) ; p <0.001) and (111) In-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (4.99 ± 0.64 %ID g(-1) ; p < 0.01). Co-injection of an excess of unlabeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 along with (18)F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 resulted in significantly reduced radioactivity concentrations in the tumor (0.85 ± 0.13 %ID g(-1)). The ?v ?3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumor could be successfully visualized by microPET with (18)F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 . In conclusion, NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 could be labeled rapidly with (18)F using a direct aqueous, one-pot method and it accumulated specifically in ?v ?3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors, allowing for visualization by microPET.
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Imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 expression with 18F-labeled affibody molecule ZHER2:2395 in a mouse model for ovarian cancer.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Affibody molecules are small (7 kDa) proteins with subnanomolar targeting affinity. Previous SPECT studies in xenografts have shown that the Affibody molecule (111)In-DOTA-Z(HER2)(:2395) can discriminate between high and low human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-expressing tumors, indicating that radiolabeled Affibody molecules have potential for patient selection for HER2-targeted therapy. Compared with SPECT, PET with positron-emitting radionuclides, such as (18)F, may improve imaging of HER2 expression because of higher sensitivity and improved quantification of PET. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the (18)F-labeled NOTA-conjugated Affibody molecule Z(HER2)(:2395) is a suitable agent for imaging of HER2 expression. The tumor-targeting properties of (18)F-labeled Z(HER2)(:2395) were compared with (111)In- and (68)Ga-labeled Z(HER2)(:2395) in mice with HER2-expressing SK-OV-3 xenografts.
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Optimized labeling of NOTA-conjugated octreotide with F-18.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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We recently reported a facile method based on the chelation of [(18)F]aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid). Here, we present a further optimization of the (18)F labeling of NOTA-octreotide (IMP466). Octreotide was conjugated with the NOTA chelate and was labeled with (18)F in a two-step, one-pot method. The labeling procedure was optimized with regard to the labeling buffer, ionic strength, peptide concentration, and temperature. Radiochemical yield, specific activity, in vitro stability, and receptor affinity were determined. Biodistribution of (18)F-IMP466 was studied in AR42J tumor-bearing mice. In addition, microPET/CT images were acquired. IMP466 was labeled with Al(18)F in a single step with 97% yield in the presence of 80% (v/v) acetonitrile or ethanol. The labeled product was purified by HPLC to remove unlabeled peptide and unbound Al(18)F. The radiolabeling, including purification, was performed for 45 min. Specific activities of 48,000 GBq/mmol could be obtained. (18)F-IMP466 showed a high tumor uptake and excellent tumor-to-blood ratios at 2 h post-injection. In addition, the low bone uptake indicated that the Al(18)F-NOTA complex was stable in vivo. PET/CT scans revealed excellent tumor delineation and specific accumulation in the tumor. Uptake in receptor-negative organs was low. NOTA-octreotide could be labeled with (18)F in quantitative yields using a rapid two-step, one-pot, method. The compound was stable in vivo and showed rapid accretion in SSTR(2)-receptor-expressing AR42J tumors in nude mice. This method can be used to label other NOTA-conjugated compounds such as RGD peptides, GRPR-binding peptides, and Affibody molecules with (18)F.
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Biodistribution of 177Lu-octreotate and 111In-minigastrin in female nude mice transplanted with human medullary thyroid carcinoma GOT2.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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To be able to evaluate new radiopharmaceuticals and optimize diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, relevant animal models are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medullary thyroid carcinoma GOT2 animal model by analyzing the biodistribution of 177Lu-octreotate and 111In-minigastrin (MG0). BALB/c nude mice, subcutaneously transplanted with GOT2, were intravenously injected with either 177Lu-octreotate or 111In-MG0, with or without excess of unlabeled human minigastrin simultaneously with 111In-MG0. Animals were sacrificed 1-7 days after injection in the 177Lu-octreotate study and 1 h after injection of 111In-MG0. The activity concentrations in organs and tissues were determined and mean absorbed doses from 177Lu were calculated. There was a specific tumor uptake of either 177Lu-octreotate or 111In-MG0. 177Lu-octreotate samples showed high activity concentrations in tissues expressing somatostatin receptors (SSTR). For both radiopharmaceuticals the highest activity concentrations were found in the kidneys. Compared to results from similar studies in mice with another MTC cell line (TT) the biodistribution was favorable (higher tumor uptake) for the GOT2 model, while compared to other animal models expressing SSTR, the tumor uptake of 177Lu-octreotate was modest. In conclusion, the GOT2 animal model is a valuable model for evaluation and optimization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using radiolabeled somatostatin, CCK2 and gastrin analogues prior to clinical studies.
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Preclinical evaluation of 68Ga-DOTA-minigastrin for the detection of cholecystokinin-2/gastrin receptor-positive tumors.
Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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In comparison to somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, gastrin receptor scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA-minigastrin (MG0) showed added value in diagnosing neuroendocrine tumors. We investigated whether the 68Ga-labeled gastrin analogue DOTA-MG0 is suited for positron emission tomography (PET), which could improve image quality. Targeting of cholecystokinin-2 (CCK2)/gastrin receptor-positive tumor cells with DOTA-MG0 labeled with either 111In or 68Ga in vitro was investigated using the AR42J rat tumor cell line. Biodistribution was examined in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous AR42J tumor. In vivo PET imaging was performed using a preclinical PET-computed tomographic scanner. DOTA-MG0 showed high receptor affinity in vitro. Biodistribution studies revealed high tumor uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0: 4.4 ± 1.3 %ID/g at 1 hour postinjection. Coadministration of an excess unlabeled peptide blocked the tumor uptake (0.7 ± 0.1 %ID/g), indicating CCK2/gastrin receptor-mediated uptake (p ?=? .0005). The biodistribution of 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 was similar to that of 111In-DOTA-MG0. Subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors were clearly visualized by small-animal PET imaging with 5 MBq 68Ga-DOTA-MG0. 111In- and 68Ga-labeled DOTA-MG0 specifically accumulate in CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive AR42J tumors with similar biodistribution apart from the kidneys. AR42J tumors were clearly visualized by microPET. Therefore, 68Ga-DOTA-MG0 is a promising tracer for PET imaging of CCK2/gastrin receptor-positive tumors in humans.
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Comparative biodistribution of 12 ¹¹¹In-labelled gastrin/CCK2 receptor-targeting peptides.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in various tumours such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small-cell lung cancers. Due to this high expression, CCK-2 receptors might be suitable targets for radionuclide imaging and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed and some have been tested in patients. Here we aimed to compare the in vivo tumour targeting properties of 12 (111)In-labelled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-conjugated gastrin/CCK2 receptor-binding peptides.
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Pretargeted immuno-positron emission tomography imaging of carcinoembryonic antigen-expressing tumors with a bispecific antibody and a 68Ga- and 18F-labeled hapten peptide in mice with human tumor xenografts.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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(18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) is the most common molecular imaging agent in oncology, with a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting several cancers. Antibodies could enhance specificity; therefore, procedures were developed for radiolabeling a small ( approximately 1451 Da) hapten peptide with (68)Ga or (18)F to compare their specificity with (18)F-FDG for detecting tumors using a pretargeting procedure. Mice were implanted with carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA; CEACAM5)-expressing LS174T human colonic tumors and a CEA-negative tumor, or an inflammation was induced in thigh muscle. A bispecific monoclonal anti-CEA x anti-hapten antibody was given to mice, and 16 hours later, 5 MBq of (68)Ga- or (18)F-labeled hapten peptides were administered intravenously. Within 1 hour, tissues showed high and specific targeting of (68)Ga-IMP-288, with 10.7 +/- 3.6% ID/g uptake in the tumor and very low uptake in normal tissues (e.g., tumor-to-blood ratio of 69.9 +/- 32.3), in a CEA-negative tumor (0.35 +/- 0.35% ID/g), and inflamed muscle (0.72 +/- 0.20% ID/g). (18)F-FDG localized efficiently in the tumor (7.42 +/- 0.20% ID/g) but also in the inflamed muscle (4.07 +/- 1.13% ID/g) and in several normal tissues; thus, pretargeted (68)Ga-IMP-288 provided better specificity and sensitivity. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography images reinforced the improved specificity of the pretargeting method. (18)F-labeled IMP-449 distributed similarly in the tumor and normal tissues as the (68)Ga-labeled IMP-288, indicating that either radiolabeled hapten peptide could be used. Thus, pretargeted immuno-PET does exceptionally well with short-lived radionuclides and is a highly sensitive procedure that is more specific than (18)F-FDG-PET. Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1019-27. (c)2010 AACR.
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Stabilized (111)in-labeled sCCK8 analogues for targeting CCK2-receptor positive tumors: synthesis and evaluation.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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Radiolabeled cholecystokinin-8 (CCK8) peptide analogues can be used for peptide receptor radionuclide imaging and therapy for tumors expressing CCK2/gastrin receptors. Earlier findings indicated that sulfated CCK8 (sCCK8, Asp-Tyr(OSO(3)H)-Met-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2)) may have better characteristics for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) than gastrin analogues. However, sCCK8 contains an easily hydrolyzable sulfated tyrosine residue and two methionine residues which are prone to oxidation. Here, we describe the synthesis of stabilized sCCK8 analogues, resistant to hydrolysis and oxidation. Hydrolytic stability was achieved by replacement of the Tyr(OSO(3)H) moiety by a robust isosteric sulfonate, Phe(p-CH(2)SO(3)H). Replacement of methionine by norleucine (Nle) or homopropargylglycine (HPG) avoided undesired oxidation side-reactions. The phenylalanine analogue Phe(p-CH(2)SO(3)H) of l-tyrosine, synthesized by a modification of known synthetic routes, was incorporated in three peptides: sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Met(3,6)], sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Nle(3,6)], and sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),HPG(3,6)]. All peptides were N-terminally conjugated with the macrocyclic chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid) and radiolabeled with In-111. In vitro binding assays on CCK2R-expressing HEK293 cells revealed that all three peptides showed specific binding and receptor-mediated internalization, with binding affinity values (IC(50)) in the nanomolar range. In vitro oxidation studies demonstrated that peptides with Nle or HPG indeed were resistant to oxidation. In vivo targeting studies in mice with AR42J tumors showed that tumor uptake was highest for (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8 and (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H),Nle(3,6)] (4.78 +/- 0.64 and 4.54 +/- 1.15%ID/g, respectively, 2 h p.i.). The peptide with the methionine residues replaced by norleucine ((111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH(2)SO(3)H), Nle(3,6)]) showed promising in vivo characteristics and will be further investigated for radionuclide imaging and therapy of CCK2R-expressing tumors.
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Image-quality assessment for several positron emitters using the NEMA NU 4-2008 standards in the Siemens Inveon small-animal PET scanner.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The positron emitters (18)F, (68)Ga, (124)I, and (89)Zr are all relevant in small-animal PET. Each of these radionuclides has different positron energies and ranges and a different fraction of single photons emitted. Average positron ranges larger than the intrinsic spatial resolution of the scanner (for (124)I and (68)Ga) will deteriorate the effective spatial resolution and activity recovery coefficient (RC) for small lesions or phantom structures. The presence of single photons (for (124)I and (89)Zr) could increase image noise and spillover ratios (SORs).
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A novel facile method of labeling octreotide with (18)F-fluorine.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Several methods have been developed to label peptides with (18)F. However, in general these are laborious and require a multistep synthesis. We present a facile method based on the chelation of (18)F-aluminum fluoride (Al(18)F) by 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (NOTA). The method is characterized by the labeling of NOTA-octreotide (NOTA-d-Phe-cyclo[Cys-Phe-d-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys]-Throl (MH(+) 1305) [IMP466]) with (18)F.
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Radiolabeled CCK/gastrin peptides for imaging and therapy of CCK2 receptor-expressing tumors.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are overexpressed in numerous human cancers, like medullary thyroid carcinomas, small cell lung cancers and stromal ovarian cancers. The specific receptor-binding property of the endogenous ligands for these receptors can be exploited by labeling peptides with a radionuclide and using these as carriers to guide the radioactivity to the tissues that express the receptors. In this way, tumors can be visualized using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography imaging. A variety of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin-related peptides has been synthesized and characterized for imaging. All peptides have the C-terminal CCK receptor-binding tetrapeptide sequence Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) in common or derivatives thereof. This review focuses on the development and application of radiolabeled CCK/gastrin peptides for radionuclide imaging and radionuclide therapy of tumors expressing CCK receptors. We discuss both preclinical studies as well as clinical studies with CCK and gastrin peptides.
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Tc-99m-PEG-liposomes target both adhesions and abscesses and their reduction by hyaluronate in rats with fecal peritonitis.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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Abdominal adhesions and abscesses are a major source of morbidity and mortality after abdominal surgery and peritonitis. Adhesions are hard to detect with standard imaging techniques. Liposomes, coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), represent an agent developed for infection imaging. This study investigated the capacity of 99mTc-PEG-liposomes to localize early adhesion formation after peritonitis. Additionally, the value of 99mTc-PEG-liposomes for therapy evaluation of hyaluronan solution, which reduces adhesion and abscess formation in experimental peritonitis, was assessed.
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A novel method of 18F radiolabeling for PET.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Small biomolecules are typically radiolabeled with (18)F by binding it to a carbon atom, a process that usually is designed uniquely for each new molecule and requires several steps and hours to produce. We report a facile method wherein (18)F is first attached to aluminum as Al(18)F, which is then bound to a chelate attached to a peptide, forming a stable Al(18)F-chelate-peptide complex in an efficient 1-pot process.
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In-depth evaluation of the cycloaddition--retro-Diels--Alder reaction for in vivo targeting with [(111)In]-DTPA-RGD conjugates.
Nucl. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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The spontaneous copper-free tandem 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition-retro-Diels-Alder (tandem crDA) reaction between cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Phe-Orn(N(3)) [c(RGDfX)] and oxanorbornadiene-DTPA (o-DTPA) or methyloxanorbornadiene-DTPA (mo-DTPA) into two DTPA-c(RGDfX) regioisomers is characterized. Since there is no information on the stability and reaction rate of the tandem crDA reaction in biological media, we set out to characterize these reaction parameters.
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Spatial resolution and sensitivity of the Inveon small-animal PET scanner.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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The Inveon small-animal PET scanner is characterized by a large, 127-mm axial length and a 161-mm crystal ring diameter. The associated high sensitivity is obtained by using all lines of response (LORs) up to the maximum ring difference (MRD) of 79, for which the most oblique LORs form acceptance angles of 38.3 degrees with transaxial planes. The result is 2 phenomena that are normally not encountered in PET scanners: a parallax or depth-of-interaction effect in the axial direction and the breakdown of Fourier rebinning (FORE). Both effects cause a deterioration of axial spatial resolution. Limiting the MRD to smaller values reduces this axial blurring at the cost of sensitivity. Alternatively, 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction techniques can be used in which the rebinning step is absent. The aim of this study was to experimentally determine the spatial resolution and sensitivity of the Inveon for its whole field of view (FOV).
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Dual contrast agent for computed tomography and magnetic resonance hard tissue imaging.
Tissue Eng Part C Methods
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Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are commonly used bone substitute materials, which closely resemble the composition of the mineral phase of bone. However, this high similarity to natural bone also results in difficult discrimination from the bone tissue by common imaging modalities, that is, plain X-ray radiography and three-dimensional computed tomography (CT). In addition, new imaging techniques introduced for bone tissue visualization, like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), face a similar problem. Even at high MRI resolution, the lack of contrast between CPCs and surrounding bone is evident. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a dual contrast agent, traceable with both CT and MRI as enhancers of CPC/bone tissue contrast. Our formulation is based on the use of silica beads as vectors, which encapsulate and carry contrast-enhancing nanoparticles, in our case, colloidal Gold and Superparamagnetic Iron oxide particles (SPIO). The bead suspension was incorporated within a calcium phosphate powder. The resultant cements were then tested both in vitro and in vivo in a femoral condyle defect model in rats. Results showed that the mechanical properties of the cement were not significantly affected by the inclusion of the beads. Both in vitro and in vivo data proved the homogeneous incorporation of the contrast within the cement and its visual localization, characterized by a short-term CT contrast enhancement and a long-term MR effect recognizable by the characteristic blooming shape. Finally, no signs of adverse tissue reactions were noticed in vivo. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of a multimodal contrast agent as an inert and biocompatible enhancer of CaP cement versus bone tissue contrast.
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FIAU: From reporter gene imaging to imaging of bacterial proliferation.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
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The radioiodinated thymidine analogue, FIAU, is a tracer that has been developed for reporter gene, for cells that were transfected with herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, HSV-TK. FIAU is also a specific substrate of bacterial TK due to the homology between viral and bacterial TK. In this issue of AJNMMI (http://www.ajnmmi.us), Pullamb-hatla et al. reported that the accumulation of (125)I-FIAU in pulmonary infectious foci correlated with the bacterial burden in the lungs. (125)I-FIAU could be used to monitor the efficacy of anti-microbial therapy in mice. Potentially (124)I-FIAU PET could be used to discriminate microbial from sterile inflammation in patients with prosthetic implants.
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In vitro and in vivo characterization of three 68Ga- and 111In-labeled peptides for cholecystokinin receptor imaging.
Mol Imaging
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Cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are overexpressed in several human tumor types, such as medullary thyroid carcinomas and small cell lung cancers. Several ligands for the CCK2 receptor (CCK2R) have been developed for radionuclide targeting of these tumors. In this study, we evaluated whether radiolabeled DOTA-sCCK8 and its stabilized derivative, DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)], are suitable for imaging of CCK2R-positive tumors, using DOTA-MG0 as a reference. In vivo targeting of CCK2R-positive tumors with DOTA-sCCK8, DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)], and DOTA-MG0, labeled with (111)In or (68)Ga, was evaluated in BALB/c nude mice with a subcutaneous A431-CCK2R tumor. Biodistribution studies and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) were performed at 1 hour postinjection. All peptides specifically accreted in the CCK2R-expressing tumors. Both (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8 and (111)In-DOTA-sCCK8[Phe(2)(p-CH2SO3H), Nle(3,6)] showed good tumor retention (4.65% ID/g and 5.44% ID/g, respectively, at 4 hours postinjection). On PET/computed tomographic (CT) and SPECT/CT scans, subcutaneous A431-CCK2R tumors were clearly visualized with low uptake of sCCK8 peptides in the intestines. Whereas radiolabeled DOTA-MG0 showed high kidney uptake (70% ID/g), the sCCK8 peptides showed low uptake in the kidneys. Sulfated CCK8 analogues combined high tumor uptake with low retention in the kidney and are therefore promising tracers for imaging of CCK2R-positive tumors.
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PET of tumors expressing gastrin-releasing peptide receptor with an 18F-labeled bombesin analog.
J. Nucl. Med.
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The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is overexpressed in human prostate cancer. Bombesin (BBN) is a neurotransmitter of 14 amino acids and binds with selectivity and with high affinity to GRPRs. We have synthesized a NOTA-conjugated bombesin derivative, NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2), to label this analog with (18)F using the new Al(18)F method. In this study, the GRPR-targeting potential of (18)F-labeled NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2) was studied using (68)Ga-NOTA-8-Aoc-BBN(7-14)NH(2) as a reference.
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Preclinical evaluation of two 68Ga-siderophores as potential radiopharmaceuticals for Aspergillus fumigatus infection imaging.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is mainly caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, and is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. The mortality associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis remains high, mainly due to the difficulties and limitations in diagnosis. We have shown that siderophores can be labelled with (68)Ga and can be used for PET imaging of A. fumigatus infection in rats. Here we report on the further evaluation of the most promising (68)Ga-siderophore candidates, triacetylfusarinine (TAFC) and ferrioxamine E (FOXE).
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Size Dependent Biodistribution and SPECT Imaging of (111)In-Labeled Polymersomes.
Bioconjug. Chem.
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Polymersomes, self-assembled from the block copolymer polybutadiene-block-poly(ethylene glycol), were prepared with well-defined diameters between 90 and 250 nm. The presence of ?1% of diethylene triamine penta acetic acid on the polymersome periphery allowed to chelate radioactive (111)In onto the surface and determine the biodistribution in mice as a function of both the polymersome size and poly(ethylene glycol) corona thickness (i.e., PEG molecular weight). Doubling the PEG molecular weight from 1 kg/mol to 2 kg/mol did not change the blood circulation half-life significantly. However, the size of the different polymersome samples did have a drastic effect on the blood circulation times. It was found that polymersomes of 120 nm and larger become mostly cleared from the blood within 4 h, presumably due to recognition by the reticuloendothelial system. In contrast, smaller polymersomes of around 90 nm circulated much longer. After 24 h more than 30% of the injected dose was still present in the blood pool. This sharp transition in blood circulation kinetics due to size is much more abrupt than observed for liposomes and was additionally visualized by SPECT/CT imaging. These findings should be considered in the formulation and design of polymersomes for biomedical applications. Size, much more than for liposomes, will influence the pharmacokinetics, and therefore, long circulating preparations should be well below 100 nm.
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Radiolabelled peptides for oncological diagnosis.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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Radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides targeting receptors (over)expressed on tumour cells are widely under investigation for tumour diagnosis and therapy. The concept of using radiolabelled receptor-binding peptides to target receptor-expressing tissues in vivo has stimulated a large body of research in nuclear medicine. The (111)In-labelled somatostatin analogue octreotide (OctreoScan) is the most successful radiopeptide for tumour imaging, and was the first to be approved for diagnostic use. Based on the success of these studies, other receptor-targeting peptides such as cholecystokinin/gastrin analogues, glucagon-like peptide-1, bombesin (BN), chemokine receptor CXCR4 targeting peptides, and RGD peptides are currently under development or undergoing clinical trials. In this review, we discuss some of these peptides and their analogues, with regard to their potential for radionuclide imaging of tumours.
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Pretargeted immuno-PET of CEA-expressing intraperitoneal human colonic tumor xenografts: a new sensitive detection method.
EJNMMI Res
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In this study, pretargeted immuno-positron-emission tomography [PET] with a bispecific monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] (CEACAM5) × anti-hapten antibody (bispecific monoclonal antibody [bsmAb]) and a small (1.5 kD) peptide labeled with 68Ga was compared to fludeoxyglucose [18F-FDG]-PET for detecting intraperitoneal [i.p.] CEA-expressing human colonic tumor xenografts in nude mice.
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(68)Ga-Triacetylfusarinine C and (68)Ga-Ferrioxamine E for Aspergillus Infection Imaging: Uptake Specificity in Various Microorganisms.
Mol Imaging Biol
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(68)Ga-triacetylfusarinine C ((68)Ga-TAFC) and (68)Ga-ferrioxamine E ((68)Ga-FOXE) showed excellent targeting properties in Aspergillus fumigatus rat infection model. Here, we report on the comparison of specificity towards different microorganisms and human lung cancer cells (H1299).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.