Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells, with regards to their somatic cell type of origin, might lead to variations in their differentiation capacities. In this context, induced pluripotent stem cells from human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells might be more suitable for hematopoietic differentiation than commonly used fibroblast-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. To investigate the influence of an epigenetic memory on the ex vivo expansion of induced pluripotent stem cells into erythroid cells, we compared induced pluripotent stem cells from human neural stem cells and human cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and evaluated their potential for differentiation into hematopoietic progenitor and mature red blood cells. Although genome-wide DNA methylation profiling at all promoter regions demonstrates an epigenetic memory of induced pluripotent stem cells with regards to their somatic cell type of origin, we found a similar hematopoietic induction potential and erythroid differentiation pattern. All human induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed terminal maturation into normoblasts and enucleated reticulocytes, producing predominantly fetal hemoglobin. Differences were only observed in the growth rate of erythroid cells, which was slightly higher in the CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. More detailed methylation analysis of the hematopoietic and erythrocyte promoters identified similar CpG methylation levels in the CD34+-derived and neural stem cell-derived induced pluripotent stem cell lines, which confirms their comparable erythroid differentiation potential.
Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood.
Analyses of healthy donors of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilized hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation have suggested that individuals harboring the CXCL12-A allele mobilize a higher number of CD34 + HSPCs after G-CSF administration. We typed 463 healthy unrelated donors (376 men and 87 women) who had received daily subcutaneous injections at a mean dose of 7.36 ± 1.71 ?g/kg G-CSF for 5 days for CXCL12 801 G/A using a real-time PCR assay. Interestingly, the median concentration of mobilized CD34 + cells on day 5 was almost identical in donors with the A-allele (79/?L; range, 11 to 249/?L) and the G/G-group (82/?L; range, 15 to 268/?L). In addition, the allelic distribution was not different in donors (n = 11) who mobilized less than 20/?L CD34 + cells. No difference in the overall yield of CD34 + cells in the apheresis product and in the number of CD34 + cells/kg recipient could be detected between both groups. In a multivariate regression model for the endpoint CD34 + cells/?L at day 5, only male sex (regression coefficient, 11.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 21.2, P = .021) and body mass index as continuous variables (regression coefficient, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 4.5, P = .0001) but not age, smoking status, or CXCL12 allelic status represented independent variables. Our data derived from a large well-controlled cohort contradict previous analyses suggesting an association between CXCL12 allelic status and the yield of CD34 + HSPC after G-CSF mobilization. Concentration of CD34 + cells in the peripheral blood, the most objective parameter, could not be predicted by CXCL12 genotype.
With the use of ChIP on microarray assays in primary leukemia samples, we report that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts exhibit significant alterations in histone H3 acetylation (H3Ac) levels at > 1000 genomic loci compared with CD34(+) progenitor cells. Importantly, core promoter regions tended to have lower H3Ac levels in AML compared with progenitor cells, which suggested that a large number of genes are epigenetically silenced in AML. Intriguingly, we identified peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) as a novel potential tumor suppressor gene in AML. H3Ac was decreased at the PRDX2 gene promoter in AML, which correlated with low mRNA and protein expression. We also observed DNA hypermethylation at the PRDX2 promoter in AML. Low protein expression of the antioxidant PRDX2 gene was clinically associated with poor prognosis in patients with AML. Functionally, PRDX2 acted as inhibitor of myeloid cell growth by reducing levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in response to cytokines. Forced PRDX2 expression inhibited c-Myc-induced leukemogenesis in vivo on BM transplantation in mice. Taken together, epigenome-wide analyses of H3Ac in AML led to the identification of PRDX2 as an epigenetically silenced growth suppressor, suggesting a possible role of ROS in the malignant phenotype in AML.
Capillary hemoglobin (Hb) measurement before admission for whole blood donation is performed in many blood donation services, in spite of several studies reporting many donors with low Hb values being missed by capillary Hb screening.
This study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of platelet concentrates (PC) after photochemical treatment (PCT) with the INTERCEPT Blood System™ and transfused in routine use in a population of patients suffering from a variety of hematological diseases. This was an observational, single-arm, open-label study of pooled buffy-coat PC (n=298) or apheresis PC (n=262) treated with INTERCEPT™ and transfused to 51 thrombocytopenic hematology patients. PCT replaced CMV screening and gamma irradiation, and made optional bacterial testing obsolete. The primary study endpoint was the incidence of acute transfusion reactions (ATR). Secondary endpoints included bleeding assessment, platelet count increments, and adverse events (AE). For the 553 transfusions, a total of 55 AE were observed regardless of relationship to platelet transfusion. Ten AE associated with nine transfusions met the criteria for ATR (1.6%). All ATRs were grade 1. Twelve serious AE were reported in 10 patients, none was related to platelet transfusion. Mean 24-h CI and CCI were 10.9 × 10(9) and 6.6 × 10(3)/L, respectively. No bleeding complications were attributable to the INTERCEPT-treated PC. This study confirms safety and efficacy of pathogen inactivated PC for support of thrombocytopenia and demonstrated that INTERCEPT technology can easily be implemented in routine operations.
In vitro cultured mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are characterized by a short proliferative lifespan, an increasing loss of proliferation capacity and progressive reduction of differentiation potential. Laminin-1, laminin-5, collagen IV and fibronectin are important constituents of the basement membrane extracellular matrix (ECM) that are involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell attachment and motility.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is commonly associated with alterations in transcription factors because of altered expression or gene mutations. These changes might induce leukemia-specific patterns of histone modifications. We used chromatin-immunoprecipitation on microarray to analyze histone 3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) patterns in primary AML (n = 108), acute lymphoid leukemia (n = 28), CD34(+) cells (n = 21) and white blood cells (n = 15) specimens. Hundreds of promoter regions in AML showed significant alterations in H3K9me3 levels. H3K9me3 deregulation in AML occurred preferentially as a decrease in H3K9me3 levels at core promoter regions. The altered genomic regions showed an overrepresentation of cis-binding sites for ETS and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response elements (CREs) for transcription factors of the CREB/CREM/ATF1 family. The decrease in H3K9me3 levels at CREs was associated with increased CRE-driven promoter activity in AML blasts in vivo. AML-specific H3K9me3 patterns were not associated with known cytogenetic abnormalities. But a signature derived from H3K9me3 patterns predicted event-free survival in AML patients. When the H3K9me3 signature was combined with established clinical prognostic markers, it outperformed prognosis prediction based on clinical parameters alone. These findings demonstrate widespread changes of H3K9me3 levels at gene promoters in AML. Signatures of histone modification patterns are associated with patient prognosis in AML.
The adult bone marrow has been generally considered to be composed of hematopoietic tissue and the associated supporting stroma. Within the latter compartment, a subset of cells with multipotent differentiation capacity exists, usually referred to as mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells can easily be expanded ex vivo and induced to differentiate into several cell types, including osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Up to now, mesenchymal stem cells have gained wide popularity. Despite the rapid growth in this field, irritations remain with respect to the defining characteristics of these cells, including their differentiation potency, self-renewal and in vivo properties. As a consequence, there is a growing tendency to challenge the term mesenchymal stem cell, especially with respect to the stem cell characteristics. Here, we revisit the experimental origins of mesenchymal stem cells, their classical differentiation capacity into mesodermal lineages and their immunophenotype in order to assess their stemness and function. Based on these essentials, it has to be revisited if the designation as a stem cell remains an appropriate term.
Rh-hemolytic disease may be complicated in some cases by a prolonged postnatal anemia with an extended need for postnatal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Besides ongoing hemolysis, marrow suppression and erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency are discussed as underlying mechanisms of this so-called "late hyporegenerative anemia."
Because specific marker molecules for phenotypical identification of mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells are missing, the assessment of the in vitro-differentiation capacity is a prerequisite to characterize these cells. However, classical differentiation protocols are often cell-consuming and time intensive. Therefore, the establishment of novel strategies for differentiation is one topic of current efforts in stem cell biology. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the practicability of a new differentiation test using plastic adherent cell isolates from different tissues.
The origin of aberrant DNA methylation in cancer remains largely unknown. In the present study, we elucidated the DNA methylome in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and the role of promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor ? (PML-RAR?) in establishing these patterns. Cells from APL patients showed increased genome-wide DNA methylation with higher variability than healthy CD34(+) cells, promyelocytes, and remission BM cells. A core set of differentially methylated regions in APL was identified. Age at diagnosis, Sanz score, and Flt3-mutation status characterized methylation subtypes. Transcription factor-binding sites (eg, the c-myc-binding sites) were associated with low methylation. However, SUZ12- and REST-binding sites identified in embryonic stem cells were preferentially DNA hypermethylated in APL cells. Unexpectedly, PML-RAR?-binding sites were also protected from aberrant DNA methylation in APL cells. Consistent with this, myeloid cells from preleukemic PML-RAR? knock-in mice did not show altered DNA methylation and the expression of PML-RAR? in hematopoietic progenitor cells prevented differentiation without affecting DNA methylation. Treatment of APL blasts with all-trans retinoic acid also did not result in immediate DNA methylation changes. The results of the present study suggest that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with leukemia phenotype but is not required for PML-RAR?-mediated initiation of leukemogenesis.
BACKGROUND: Demographic data illustrate clearly that people in highly developed countries get older, and the elderly need more blood transfusions than younger patients. Additionally, special extensive therapies result in an increased consumption of blood components. Beyond that the aging of the population reduces the total number of preferably young and healthy blood donors. Therefore, Patient Blood Management will become more and more important in order to secure an increasing blood supply under fair-minded conditions. METHODS: At the University Hospital of Münster (UKM) a comprehensive retrospective analysis of the utilization of all conventional blood components was performed including all medical and surgical disciplines. In parallel, a new medical reporting system was installed to provide a monthly analysis of the transfusional treatments in the whole infirmary, in every department, and in special blood-consuming cases of interest, as well. RESULTS: The study refers to all UKM in-patient cases from 2009 to 2011. It clearly demonstrates that older patients (>60 years, 35.2-35.7% of all cases, but 49.4-52.6% of all cases with red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, 36.4-41. 6% of all cases with platelet (PTL, apheresis only) transfusions, 45.2-48.0% of all cases with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusions) need more blood products than younger patients. Male patients (54.4-63.9% of all cases with transfusions) are more susceptible to blood transfusions than female patients (36.1-45.6% of all cases with transfusions). Most blood components are used in cardiac, visceral, and orthopedic surgery (49.3-55.9% of all RBC units, 45.8-61.0% of all FFP units). When regarding medical disciplines, most transfusions are administered to hematologic and oncologic patients (12.9-17.7% of all RBC units, 9.2-12.0% of all FFP units). The consumption of PTL in this special patient cohort (40.6-50.9% of all PTL units) is more pronounced than in all other surgical or in non-surgical disciplines. CONCLUSION: The results obtained from our retrospective analysis may help to further optimize the responsible and medical indication-related utilization of blood transfusions as well as the recruitment of blood donors and their timing. It may be also a helpful tool in order to avoid needless transfusions and transfusionassociated adverse events.
Massive bleeding in trauma patients is a serious challenge for all clinicians, and an interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approach is warranted within a limited time frame. Massive transfusion usually is defined as the transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) within 24 h or a corresponding blood loss of more than 1- to 1.5-fold of the bodys entire blood volume. Especially male trauma patients experience this life-threatening condition within their productive years of life. An important parameter for clinical outcome is to succeed in stopping the bleeding preferentially within the first 12 h of hospital admission. Additional coagulopathy in the initial phase is induced by trauma itself and aggravated by consumption and dilution of clotting factors. Although different aspects have to be taken into consideration when viewing at bleedings induced by trauma compared to those caused by major surgery, the basic strategy is similar. Here, we will focus on trauma-induced massive hemorrhage. Currently there are no definite, worldwide accepted algorithms for blood transfusion and strategies for optimal coagulation management. There is increasing evidence that a higher ratio of plasma and RBCs (e.g. 1:1) endorsed by platelet transfusion might result in a superior survival of patients at risk for trauma-induced coagulopathy. Several strategies have been evolved in the military environment, although not all strategies should be transferred unproven to civilian practice, e.g. the transfusion of whole blood. Several agents have been proposed to support the restoration of coagulation. Some have been used for years without any doubt on their benefit-to-risk profile, whereas great enthusiasm of other products has been discouraged by inefficacy in terms of blood transfusion requirements and mortality or significant severe side effects. This review surveys current literature on fluid resuscitation, blood transfusion, and hemostatic agents currently used during massive hemorrhage in order to optimize patients blood and coagulation management in emergency medical aid.
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