The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of early administration of Lactobacillus fermentum I5007 on intestinal development and microbial composition in the gastrointestinal tract using a neonatal piglet model. Full-term 4 day old piglets, fed with milk replacer, were divided into a control group (given placebo of 0.1% peptone water) and a L. fermentum I5007 group (dosed daily with 6 × 10(9) CFU/mL L. fermentum I5007). The experiment lasted 14 days. On day 14, a significant increase in the jejunum villous height (583 ± 33 vs 526 ± 18) and increases in the concentrations of butyrate (7.55 ± 0.55 vs 5.33 ± 0.39) and branched chain fatty acids in the colonic digesta were observed in piglets in the L. fermentum I5007 treatment (P < 0.05). mRNA expression of IL-1? (1.29 ± 0.29 vs. 0.62 ± 0.07) in the ileum were lower after 14 days of treatment with L. fermentum I5007. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed that L. fermentum I5007 affected the colonic microbial communities on day 14 and, in particular, reduced numbers of Clostridium sp. L. fermentum I5007 play a positive role in gut development in neonatal piglets by modulating microbial composition, intestinal development, and immune status. L. fermentum I5007 may be useful as a probiotic for application in neonatal piglets.
The factors that influence preadipocyte determination remain poorly understood. In the present paper, we report that CREBL2 [CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein)-like 2], a novel bZIP_1 protein, is up-regulated during MDI-induced preadipocyte differentiation. During both overexpression and under physiological conditions, CREBL2 interacted and was entirely co-localized with CREB. Overexpression of CREBL2 was sufficient to promote adipogenesis via up-regulating the expression of PPAR? (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor ?) and C/EBP? (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ?) and accelerate lipogenesis accompanied with increased GLUT (glucose transporter) 1 and GLUT4. CREBL2 knockdown restrained adipogenic conversion and lipogenesis. Additionally, depletion of CREB could completely block the effects of overexpressed CREBL2, whereas an increase in CREB could not drive adipogenesis in the absence of CREBL2, indicating that the roles for CREBL2 on adipogenesis were CREB-dependent. Furthermore, siCREBL2 [siRNA (short interfering RNA) against CREBL2] could down-regulate CREB transcriptional activity and suppress CREB phosphorylation. CREB knockdown decreased the CREBL2 protein levels and vice versa. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that CREBL2 plays a critical role in adipogenesis and lipogenesis via interaction with CREB.
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P?>?0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P?0.10). Litter weight gain (1.77?kg/d) from d 0 to d 14 was tended to increase in 9:1 groups compared with the other two treatments (P?0.10). A significant difference was observed for the content of ? -linolenic acid, total n-3 PUFA, and the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in the colostrum, milk, and piglets plasma (P?0.01). The effects of different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA in sow diets on colostrum, milk, and piglet plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P?>?0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P?0.01) concentrations in piglet plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P?0.05) was observed at d14. Furthermore, at d 21 of lactation, piglet plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P?0.01).In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.
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