The relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the germinal centre (GC) of the asymptomatic host remains an enigma. The occasional appearance of EBV-positive germinal centres in some patients, particularly those with a history of immunosuppression, suggests that EBV numbers in the GC are subject to immune control. The relationship, if any, between lymphoid hyperplasia with EBV-positive germinal centres and subsequent or concurrent lymphomagenesis remains to be clarified. As far as the development of EBV-associated Hodgkin's lymphoma is concerned, the suppression of virus replication, mediated by LMP1 on the one hand, and the loss of B-cell receptor signalling on the other, appears to be an important pathogenic mechanism. A further important emerging concept is that alterations in the microenvironment of the EBV-infected B-cell may be important for lymphomagenesis.
CD30 is a transmembrane receptor, normally not expressed by mast cells, which regulates proliferation/apoptosis and antibody responses. Aberrant expression of CD30 by mastocytosis mast cells and interaction with its ligand CD30L (CD153) appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of systemic mastocytosis. This article highlights the expression profile and role of CD30 and CD30L in physiologic and pathologic conditions, the applicability of CD30 as a marker for systemic mastocytosis, the consequences of mast cell-expressed CD30, and the possibility of future anti-CD30 based cytoreductive therapies.
Several lines of evidence indicate that B cells may be involved in the immunopathology of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). This study was undertaken to examine the distribution of defined B cell subsets, including effector B (Beff) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells, in patients with GCA and patients with PMR before and after corticosteroid treatment.
Chromosomal translocations affecting the MYC oncogene are the biologic hallmark of Burkitt lymphomas but also occur in a subset of other mature B-cell lymphomas. If accompanied by a chromosomal break targeting the BCL2 and/or BCL6 oncogene these MYC translocation positive (MYC+) lymphomas are called double-hit lymphomas, otherwise the term single-hit lymphomas is applied. In order to characterize the biologic features of these MYC+ lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma we explored, after exclusion of molecular Burkitt lymphoma as defined by gene expression profiling, the molecular, pathological and clinical aspects of 80 MYC-translocation positive lymphomas (31 single-hit, 46 double-hit & 3 MYC+-lymphomas with unknown BCL6 status). Comparison of single-hit and double-hit lymphomas revealed no difference in MYC partner (IG/non-IG), genomic complexity, MYC expression or gene expression profile. Double-hit lymphomas showed more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile and higher IGH and MYC mutation frequencies. Gene expression profiling revealed 130 differentially expressed genes between BCL6+/MYC+ and BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas. BCL2+/MYC+ double-hit lymphomas showed a more frequent GCB-like gene expression profile. Analysis of all lymphomas according to MYC partner (IG/non-IG) revealed no substantial differences. In this series of lymphomas, in which immunochemotherapy was administered in only a minority of cases, single-hit and double-hit lymphomas had a similar poor outcome in contrast with molecular Burkitt lymphoma and lymphomas without MYC break. Our data suggest that, after excluding molecular Burkitt lymphoma and pediatric cases, MYC+ lymphomas are biologically quite homogenous with single-hit and double-hit lymphomas as well as IG-MYC and non-IG-MYC+ lymphomas sharing various molecular characteristics.
To examine the prognostic value of hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1a, CA-IX, and OPN on clinical outcome in patients with T1-T2 supraglottic laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) treated with primarily radiotherapy (RT).
Mutations of nucleophosmin 1 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia and lead to aberrant cytoplasmic accumulation of nucleophosmin protein. Immunohistochemical staining is therefore recommended as the technique of choice in front-line screening. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed bone marrow biopsies compared with gold standard molecular analysis to predict nucleophosmin 1 mutation status in 119 patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Discrepant cases were further characterized by gene expression analyses and fluorescence in situ hybridization. A large overlap between both methods was observed. Nevertheless, nine patients demonstrated discordant results at initial screening. Five cases demonstrated nuclear staining of nucleophosmin 1 by immunohistochemistry, but a nucleophosmin 1 mutation by molecular analysis. In two cases this could be attributed to technical issues and in three cases minor subpopulations of myeloblasts had not been discovered initially. All tested cases exhibited the characteristic nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern. Four cases had cytoplasmic nucleophosmin 1 staining and a nucleophosmin-mutated gene expression pattern without a detectable nucleophosmin 1 mutation. In two of these cases we found the chromosomal translocation t(3;5)(q25;q35) encoding the NPM-MLF1 fusion protein. In the other discrepant cases the aberrant cytoplasmic nucleophosmin staining and gene expression could not be explained. In total six patients (5%) had true discordant results between immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis. We conclude that cytoplasmic nucleophosmin localization is not always caused by a conventional nucleophosmin 1 mutation and that in the screening for nucleophosmin 1 abnormalities, most information will be obtained by combining immunohistochemistry with molecular analysis.
Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD)) is a rare entity with pathological accumulation of specific, activated macrophages, mainly in cervical lymph nodes. However, in half of patients its primary presentation is extranodal. Its aetiology is unclear; several clues point in an immunological direction. Common clinical presentation is massive cervical lymphadenopathy, but nearly half of all patients suffer from extranodal manifestation at very diverse localizations. Diagnosis is based on histopathological findings: emperipolesis and S-100 positive histiocytes. Taking into account its benign character, caution in implementing therapy is recommended. Therapeutic options are limited to specific situations only.
A bone marrow biopsy is considered to be painful, often causing anxiety. We observed large differences between patients and wondered which factors cause pain and anxiety. In a prospective study, 202 patients were analyzed. Experienced hematologists and fellows in training (17% of biopsies) performed bone marrow aspirates and biopsies from the posterior iliac crest. Demographics, disease category, performance score, source of information, number of previous biopsies, experience of the hematologist, and length and quality of the biopsy were recorded. Pain and anxiety were measured using a visual analog scale and verbal rating score. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate regression. The median pain score was 1.9 (range 0-10); 21% did not experience any pain. Anxiety scored 1.8 (range 0-10), and correlated positively with pain (p = .000). By univariate analysis, young age, poor performance, the physician as source of information, and prolonged procedures were associated with more pain. In multivariate analysis, anxiety, information from the physician, and a prolonged procedure persisted. Length or artifacts of the core biopsy did not correlate with pain. In conclusion, bone marrow biopsies performed in an optimal setting by experienced hematologists cause only mild pain, with, however, some patients experienced serious problems. To reduce pain, not only careful local anesthesia, but also the addition of systemic analgesics and especially anxiety reduction seems to be useful.
A discordant relationship between bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood findings is regularly noticed in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). Therefore, the feasibility of 3-F-18 fluoro-3-deoxy-L-thymidine (F-18 FLT PET was tested as a noninvasive tool to visualize the total distribution of the hematopoietic bone marrow compartment in AA at presentation or after treatment.
For the past 20 years most malignant lymphomas have been classified as clinicopathological entities, each with its own combination of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular genetic characteristics. Molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities can be detected by a wide range of techniques, ranging from conventional karyotyping to single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. In this review, we consider the common genetic abnormalities found in lymphoma and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of individual techniques used in their detection. Finally, we discuss briefly possible novel developments in the field of lymphoma diagnostics.
In many B-cell lymphomas, chromosomal translocations are biologic and diagnostic hallmarks of disease. An intriguing subset is formed by the so-called double- hit (DH) lymphomas that are defined by a chromosomal breakpoint affecting the MYC/8q24 locus in combination with another recurrent breakpoint, mainly a t(14;18)(q32;q21) involving BCL2. Recently, these lymphomas have received increased attention, which contributed to the introduction of a novel category of lymphomas in the 2008 WHO classification, "B cell lymphoma unclassifiable with features intermediate between DLBCL and BL." In this review we explore the existing literature for the most recurrent types of DH B-cell lymphomas and the involved genes with their functions, as well as their pathology and clinical aspects including therapy and prognosis. The incidence of aggressive B-cell lymphomas other than Burkitt lymphoma with a MYC breakpoint and in particular a double hit is difficult to assess, because screening by methods like FISH has not been applied on large, unselected series, and the published cytogenetic data may be biased to specific categories of lymphomas. DH lymphomas have been classified heterogeneously but mostly as DLBCL, the majority having a germinal center phenotype and expression of BCL2. Patients with DH lymphomas often present with poor prognostic parameters, including elevated LDH, bone marrow and CNS involvement, and a high IPI score. All studies on larger series of patients suggest a poor prognosis, also if treated with RCHOP or high-intensity treatment modalities. Importantly, this poor outcome cannot be accounted for by the mere presence of a MYC/8q24 breakpoint. Likely, the combination of MYC and BCL2 expression and/or a related high genomic complexity are more important. Compared to these DH lymphomas, BCL6(+)/MYC(+) DH lymphomas are far less common, and in fact most of these cases represent BCL2(+)/BCL6(+)/MYC(+) triple-hit lymphomas with involvement of BCL2 as well. CCND1(+)/MYC(+) DH lymphomas with involvement of 11q13 may also be relatively frequent, the great majority being classified as aggressive variants of mantle cell lymphoma. This suggests that activation of MYC might be an important progression pathway in mantle cell lymphoma as well. Based on clinical significance and the fact that no other solid diagnostic tools are available to identify DH lymphomas, it seems advisable to test all diffuse large B-cell and related lymphomas for MYC and other breakpoints.
The term "gray-zone" lymphoma has been used to denote a group of lymphomas with overlapping histological, biological, and clinical features between various types of lymphomas. It has been used in the context of Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), including classical HL (CHL), and primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, cases with overlapping features between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma, CHL, and Epstein-Barr-virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders, and peripheral T cell lymphomas simulating CHL. A second group of gray-zone lymphomas includes B cell NHL with intermediate features between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Burkitt lymphoma. In order to review controversial issues in gray-zone lymphomas, a joint Workshop of the European Association for Hematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology was held in Bordeaux, France, in September 2008. The panel members reviewed and discussed 145 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. This Workshop summary is focused on the most controversial aspects of gray-zone lymphomas and describes the panels proposals regarding diagnostic criteria, terminology, and new prognostic and diagnostic parameters.
Approximately 100 hematologists and pathologists from Europe, the United States, and Canada participated in the workshop Biomarkers and Prognosis in Malignant Lymphomas, held in Mandelieu, France, April 11-13, 2008, under the leadership of Anton Hagenbeek, Randy Gascoyne, and Gilles Salles. International experts in the field (discussed herein) shared their experiences in exploring the role of a variety of biologic markers related to different types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (follicular, diffuse large B-cell, mantle cell, and Burkitt lymphomas) as well as Hodgkin lymphoma. The final goal of this clinical research is to develop new biologic prognostic indices for these major subtypes of lymphoma. In recent years, various prognostic indices, mainly based on clinical characteristics of the patient at diagnosis, have served to determine the prognostic profile and to develop prognostic factor-based treatment strategies. However, it is now time to reconsider this based on the wealth of new biologic information directly related to lymphoma cells and the surrounding cells. In this workshop, organized by the European School of Hematology and the European Hematology Association, the latest developments on molecular pathogenesis, new biomarkers, and their relation to prognosis were extensively discussed. Herein, the major conclusions presented in the different sessions are summarized.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an important class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. It has become evident that miRNAs are involved in hematopoiesis, and that deregulation of miRNAs may give rise to hematopoietic malignancies. The aim of our study was to establish miRNA profiles of naïve, germinal center (GC) and memory B cells, and validate their expression patterns in normal lymphoid tissues. Quantitative (q) RT-PCR profiling revealed that several miRNAs were elevated in GC B cells, including miR-17-5p, miR-106a and miR-181b. One of the most abundant miRNAs in all three B-cell subsets analyzed was miR-150, with a more than 10-fold lower level in GC B cell as compared with the other two subsets. miRNA in situ hybridization (ISH) in tonsil tissue sections confirmed the findings from the profiling work. Interestingly, gradual decrease of miR-17-5p, miR-106a and miR-181b staining intensity from the dark to the light zone was observed in GC. A strong cytoplasmic staining of miR-150 was observed in a minority of the centroblasts in the dark zone of the GC. Inverse staining pattern of miR-150 against c-Myb and Survivin was observed in tonsil tissue sections, suggesting possible targeting of these genes by miR-150. In line with this, the experimental induction of miR-150 lead to reduced c-Myb, Survivin and Foxp1 expression levels in the Burkitts lymphoma cell line, DG75. In conclusion, miRNA profiles of naïve, GC and memory B cells were established and validated by miRNA ISH. Within the GC cells, a marked difference was observed between the light and the dark zone.
Recent studies have shown that certain non-coding short RNAs, called miRNAs, play an important role in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma have great diversity in both clinical characteristics, site of presentation and outcome. The aim of our study is to validate the differential expression in germinal center and non-germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,s and to study to the extent to which the primary site of differentiation is associated with the miRNA expression profile. We studied 50 cases of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma for the expression of 15 miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-17-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-18a, miR-19a, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-92, miR-127, miR-155, miR-181a and miR-221). Apart from 19 nodal cases without extranodal dissemination (stages I and II), we selected two groups with unambiguous stages I and II extranodal presentation; 9 cases of primary central nervous system, 11 cases of primary testicular and 11 cases of other primary extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. All cases were analyzed with qRT-PCR. In situ hybridization for the most differentially expressed miRNAs was performed to show miRNA expression in tumor cells, but not in background cells. MiR-21 and miR-19b showed the highest expression levels. No significant differences were seen between germinal center and non-germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in either the total or the nodal group for any of the 15 miRNAs. Two miRNAs showed significant differences in expression levels for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subgroups according to the site of presentation. MiR-17-5p showed a significant higher expression level in the central nervous system compared with testicular and nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P<0.05). MiR-127 levels were significantly higher in testicular than in central nervous system and in nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (P<0.05). We conclude that the location of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is an important factor in determining the differential expression of miRNAs.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course and is mainly an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, there are some indolent cases The Ki-67 index, defined by the percentage of Ki-67-positive lymphoma cells on histopathological slides, has been shown to be a very powerful prognostic biomarker. The pathology panel of the European MCL Network evaluated methods to assess the Ki-67 index including stringent counting, digital image analysis, and estimation by eyeballing. Counting of 2?×?500 lymphoma cells is the gold standard to assess the Ki-67 index since this value has been shown to predict survival in prospective randomized trials of the European MCL Network. Estimation by eyeballing and digital image analysis showed a poor concordance with the gold standard (concordance correlation coefficients [CCC] between 0.29 and 0.61 for eyeballing and CCC of 0.24 and 0.37 for two methods of digital image analysis, respectively). Counting a reduced number of lymphoma cells (2?×?100 cells) showed high interobserver agreement (CCC?=?0.74). Pitfalls of the Ki-67 index are discussed and guidelines and recommendations for assessing the Ki-67 index in MCL are given.
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is characterized by genetic instability and a poor prognosis. Many blastoid variants are (hypo)tetraploid and have an even worse prognosis. We investigated the role of signalling by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MCL. As compared to normal tonsil B cells, MCL cells showed higher activation of the JNK MAPK in both an MAPK array and a sandwich ELISA assay. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of phospho (p)-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) in 30 of 37 MCL cases. Inhibition of p-JNK with SP600125 resulted in growth arrest in all four MCL cell lines (Jeko-1, HBL-2, UPN-1, Granta-519), which could be partly reversed by the addition of CD40L and IL-4. Furthermore, SP600125 led to G2/M phase arrest on day 1 and a striking increase in endoreduplication on day 2 and day 3, which was confirmed by karyotype analysis. G2/M arrest was associated with down-regulation of EGR1 and p21 protein expression. SP600125-induced polyploidy could be blocked by the BCL-2 inhibitor YC137. These data suggest that constitutive JNK activity is necessary to promote proliferation and maintain diploidy in MCL. JNK inhibition leads to cell cycle deregulation and endoreduplication, mimicking the tetraploid state seen in a subset of MCL cases. Thus, our data also provide an experimental model to study polyploid MCL cells.
Mantle cell lymphoma is a prime example of a well-defined entity based on morphology, phenotype, genetics and also clinical features. Although most patients have an adverse clinical course, some have a better survival than others. The most consistently reported adverse prognostic parameter is a high mitotic rate. Recently, it has been shown that hypermutation in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene occurs in a subset of mantle cell lymphomas. It is, however, unclear whether the mutational status is stable over time within a given case, whether hypermutation might be influenced by therapy and how it is related to other relevant biological features of mantle cell lymphoma. In this study, we analyzed 23 typical mantle cell lymphoma cases with respect to mutational status and compared the results with clinicopathological and genetic data to determine whether the presence of mutation indicates a subentity with clinical or pathological relevance. We found somatic hypermutation in 26% of our cases and, interestingly, one case showed ongoing somatic hypermutation. In tumor cells of both mutated and unmutated cases, we found a preferential usage of V(H)3-21 (23%) and V(H)4-34 (19%). No significant correlations were found between mutation status and the other morphological and genetic features analyzed. In conclusion, our results provide additional evidence that mutation status in mantle cell lymphoma is better interpreted as a feature within the spectrum of disease that seems to have little clinical or pathological relevance.
Diagnostic laparoscopy is the ultimate diagnostic tool to evaluate the appendix. Still, according to the literature, this strategy results in a negative appendectomy rate of approximately 12-18 % and associated morbidity. Laparoscopic criteria for determining appendicitis are lacking. The goal of this study is to define clear and reliable criteria for appendicitis during diagnostic laparoscopy that eventually may safely reduce the negative appendectomy rate.
The increasing use of immunophenotypic and molecular techniques on lymphoid tissue samples without obvious involvement by malignant lymphoma has resulted in the increased detection of "early" lymphoid proliferations, which show some, but not all the criteria necessary for a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma. In most instances, these are incidental findings in asymptomatic individuals, and their biological behaviour is uncertain. In order to better characterize these premalignant conditions and to establish diagnostic criteria, a joint workshop of the European Association for Haematopathology and the Society of Hematopathology was held in Uppsala, Sweden, in September 2010. The panel reviewed and discussed more than 130 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. Cases representing the nodal equivalent of monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) were discussed, as well as the "in situ" counterparts of follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), topics that also stimulated discussions concerning the best terminology for these lesions. The workshop also addressed the borderland between reactive hyperplasia, and clonal proliferations such as pediatric marginal zone lymphoma and pediatric FL, which may have very limited capacity for progression. Virus-driven lymphoproliferations in the grey zone between reactive lesions and manifest malignant lymphoma were covered. Finally, early manifestations of T-cell lymphoma, both nodal and extranodal, and their mimics were addressed. This workshop report summarizes the most important conclusions concerning diagnostic features, as well as proposals for terminology and classification of early lymphoproliferations and tries to give some practical guidelines for diagnosis and reporting.
Burkitts lymphoma (BL) can often be cured by intensive chemotherapy, but the toxicity of such therapy precludes its use in the elderly and in patients with endemic BL in developing countries, necessitating new strategies. The normal germinal centre B cell is the presumed cell of origin for both BL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), yet gene expression analysis suggests that these malignancies may use different oncogenic pathways. BL is subdivided into a sporadic subtype that is diagnosed in developed countries, the Epstein-Barr-virus-associated endemic subtype, and an HIV-associated subtype, but it is unclear whether these subtypes use similar or divergent oncogenic mechanisms. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing and RNA interference screening to discover essential regulatory pathways in BL that cooperate with MYC, the defining oncogene of this cancer. In 70% of sporadic BL cases, mutations affecting the transcription factor TCF3 (E2A) or its negative regulator ID3 fostered TCF3 dependency. TCF3 activated the pro-survival phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway in BL, in part by augmenting tonic B-cell receptor signalling. In 38% of sporadic BL cases, oncogenic CCND3 mutations produced highly stable cyclin D3 isoforms that drive cell cycle progression. These findings suggest opportunities to improve therapy for patients with BL.
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