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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evidence That Environmental and Genetic Risks for Psychotic Disorder May Operate by Impacting on Connections Between Core Symptoms of Perceptual Alteration and Delusional Ideation.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2014
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Background: Relational models of psychopathology propose that symptoms are dynamically connected and hypothesize that genetic and environmental influences moderate the strength of these symptom connections. Previous findings suggest that the interplay between hallucinations and delusions may play a crucial role in the development of psychotic disorder. The current study examined whether the connection between hallucinations and delusions is impacted by proxy genetic and environmental risk factors. Methods: Hallucinations and delusions at baseline and at 3-year follow-up were assessed in a sample of 1054 healthy siblings and 918 parents of 1109 patients with psychosis, and in 589 healthy controls (no familial psychosis risk). Environmental factors assessed were cannabis use, childhood trauma, and urbanicity during childhood. Logistic regression analyses tested whether familial psychosis risk predicted increased risk of delusions, given presence of hallucinations. Moderating effects of environmental factors on the hallucination-delusion association were tested in a similar fashion, restricted to the control and sibling groups. Results: The risk of delusions, given hallucinations, was associated with proxy genetic risk: 53% in parents, 47% in siblings, and 36% in controls. The hallucination-delusion association was stronger in those reporting cannabis use (risk difference: 32%) and childhood trauma (risk difference: 15%) although not all associations were statistically conclusive (respectively: p = .037; p = .054). A directionally similar but nonsignificant effect was found for urb anicity during childhood (risk difference: 14%, p =.357). Conclusion: The strength of the connection between delusions and hallucinations is associated with familial and environmental risks for psychotic disorder, suggesting that specific symptom connections in the early psychosis psychopathology network are informative of underlying mechanisms.
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Identifying gene-environment interactions in schizophrenia: contemporary challenges for integrated, large-scale investigations.
, Jim van Os, Bart P Rutten, Inez Myin-Germeys, Philippe Delespaul, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Catherine van Zelst, Richard Bruggeman, Ulrich Reininghaus, Craig Morgan, Robin M Murray, Marta Di Forti, Philip McGuire, Lucia R Valmaggia, Matthew J Kempton, Charlotte Gayer-Anderson, Kathryn Hubbard, Stephanie Beards, Simona A Stilo, Adanna Onyejiaka, François Bourque, Gemma Modinos, Stefania Tognin, Maria Calem, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Peter Holmans, Nigel Williams, Nicholas Craddock, Alexander Richards, Isla Humphreys, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, F Markus Leweke, Heike Tost, Ceren Akdeniz, Cathrin Rohleder, J Malte Bumb, Emanuel Schwarz, Koksal Alptekin, Alp Üçok, Meram Can Saka, E Cem Atbaşoğlu, Sinan Guloksuz, Güvem Gümüş-Akay, Burçin Cihan, Hasan Karadag, Haldan Soygür, Eylem Şahin Cankurtaran, Semra Ulusoy, Berna Akdede, Tolga Binbay, Ahmet Ayer, Handan Noyan, Gülşah Karadayı, Elçin Akturan, Halis Ulas, Celso Arango, Mara Parellada, Miguel Bernardo, Julio Sanjuan, Julio Bobes, Manuel Arrojo, Jose Luis Santos, Pedro Cuadrado, José Juan Rodríguez Solano, Angel Carracedo, Enrique García Bernardo, Laura Roldán, Gonzalo Lopez, Bibiana Cabrera, Sabrina Cruz, Eva Ma Díaz Mesa, María Pouso, Estela Jiménez, Teresa Sanchez, Marta Rapado, Emiliano González, Covadonga Martínez, Emilio Sanchez, Ma Soledad Olmeda, Lieuwe de Haan, Eva Velthorst, Mark van der Gaag, Jean-Paul Selten, Daniella van Dam, Elsje van der Ven, Floor van der Meer, Elles Messchaert, Tamar Kraan, Nadine Burger, Marion Leboyer, Andrei Szoke, Franck Schürhoff, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Stéphane Jamain, Andrea Tortelli, Flora Frijda, Jeanne Vilain, Anne-Marie Galliot, Grégoire Baudin, Aziz Ferchiou, Jean-Romain Richard, Ewa Bulzacka, Thomas Charpeaud, Anne-Marie Tronche, Marc De Hert, Ruud van Winkel, Jeroen Decoster, Catherine Derom, Evert Thiery, Nikos C Stefanis, Gabriele Sachs, Harald Aschauer, Iris Lasser, Bernadette Winklbaur, Monika Schlögelhofer, Anita Riecher-Rossler, Stefan Borgwardt, Anna Walter, Fabienne Harrisberger, Renata Smieskova, Charlotte Rapp, Sarah Ittig, Fabienne Soguel-dit-Piquard, Erich Studerus, Joachim Klosterkötter, Stephan Ruhrmann, Julia Paruch, Dominika Julkowski, Desiree Hilboll, Pak C Sham, Stacey S Cherny, Eric Y H Chen, Desmond D Campbell, Miaoxin Li, Carlos María Romeo-Casabona, Aitziber Emaldi Cirión, Asier Urruela Mora, Peter Jones, James Kirkbride, Mary Cannon, Dan Rujescu, Ilaria Tarricone, Domenico Berardi, Elena Bonora, Marco Seri, Thomas Marcacci, Luigi Chiri, Federico Chierzi, Viviana Storbini, Mauro Braca, Maria Gabriella Minenna, Ivonne Donegani, Angelo Fioritti, Daniele La Barbera, Caterina Erika La Cascia, Alice Mulè, Lucia Sideli, Rachele Sartorio, Laura Ferraro, Giada Tripoli, Fabio Seminerio, Anna Maria Marinaro, Patrick McGorry, Barnaby Nelson, G Paul Amminger, Christos Pantelis, Paulo R Menezes, Cristina M Del-Ben, Silvia H Gallo Tenan, Rosana Shuhama, Mirella Ruggeri, Sarah Tosato, Antonio Lasalvia, Chiara Bonetto, Elisa Ira, Merete Nordentoft, Marie-Odile Krebs, Neus Barrantes-Vidal, Paula Cristóbal, Thomas R Kwapil, Elisa Brietzke, Rodrigo A Bressan, Ary Gadelha, Nadja P Maric, Sanja Andric, Marina Mihaljevic, Tijana Mirjanic.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Recent years have seen considerable progress in epidemiological and molecular genetic research into environmental and genetic factors in schizophrenia, but methodological uncertainties remain with regard to validating environmental exposures, and the population risk conferred by individual molecular genetic variants is small. There are now also a limited number of studies that have investigated molecular genetic candidate gene-environment interactions (G × E), however, so far, thorough replication of findings is rare and G × E research still faces several conceptual and methodological challenges. In this article, we aim to review these recent developments and illustrate how integrated, large-scale investigations may overcome contemporary challenges in G × E research, drawing on the example of a large, international, multi-center study into the identification and translational application of G × E in schizophrenia. While such investigations are now well underway, new challenges emerge for G × E research from late-breaking evidence that genetic variation and environmental exposures are, to a significant degree, shared across a range of psychiatric disorders, with potential overlap in phenotype.
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Evidence that childhood urban environment is associated with blunted stress reactivity across groups of patients with psychosis, relatives of patients and controls.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Psychosis is associated with urban upbringing, and increased emotional reactivity is associated with psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine to what degree urban upbringing impacts emotional reactivity, and how this may be relevant for psychotic disorder and familial risk of psychotic disorder.
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A therapeutic application of the experience sampling method in the treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial.
World Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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In depression, the ability to experience daily life positive affect predicts recovery and reduces relapse rates. Interventions based on the experience sampling method (ESM-I) are ideally suited to provide insight in personal, contextualized patterns of positive affect. The aim of this study was to examine whether add-on ESM-derived feedback on personalized patterns of positive affect is feasible and useful to patients, and results in a reduction of depressive symptomatology. Depressed outpatients (n=102) receiving pharmacological treatment participated in a randomized controlled trial with three arms: an experimental group receiving add-on ESM-derived feedback, a pseudo-experimental group participating in ESM but receiving no feedback, and a control group. The experimental group participated in an ESM procedure (three days per week over a 6-week period) using a palmtop. This group received weekly standardized feedback on personalized patterns of positive affect. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 17 (HDRS) and Inventory of Depressive Symptoms (IDS) scores were obtained before and after the intervention. During a 6-month follow-up period, five HDRS and IDS assessments were completed. Add-on ESM-derived feedback resulted in a significant and clinically relevant stronger decrease in HDRS score relative to the control group (p<0.01; -5.5 point reduction in HDRS at 6 months). Compared to the pseudo-experimental group, a clinically relevant decrease in HDRS score was apparent at 6 months (B=-3.6, p=0.053). Self-reported depressive complaints (IDS) yielded the same pattern over time. The use of ESM-I was deemed acceptable and the provided feedback easy to understand. Patients attempted to apply suggestions from ESM-derived feedback to daily life. These data suggest that the efficacy of traditional passive pharmacological approach to treatment of major depression can be enhanced by using person-tailored daily life information regarding positive affect.
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Criminal victimisation in people with severe mental illness: a multi-site prevalence and incidence survey in the Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although crime victimisation is as prevalent in psychiatric patients as crime perpetration (and possibly more so), few European figures for it are available. We therefore assessed its one-year prevalence and incident rates in Dutch severely mentally ill outpatients, and compared the results with victimisation rates in the general population.
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Stereotype awareness, self-esteem and psychopathology in people with psychosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stigma is an important environmental risk factor for a variety of outcomes in schizophrenia. In order to understand and remediate its effects, research is required to assess how stigma experiences are processed at the level of the individual. To this end, stereotype awareness (SA) with respect to people with mental illness and their families was explored in persons with psychotic disorder.
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Evidence that a psychopathology interactome has diagnostic value, predicting clinical needs: an experience sampling study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For the purpose of diagnosis, psychopathology can be represented as categories of mental disorder, symptom dimensions or symptom networks. Also, psychopathology can be assessed at different levels of temporal resolution (monthly episodes, daily fluctuating symptoms, momentary fluctuating mental states). We tested the diagnostic value, in terms of prediction of treatment needs, of the combination of symptom networks and momentary assessment level.
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Depression, subthreshold depression and comorbid anxiety symptoms in older Europeans: Results from the EURODEP concerted action.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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In the epidemiology of late life depression, few insights are available on the co-occurrence of subthreshold depression and comorbid symptoms of anxiety. The current study aims to describe prevalence patterns of comorbid anxiety symptoms across different levels of depression in old age, and to describe the burden of depressive symptoms and functional disability across patterns of comorbidity.
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Assertive Community Treatment and Associations with Substance Abuse Problems.
Community Ment Health J
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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This study examined the associations between substance abuse problems in severely mentally ill patients, outcome and Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) model fidelity. In a prospective longitudinal study, ACT model fidelity and patient outcomes were assessed in 20 outpatient treatment teams using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales, Camberwell Assessment of Needs short appraisal schedule and measures of service use. Five hundred and thirty severely mentally ill patients participated in the study. Substance abuse problems were assessed three times during a 2-year follow-up period. This study found that among patients with severe mental illness, patients with an addiction problem had more serious psychosocial problems at baseline. Substance abuse problems showed improvement over time, but this was not associated with ACT model fidelity. The study indicates that investment by teams to improve a patients psychosocial situation can lead to improvements on substance problems.
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FKBP5 as a possible moderator of the psychosis-inducing effects of childhood trauma.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) has repeatedly been shown to be a critical determinant of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression following childhood trauma.
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Altered transfer of momentary mental states (ATOMS) as the basic unit of psychosis liability in interaction with environment and emotions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Psychotic disorders are thought to represent altered neural function. However, research has failed to map diagnostic categories to alterations in neural networks. It is proposed that the basic unit of psychotic psychopathology is the moment-to-moment expression of subtle anomalous experiences of subclinical psychosis, and particularly its tendency to persist from moment-to-moment in daily life, under the influence of familial, environmental, emotional and cognitive factors.In a general population twin sample (n?=?579) and in a study of patients with psychotic disorder (n?=?57), their non-psychotic siblings (n?=?59) and unrelated controls (n?=?75), the experience sampling paradigm (ESM; repetitive, random sampling of momentary mental states and context) was applied. We analysed, in a within-person prospective design, (i) transfer of momentary anomalous experience at time point (t-1) to time point (t) in daily life, and (ii) moderating effects of negative affect, positive affect, daily stressors, IQ and childhood trauma. Additionally, (iii) familial associations between persistence of momentary anomalous experience and psychotic symptomatology were investigated. Higher level of schizotypy in the twins (but not higher level of psychotic symptoms in patients) predicted more persistence of momentary anomalous experience in daily life, both within subjects and across relatives. Persistence of momentary anomalous experience was highest in patients, intermediate in their siblings and lowest in controls. In both studies, persistence of momentary anomalous experience was moderated by higher levels of negative affect, daily stressors and childhood trauma (only in twins), and by lower levels of positive affect. The study of alterations in the moment-to-moment transfer of subtle anomalous experience of psychosis, resulting in their persistence, helps to explain why psychotic and emotional dysregulation tend to cluster in a single phenotype such as schizophrenia, and how familial and environmental risks increase the risk of expression of psychosis from, first, subtle momentary anomalous experience to, second, observable clinical symptoms.
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The distribution of self-reported psychotic-like experiences in non-psychotic help-seeking mental health patients in the general population; a factor mixture analysis.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Factor mixture analysis (FMA) and item response mixture models in the general population have shown that the psychosis phenotype has four classes. This study attempted to replicate this finding in help-seeking people accessing mental health services for symptoms of non-psychotic mental disorders.
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Development of the Davos assessment of cognitive biases scale (DACOBS).
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Cognitive problems and biases play an important role in the development and continuation of psychosis. A self-report measure of these deficits and processes was developed (Davos Assessment of Cognitive Biases Scale: DACOBS) and is evaluated in this study.
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Emotional experience in negative symptoms of schizophrenia--no evidence for a generalized hedonic deficit.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Deficits in emotion processing are thought to underlie the key negative symptoms flat affect and anhedonia observed in psychotic disorders. This study investigated emotional experience and social behavior in the realm of daily life in a sample of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, stratified by level of negative symptoms.
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A time-lagged momentary assessment study on daily life physical activity and affect.
Health Psychol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Novel study designs using within-subject methodology and frequent and prospective measurements are required to unravel direction of causality and dynamic processes of behavior over time. The current study examined the effects of physical activity on affective state. A primary and within-study replication sample was derived from twin pairs.
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Psychotic exacerbation and emotional dampening in the daily life of patients with schizophrenia switched to aripiprazole therapy: a collection of standardized case reports.
Ther Adv Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Background: Blockade of the dopamine D2 receptor is a key mechanism in the antipsychotic treatment of patients with a psychotic disorder, but may also induce emotional deficits. The partial D2 agonistic profile of aripiprazole has, therefore, been suggested to favor emotional wellbeing compared with the pure dopamine antagonistic properties of traditional antipsychotics. Method: The current study used the experience sampling method (a structured diary technique) to assess the effects of switching from treatment with traditional dopamine antagonist antipsychotics to treatment with the partial dopamine agonist aripiprazole on emotional wellbeing in the daily life of 13 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Results: More than half of all patients experienced exacerbation of psychotic symptoms after they had switched to the aripiprazole medication regime, consequently resulting in dropout of the study. Furthermore, switching to aripiprazole treatment, when effective in terms of symptom reduction, was accompanied by decreased feelings of both positive and negative affect in daily life, suggestive of a general state of emotional dampening. Conclusions: Although the scale of the current study and the 54% dropout rate call for careful interpretation of the data, implementation of ecological monitoring in psychopharmacological research may open up new avenues for untangling the working mechanisms of compounds with regard to their impact on mental states.
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Childhood trauma and psychosis: a case-control and case-sibling comparison across different levels of genetic liability, psychopathology, and type of trauma.
Am J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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The associations of two types of childhood trauma (abuse and neglect) with psychosis symptom domains were investigated in subjects with psychotic illness, high psychosis vulnerability, and average psychosis vulnerability.
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Assertive community treatment in the Netherlands: outcome and model fidelity.
Can J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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The implementation of assertive community treatment (ACT) varies widely. To date, the association between model fidelity and effect has not been investigated in Europe. We investigated the association between model fidelity and outcome in the Dutch mental health system.
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Does monitoring need for care in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness impact on Psychiatric Service Use? Comparison of monitored patients with matched controls.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Effectiveness of services for patients diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) may improve when treatment plans are needs based. A regional Cumulative Needs for Care Monitor (CNCM) introduced diagnostic and evaluative tools, allowing clinicians to explicitly assess patients needs and negotiate treatment with the patient. We hypothesized that this would change care consumption patterns.
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Emotional experience and estimates of D2 receptor occupancy in psychotic patients treated with haloperidol, risperidone, or olanzapine: an experience sampling study.
J Clin Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Blockade of dopamine D(2) receptors is thought to mediate the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic medication but may also induce social indifference. As antipsychotic drugs differ in D(2) receptor binding, "tight" and "loose" binding drugs may be hypothesized to differentially affect emotional experience. The present study investigates the differential effects of relatively tight versus looser binding drugs on the experience of emotions in the realm of daily life.
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Meta-analysis of MTHFR gene variants in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depressive disorder: evidence for a common genetic vulnerability?
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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Past analyses examining the relationship between genetic variation in the 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and psychiatric disorders have provided mixed and largely inconclusive findings. MTHFR is involved in the one-carbon metabolic pathway which is essential for DNA biosynthesis and the epigenetic process of DNA methylation. We conducted a meta-analysis of all published case-control studies investigating associations between two common MTHFR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), MTHFR C677T (sample size 29,502) and A1298C (sample size 7934), and the major psychiatric disorders (i) schizophrenia (SZ), (ii) bipolar disorder (BPD), and (iii) unipolar depressive disorder (UDD). In order to examine possible shared genetic vulnerability, we also tested for associations between MTHFR and all of these major psychiatric disorders (SZ, BPD and UDD) combined. MTHFR C677T was significantly associated with all of the combined psychiatric disorders (SZ, BPD and UDD); random effects odds ratio (OR)=1.26 for TT versus CC genotype carriers; confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.46); meta-regression did not suggest moderating effects of psychiatric diagnosis, sex, ethnic group or year of publication. Although MTHFR A1298C was not significantly associated with the combination of major psychiatric disorders, nor with SZ, there was evidence for diagnostic moderation indicating a significant association with BPD (random effects OR=2.03 for AA versus CC genotype carriers, CI: 1.07-3.86). Meta-analysis on UDD was not possible due to the small number of studies available. This study provides evidence for shared genetic vulnerability for SZ, BPD and UDD mediated by MTHFR 677TT genotype, which is in line with epigenetic involvement in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders.
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Social needs in daily life in adults with Pervasive Developmental Disorders.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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Although social deficits remain a persistent component of the behavioural phenotype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) in adulthood, it remains unclear whether these represent diminished social needs, as is seen in social anhedonia, or rather thwarted social needs, as is seen in social anxiety. This study used the Experience Sampling Method (ESM)--a structured diary technique--to examine social interaction in daily life of 8 adults with PDD, compared to 14 healthy controls. Multilevel linear regression analyses showed that PDD subjects a) did not spend more time alone, b) had no increased preference to be alone when in company, and c) spent more time with familiar people, compared to control subjects. Patients experienced more negative affect and anxiety when in the company of less familiar people compared to when they are alone, whereas no difference in affect could be found between being alone or being with familiar people. All these lines of evidence suggest that PDD subjects do have a desire to interact. However, this may be thwarted as is seen in social anxiety. Therapeutic interventions should aim at decreasing negative affect and anxiety in social interactions possibly by improving social skills to fulfil the existing social needs in adults with PDD.
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Psychosis reactivity to cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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Little is known about the experiential dynamics of the interaction between cannabis and vulnerability to psychosis.
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Systematic monitoring of needs for care and global outcomes in patients with severe mental illness.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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It was hypothesised that the introduction of tools that allow clinicians to assess patients needs and to negotiate treatment (Cumulative Needs for Care Monitor; CNCM), would be associated with global outcome improvements in patients diagnosed with severe mental illness.
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Cognitive deficits in nonaffective functional psychoses: a study in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2010
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Cognition has been studied extensively in schizophrenia in Western countries. Far less research is devoted, however, to cognitive functioning in brief psychotic disorder and schizophreniform disorder. Moreover, few studies have been performed in third world countries. In this study, we want to fill this gap by comparing the cognitive functioning of three groups of ambulant, first-episode patients with a non-affective psychosis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. To test if cognitive dysfunction is a core symptom of psychosis in an African population, 153 healthy control subjects are compared with a sample of 68 patients with brief psychotic disorder, 50 patients with schizophreniform disorder, and 70 patients with schizophrenia in a cross-sectional study on several distinctive cognitive domains including verbal, visual, and working memory, attention, visuomotor control, motor speed, verbal fluency, and executive functions. In addition, these three groups of patients are compared among themselves on these cognitive domains. Results indicate that patients perform significantly worse than healthy controls on all cognitive domains with cognitive deficits being most pronounced in verbal and working memory, attention, motor speed, and executive functions. No major differences were found, however, between the three patient groups.
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Do depression and pain intensity interfere with physical activity in daily life in patients with Chronic Low Back Pain?
Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2010
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Patients with chronic pain may have difficulties estimating their own physical activity level in daily life. Pain-related factors such as depression and pain intensity may affect a patients ability to estimate their own daily life activity level. This study evaluates whether patients with Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) who are more depressed and/or report more pain indeed have a lower objectively assessed daily life activity level or whether they only perceive their activity level as lower. Patients with CLBP were included in a cross-sectional study. During 14days physical activity in daily life was measured, with both an electronic diary and an accelerometer. Multilevel analyses were performed to evaluate whether a higher level of depression and/or pain intensity was associated with a lower objectively assessed activity level or the discrepancy between the self-reported and objectively assessed daily life activity levels. Results, based on 66 patients with CLBP (mean RDQ score 11.8), showed that the objectively assessed daily life activity level is not associated with depression or pain intensity. There was a moderate association between the self-reported and objectively assessed activity levels (beta=0.39, p<0.01). The discrepancy between the two was significantly and negatively related to depression (beta=-0.19, p=0.01), indicating that patients who had higher levels of depression judged their own activity level to be relatively low compared to their objectively assessed activity level. Pain intensity was not associated with the perception of a patients activity level (beta=0.12, ns).
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A single blind randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy in a help-seeking population with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Psychotic disorders are a serious mental health problem. Intervention before the onset of psychosis might result in delaying the onset, reducing the impact or even preventing the first episode of psychosis. This study explores the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in targeting cognitive biases that are involved in the formation of delusions in persons with an ultra-high risk for developing psychosis. A single blind randomised controlled trial compares CBT with treatment as usual in preventing or delaying the onset of psychosis.
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Transition from stress sensitivity to a depressive state: longitudinal twin study.
Br J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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Daily-life stress sensitivity is associated with depression, but prospective data are lacking.
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Momentary assessment research in psychosis.
Psychol Assess
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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There is an expanding interest to study psychosis in the realm of daily life. The study of the person in the context of daily life may provide a powerful addition to more conventional and cross-sectional research strategies in the study of psychosis. This article first discusses the nature of experience sampling research in psychosis and demonstrates the feasibility and validity of studies using the experience sampling method (ESM) in this patient group. Second, the article presents a review of all ESM research in psychosis with a special focus on (a) the phenomenology, (b) the etiology, and (c) psychological models of psychosis. Variability over time and the dynamic interplay with the environment were found to be essential features of the positive symptoms of psychosis, whereas behavioral patterns as well as self-reported affect in daily life reality might be essential when studying negative symptomatology. ESM contributes to a better understanding of the interplay between psychotic experiences and environmental features, such as stress or cannabis exposure. Finally, the study of symptomatic variability may fuel new research into psychological models and treatment of psychosis and the study of the person-environment interplay may foster new Gene x Environment interaction studies.
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Subjective experience of cognitive failures as possible risk factor for negative symptoms of psychosis in the general population.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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The aim of this study was to examine whether proneness to subjective cognitive failure (cognitive based mistakes) increases the risk for the development of symptoms of psychosis and to what degree any association was familial.
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The cumulative needs for care monitor: a unique monitoring system in the south of the Netherlands.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Patients diagnosed with severe mental illness (SMI) have a complex combination of psychiatric, somatic and social needs for care, requiring an integrated, multidisciplinary health care approach. The present paper describes the methods of the cumulative needs for care monitor (CNCM), a monitoring system in operation in a geographically defined area.
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Concurrent measurement of "real-world" stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis: assessing the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Psychosis has been repeatedly suggested to be affected by increases in stress and arousal. However, there is a dearth of evidence supporting the temporal link between stress, arousal, and psychosis during "real-world" functioning. This paucity of evidence may stem from limitations of current research methodologies. Our aim is to the test the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology designed to measure concurrent stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis during "real-world" daily functioning.
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Capturing coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: introducing the MACS-24.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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In order to assess coping with psychotic symptoms, the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies (MACS), 24 symptom version, was developed as a refinement of the previous MACS-13. Associations between type of coping and the experienced level of control over psychotic symptoms were examined using MACS-24.MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping factors: symptomatic coping and non-symptomatic coping (combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding).Mean level of distress and perceived control (range: 1-7) were, respectively, 4.2 [standard deviation (SD) = 1.9] and 4.2 (SD = 1.9). The association between distress and perceived control was negative [beta = -0.28; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = -0.41 to -0.15]. Type of coping interacted with perceived control (p = 0.005), in that symptomatic coping was negatively associated with perceived control [odds ratio (OR) over seven levels = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.71-0.94], whereas for non-symptomatic coping a positive association was apparent (OR over seven levels = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19).Previous contrasts between symptomatic and non-symptomatic coping were replicated using MACS-24, suggesting clinical validity and utility.
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Temporal dynamics of visual and auditory hallucinations in psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
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Hallucinations are a core feature of psychosis, often causing considerable distress. Reported prevalence ranges from 70% for auditory hallucinations (AHs) to 30% for visual hallucinations (VHs) and 4% for hallucinations in the tactile domain. AHs have been studied extensively but studies on VHs are scarce. The current study investigated the phenomenology of VHs and AHs in the realm of daily life, by analyzing their prevalence, course and co-occurrence over a 6-day period and their temporal relation to emotions and delusions.
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Consumer-providers in assertive community treatment programs: associations with client outcomes.
Psychiatr Serv
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This study examined whether employing mental health consumers as consumer-providers in assertive community treatment teams can enhance outcomes for clients with severe mental illness.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.