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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical predictors of radiographic abnormalities among infants with bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Acute viral respiratory exacerbation is one of the most common conditions encountered in a paediatric emergency department (PED) during winter months. We aimed at defining clinical predictors of chest radiography prescription and radiographic abnormalities, among infants with bronchiolitis in a paediatric emergency department.
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Correction of hyperbilirubinemia in gunn rats by surgical delivery of low doses of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Helper-dependent adenoviral (HDAd) vectors are attractive for liver-directed gene therapy because they can drive sustained high levels of transgene expression without chronic toxicity. However, high vector doses are required to achieve efficient hepatic transduction by systemic delivery because of a nonlinear dose response. Unfortunately, such high doses result in systemic vector dissemination and dose-dependent acute toxicity with potential lethal consequences. We have previously shown in nonhuman primates that delivery of HDAd in surgically isolated livers resulted in a significantly higher hepatic transduction with reduced systemic vector dissemination compared with intravenous delivery and multiyear transgene expression. Encouraged by these data, we have now employed a surgical vector delivery method in the Gunn rat, an animal model for Crigler-Najjar syndrome. After vector delivery into the surgically isolated liver, we show phenotypic correction at the low and clinically relevant vector dose of 1 × 10(11) vp/kg. Correction of hyperbilirubinemia and increased glucuronidation of bilirubin in bile was achieved for up to 1 year after vector administration. Surgical delivery of the vector was well tolerated without signs of acute or chronic toxicity. This method of delivery could thereby be a safer alternative to liver transplantation for long-term treatment of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I.
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Cognitive profile of patients with glycogen storage disease type III: a clinical description of seven cases.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) deficiency. It results in a multisystemic disease with predominant hepatic and myopathic symptoms. While frequent social maladjustment has been observed in our clinical practice, cognitive and psychological disturbances have never been assessed. The aim of this pilot study was to examine and characterize the cognitive profile of patients with GSDIII.
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Anophthalmia, hearing loss, abnormal pituitary development and response to growth hormone therapy in three children with microdeletions of 14q22q23.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Microdeletions of 14q22q23 have been associated with eye abnormalities and pituitary defects. Other phenotypic features in deletion carriers including hearing loss and response to growth hormone therapy are less well recognized. We studied genotype and phenotype of three newly identified children with 14q22q23 deletions, two girls and one boy with bilateral anophthalmia, and compared them with previously published deletion patients and individuals with intragenic defects in genes residing in the region.
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First autochthonous familial cluster of invasive community-acquired leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant USA300 Staphylococcus aureus in France.
Folia Microbiol. (Praha)
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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For the first time, it was reported in France a cluster of autochthonous severe community-acquired (CA) infections due to the USA300 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clone. The three cases belonged to the same family without any identified clue of abroad importation pathway. The domestic spread of USA300 in France is of concern.
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Impact of chest radiography for children with lower respiratory tract infection: a propensity score approach.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Management of acute respiratory tract infection varies substantially despite this being a condition frequently encountered in pediatric emergency departments. Previous studies have suggested that the use of antibiotics was higher when chest radiography was performed. However none of these analyses had considered the inherent indication bias of observational studies.
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Growth development of French children born after in vitro maturation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several lines of evidence indicate that immature oocyte retrieval and subsequent in vitro maturation (IVM) without ovarian stimulation may be a reliable option in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). However, few outcome data are available for children born following this technique.
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Mitochondrial Infantile Liver Disease due to TRMU Gene Mutations: Three New Cases.
JIMD Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Combined respiratory chain defect is a common feature in mitochondrial liver disease during early infancy. Mitochondrial DNA depletions, induced by mutations of the nuclear genes POLG, DGUOK, and MPV17, are the major causes of these combined deficiencies. More recently, mutations in TRMU gene encoding the mitochondrial tRNA-specific 2-thiouridylase were found in infantile hepatopathy related to mitochondrial translation defect. It is characterized by a combined defect of respiratory chain complexes without mitochondrial DNA depletion.We report here clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings from three unrelated children presenting with hepatopathy associated with hyperlactatemia and respiratory chain defect due to bi-allelic mutations in TRMU gene. Two patients recovered spontaneously in a few months, whereas the other one died of acute liver failure. Spontaneous remission is a rare feature in mitochondrial liver diseases, and early identification of TRMU mutations could impact on clinical management. Our results extend the small number of TRMU mutations reported in mitochondrial liver disorders and allowed accumulating data for genotype-phenotype correlation.
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Exercise intolerance in Glycogen Storage Disease Type III: weakness or energy deficiency?
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Myopathic symptoms in Glycogen Storage Disease Type IIIa (GSD IIIa) are generally ascribed to the muscle wasting that these patients suffer in adult life, but an inability to debranch glycogen likely also has an impact on muscle energy metabolism. We hypothesized that patients with GSD IIIa can experience exercise intolerance due to insufficient carbohydrate oxidation in skeletal muscle. Six patients aged 17-36-years were studied. We determined VO 2peak (peak oxygen consumption), the response to forearm exercise, and the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to cycle exercise at 70% of VO 2peak with either a saline or a glucose infusion. VO 2peak was below normal. Glucose improved the work capacity by lowering the heart rate, and increasing the peak work rate by 30% (108 W with glucose vs. 83 W with placebo, p=0.018). The block in muscle glycogenolytic capacity, combined with the liver involvement caused exercise intolerance with dynamic skeletal muscle symptoms (excessive fatigue and muscle pain), and hypoglycemia in 4 subjects. In this study we combined anaerobic and aerobic exercise to systematically study skeletal muscle metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with GSD IIIa. Exercise capacity was significantly reduced, and our results indicate that this was due to a block in muscle glycogenolytic capacity. Our findings suggest that the general classification of GSD III as a glycogenosis characterized by fixed symptoms related to muscle wasting should be modified to include dynamic exercise-related symptoms of muscle fatigue. A proportion of the skeletal muscle symptoms in GSD IIIa, i.e. weakness and fatigue, may be related to insufficient energy production in muscle.
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Successful treatment of severe cardiomyopathy in glycogen storage disease type III With D,L-3-hydroxybutyrate, ketogenic and high-protein diet.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2011
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Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III) due to debranching enzyme deficiency presenting usually with hepatomegaly and hypoglycemia may be responsible for severe cardiomyopathy which is often fatal. Current treatment of GSD III is based on frequent high-carbohydrate meals that have no effect on the cardiomyopathy. We describe a 2-mo-old infant presenting with a familial form of GSD III complicated with cardiomyopathy. As conventional treatment was unable to improve his sisters cardiomyopathy who was deceased at age 11 mo, we proposed an experimental treatment combining the use of synthetic ketone bodies (D,L-3-OH butyrate) as an alternative energy source, 2:1 ketogenic diet to reduce glucose intake and high-protein diet to enhance gluconeogenesis. Twenty-four months after the onset of this treatment, echocardiography showed an improvement of cardiomyopathy. Growth and liver size remained normal, and no side effects were observed. Blood glucose levels remained within the normal range and insulin levels decreased. These findings show that synthetic ketone bodies as well as low-carbohydrate, high-lipid, and high-protein diet may be a more beneficial therapeutic choice therapeutic choice for GSD III patients with cardiomyopathy. These encouraging data need to be confirmed in more GSD III patients presenting with cardiac or muscular symptoms.
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Spectrum of mutations in the renin-angiotensin system genes in autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Autosomal recessive renal tubular dysgenesis (RTD) is a severe disorder of renal tubular development characterized by early onset and persistent fetal anuria leading to oligohydramnios and the Potter sequence, associated with skull ossification defects. Early death occurs in most cases from anuria, pulmonary hypoplasia, and refractory arterial hypotension. The disease is linked to mutations in the genes encoding several components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS): AGT (angiotensinogen), REN (renin), ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), and AGTR1 (angiotensin II receptor type 1). Here, we review the series of 54 distinct mutations identified in 48 unrelated families. Most of them are novel and ACE mutations are the most frequent, observed in two-thirds of families (64.6%). The severity of the clinical course was similar whatever the mutated gene, which underlines the importance of a functional RAS in the maintenance of blood pressure and renal blood flow during the life of a human fetus. Renal hypoperfusion, whether genetic or secondary to a variety of diseases, precludes the normal development/ differentiation of proximal tubules. The identification of the disease on the basis of precise clinical and histological analyses and the characterization of the genetic defects allow genetic counseling and early prenatal diagnosis.
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GNAS-activating mutations define a rare subgroup of inflammatory liver tumors characterized by STAT3 activation.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Mosaic G-protein alpha-subunit (GNAS)-activating mutations are responsible for the McCune-Albright (MCA) syndrome. This oncogene that activates the adenylate cyclase is also mutated in various tumor types leading to the accumulation of cyclic-AMP. Identification of a hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) in two MCA patients led us to search for GNAS activation in benign and malignant hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
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Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency.
Orphanet J Rare Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed by G6PC (GSDIa) or SLC37A4 (GSDIb) gene analysis, and the indications of liver biopsy to measure G6P activity are getting rarer and rarer. Differential diagnoses include the other GSDs, in particular type III (see this term). However, in GSDIII, glycemia and lactacidemia are high after a meal and low after a fast period (often with a later occurrence than that of type I). Primary liver tumors and Pepper syndrome (hepatic metastases of neuroblastoma) may be evoked but are easily ruled out through clinical and ultrasound data. Antenatal diagnosis is possible through molecular analysis of amniocytes or chorionic villous cells. Pre-implantatory genetic diagnosis may also be discussed. Genetic counseling should be offered to patients and their families. The dietary treatment aims at avoiding hypoglycemia (frequent meals, nocturnal enteral feeding through a nasogastric tube, and later oral addition of uncooked starch) and acidosis (restricted fructose and galactose intake). Liver transplantation, performed on the basis of poor metabolic control and/or hepatocarcinoma, corrects hypoglycemia, but renal involvement may continue to progress and neutropenia is not always corrected in type Ib. Kidney transplantation can be performed in case of severe renal insufficiency. Combined liver-kidney grafts have been performed in a few cases. Prognosis is usually good: late hepatic and renal complications may occur, however, with adapted management, patients have almost normal life span. DISEASE NAME AND SYNONYMS: Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency or G6P deficiency or glycogen storage disease type I or GSDI or type I glycogenosis or Von Gierke disease or Hepatorenal glycogenosis.
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Liver glycogen storage diseases due to phosphorylase system deficiencies: diagnosis thanks to non invasive blood enzymatic and molecular studies.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Glycogen storage disease (GSD) due to a deficient hepatic phosphorylase system defines a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that mainly manifests in children. We investigated 45 unrelated children in whom a liver GSD VI or IX was suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms including hepatomegaly, increased serum transaminases, postprandial lactatemia and/or mild fasting hypoglycemia. Liver phosphorylase and phosphorylase b kinase activities studied in peripheral blood cells allowed to suspect diagnosis in 37 cases but was uninformative in 5. Sequencing of liver phosphorylase genes was useful to establish an accurate diagnosis. Causative mutations were found either in the PYGL (11 patients), PHKA2 (26 patients), PHKG2 (three patients) or in the PHKB (three patients) genes. Eleven novel disease causative mutations, five missense (p.N188K, p.D228Y, p.P382L, p.R491H, p.L500R) and six truncating mutations (c.501_502ins361pb, c.528+2T>C, c.856-29_c.1518+614del, c.1620+1G>C, p.E703del and c.2313-1G>T) were identified in the PYGL gene. Seventeen novel disease causative mutations, ten missense (p.A42P, p.Q95R, p.G131D, p.G131V, p.Q134R, p.G187R, p.G300V, p.G300A, p.C326Y, p.W820G) and seven truncating (c.537+5G>A, p.G396DfsX28, p.Q404X, p.N653X, p.L855PfsX87, and two large deletions) were identified in the PHKA2 gene. Four novel truncating mutations (p.R168X, p.Q287X, p.I268PfsX12 and c.272-1G>C) were identified in the PHKG2 gene and three (c.573_577del, p.R364X, c.2427+3A>G) in the PHKB gene. Patients with PHKG2 mutations evolved towards cirrhosis. Molecular analysis of GSD VI or IX genes allows to confirm diagnosis suspected on the basis of enzymatic analysis and to establish diagnosis and avoid liver biopsy when enzymatic studies are not informative in blood cells.
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Successful plasmapheresis for acute and severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a child with crigler najjar type I syndrome.
JIMD Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CN-I, MIM #218800) is a rare and severe autosomal disorder. It is caused by deficiency of the liver enzyme responsible for bilirubin elimination, the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1; EC 2.4.1.17). Biologically, the disease manifests itself with severe and persistent unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Kernicterus is a well-known complication of severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in infants and young children, especially in patients with CN-I.Few articles have shown the efficiency of plasmapheresis for extreme hyperbilirubinemia.In this report, we describe the efficiency of plasmapheresis for a rapid control of acute and severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a 6-year-old CN-I patient who had previously developed kernicterus in the neonatal period. In spite of intensification of phototherapy, the patient developed severe hyperbilirubinemia (up to 830 ?mol/l, with bilirubin/albumin ratio at 1.2). With two plasmapheresis procedures, bilirubin serum concentration decreased to 420 ?mol/ and bilirubin/albumin ratio to 0.55. Following the acute episode of very severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia, the child recovered and neurological examination was unchanged, thus suggesting that plasmapheresis possibly prevented further worsening of kernicterus.
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Perioperative management of hemostasis for surgery of benign hepatic adenomas in patients with glycogen storage disease type ia.
JIMD Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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The development of hepatocellular adenomas in the liver of patients with glycogen storage disease type I is a well-known complication of the disease. Surgical procedures and perioperative managements described so far have reported persistent and important morbidity. We report here a series of six patients (three males and three females) who underwent hepatic resection, and we propose a new hemostatic management protocol comprising glucose infusion, corticosteroids, desmopressin, and antifibrinolytic drugs, used to prevent efficaciously hepatic hemorrhage due to glycogen storage disease (GSD) platelet dysfunction.
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Klüver Bucy syndrome following hypoglycaemic coma in a patient with glycogen storage disease type Ib.
J. Inherit. Metab. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Patients with type I glycogen storage disease (GSD) have poor tolerance to fasting, sometimes less than 3 hours during infancy. Even though most patients are able, as they get older, to tolerate a longer fasting period, they are at permanent risk for fast-induced hypoglycaemia, even in adulthood. Klüver Bucy syndrome, is characterized by psychic blindness (inability to recognize familiar objects), hypermetamorphosis (strong tendency to react to visual stimulus), increased oral exploration, placidity, indiscriminate hyper-sexuality and change in dietary habits. In this case report, we describe the development of Klüver Bucy syndrome in a 28-year-old man with type Ib GSD, following prolonged and severe hypoglycaemia triggered by a common respiratory infection.
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Recurrent 70.8 Mb 4q22.2q32.3 duplication due to ovarian germinal mosaicism.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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A mosaicism is defined by the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual. Chromosomal germinal mosaicism occurs in germ cells before the onset of meiosis. Previously, few studies have described germinal mosaicism. In this study, we report on two siblings who carried identical pure and direct interstitial 4q22.2q32.3 duplication. Procedure investigations included complete clinical description, conventional cytogenetic analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array experiments and microsatellite study searching for parental origin of the duplication. Microarray CGH and further FISH experiments with BAC clones showed the same 70.8 Mb direct duplication, dup(4)(q22.2q32.3). Molecular studies of the 4q duplication were consistent with maternal origin associated with mitotic or meiotic rearrangements. This structural chromosomal aberration was associated in both cases with increased nuchal translucency, growth retardation and dysmorphy. Cardiopathy and lung malformations were only evident in the first case. These clinical manifestations are similar to those previously reported in previous studies involving pure 4q trisomy of the same region, except for thumb and renal abnormalities that were not obvious in the presented cases. The amplified region included genes involved in neurological development (NEUROG2, MAB21L2, PCDH10/18 and GRIA2). The recurrent 4q duplication in these siblings is consistent with a maternal ovarian germinal mosaicism. This is the first description of germinal mosaicism for a large chromosomal duplication and highlights that genetic counselling for apparently de novo chromosome aberration should be undertaken with care.
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Effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
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Acute bronchiolitis treatment in children and infants is largely supportive, but chest physiotherapy is routinely performed in some countries. In France, national guidelines recommend a specific type of physiotherapy combining the increased exhalation technique (IET) and assisted cough (AC). Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of chest physiotherapy (IET + AC) in previously healthy infants hospitalized for a first episode of acute bronchiolitis.
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Lentiviral vectors that express UGT1A1 in liver and contain miR-142 target sequences normalize hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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Crigler-Najjar type 1 (CN-I) is an inherited liver disease caused by an absence of bilirubin-uridine 5-diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) activity. It results in life-threatening levels of unconjugated bilirubin, and therapeutic options are limited. We used adult Gunn rats (an animal model of the disease) to evaluate the efficiency of lentiviral-based gene therapy to express UGT1A1 in liver.
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Investigating glycogenosis type III patients with multi-parametric functional NMR imaging and spectroscopy.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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Debranching enzyme deficiency (Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type III) causes progressive muscle wasting myopathy. A comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance study involving spectroscopy (NMRS) and imaging (NMRI) evaluated status and function of calf muscles in 18 GSDIII patients. At rest, (31)P NMRS showed elevated pH and accumulation of anomalous phosphomonoesters, (13)C NMRS quantified excess glycogen accumulation and NMRI demonstrated progressive fat replacement that paralleled muscle weakness. Multi-parametric functional NMR, performed at recovery from a single bout of aerobic exercise, simultaneously assessed oxidative phosphorylation from (31)P NMRS, muscle perfusion and BOLD, a marker of blood oxygenation, from arterial spin labeled NMRI, and oxygen uptake from deoxymyoglobin proton NMRS. While blocked glycogenolysis caused inadequate substrate supply to the mitochondria, combined measurements suggested that altered perfusion was also responsible for impaired post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery and could contribute to exercise intolerance in GSDIII. These non-invasive investigations provide new indices to quantify the progression of GSDIII.
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A new mutation in the AFP gene responsible for a total absence of alpha feto-protein on second trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Alpha feto-protein (AFP) is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during the fetal period. During the second trimester of pregnancy, APF and betahCG serum concentrations are commonly used for screening Down syndrome. AFP deficiency is rare (estimated to be 1/105,000 newborns) and only one sequence alteration has previously been reported in the AFP gene. We report a new mutation in exon 5 of the AFP gene, leading to a total absence of AFP on 2nd-trimester maternal serum screening for Down syndrome, confirmed on the amniotic fluid. Despite this, fetal development and birth were normal. After PCR-amplification, the whole AFP gene was sequenced. The new mutation was a guanine to adenine transition in position 543 creating a premature stop codon in position 181. In order to search for eventual modifications of the amniotic fluid profile, proteins were separated by electrophoresis and compared with 10 normal amniotic fluids sampled at the same developmental age (18 weeks). In the amniotic fluid of our patient albumin rate was reduced whereas alpha1 and beta protein fractions were increased, suggesting that AFP deficiency may modify the distribution of protein fractions. This observation emphasizes the complex molecular mechanisms of compensation of serum protein deficiency. Studies on other families with AFP deficiency are necessary to confirm this observation.
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Molecular characterization of hepatocellular adenomas developed in patients with glycogen storage disease type I.
J. Hepatol.
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Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are benign liver tumors mainly related to oral contraception and classified into 4 molecular subgroups: inflammatory (IHCA), HNF1A-inactivated (H-HCA), ?-catenin-activated (bHCA) or unclassified (UHCA). Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD) is a rare hereditary metabolic disease that predisposes to HCA development. The aim of our study was to characterize the molecular profile of GSD-associated HCA.
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Mutation spectrum in the French cohort of galactosemic patients and structural simulation of 27 novel missense variations.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
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Classic galactosemia refers to galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) deficiency and is characterized by long-term complications of unknown mechanism and high allelic heterogeneity of GALT gene.
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Alu-mediated deletion of SOX10 regulatory elements in Waardenburg syndrome type 4.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
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Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a rare neural crest disorder defined by the combination of Waardenburg syndrome (sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects) and Hirschsprung disease (intestinal aganglionosis). Three genes are known to be involved in this syndrome, that is, EDN3 (endothelin-3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), and SOX10. However, 15-35% of WS4 remains unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes could be involved and/or that mutations within known genes may have escaped previous screenings. Here, we searched for deletions within recently identified SOX10 regulatory sequences and describe the first characterization of a WS4 patient presenting with a large deletion encompassing three of these enhancers. Analysis of the breakpoint region suggests a complex rearrangement involving three Alu sequences that could be mediated by a FosTes/MMBIR replication mechanism. Taken together with recent reports, our results demonstrate that the disruption of highly conserved non-coding elements located within or at a long distance from the coding sequences of key genes can result in several neurocristopathies. This opens up new routes to the molecular dissection of neural crest disorders.
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