Recent advances in diffusion weighted image acquisition and processing allow for the construction of anatomically highly precise structural connectomes. In this study, we introduce a method to compute high-resolution whole-brain structural connectome. Our method relies on cortical and subcortical triangulated surface models, and on a large number of fiber tracts generated using a probabilistic tractography algorithm. Each surface triangle is a node of the structural connectivity graph while edges are fiber tract densities across pairs of nodes. Surface-based registration and downsampling to a common surface space are introduced for group analysis whereas connectome surface smoothing aimed at improving whole-brain network estimate reliability. Based on 10 datasets acquired from a single healthy subject, we evaluated the effects of repeated probabilistic tractography, surface smoothing, surface registration and downsampling to the common surface space. We show that, provided enough fiber tracts and surface smoothing, good to excellent intra-acquisition reliability could be achieved. Surface registration and downsampling efficiently established triangle-to-triangle correspondence across acquisitions and high inter-acquisition reliability was obtained. Computational time and disk/memory usages were monitored throughout the steps. Although further testing on large cohort of subjects is required, our method presents the potential to accurately model whole-brain structural connectivity at high-resolution.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and NaV1.5 voltage-gated sodium channels have independently been shown to regulate human breast cancer cell invasiveness. The n-3 polyunsaturated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), a natural ligand of PPAR, is effective in increasing survival and chemotherapy efficacy in breast cancer patient with metastasis. DHA reduces breast cancer cell invasiveness and it also inhibits PPAR? expression. We have shown previously that NaV1.5 promotes MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells invasiveness by potentiating the activity of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (NHE-1), the major regulator of H(+) efflux in these cells. We report here that DHA inhibited NaV1.5 current and NHE-1 activity in human breast cancer cells, and in turn reduced NaV1.5-dependent cancer cell invasiveness. For the first time, we show that antagonizing PPAR?, or inhibiting its expression, reduced NaV1.5 mRNA and protein expression and NaV1.5 current, as well as NHE-1 activity and cell invasiveness. Consistent with these results, the DHA-induced reduction of both NaV1.5 expression and NHE-1 activity was abolished in cancer cells knocked-down for the expression of PPAR? (shPPAR?). This demonstrates a direct link between the inhibition of PPAR? expression and the inhibition of Nav1.5/NHE-1 activities and breast cancer cell invasiveness. This study provides new mechanistic data advocating for the use of natural fatty acids such as DHA to block the development of breast cancer metastases.
Apathy is characterized by lack of interest, loss of initiative, and flattening of affect. It is a frequent, very disabling nonmotor complication of Parkinson's disease (PD). The condition may notably occur when dopaminergic medications are tapered after the initiation of subthalamic stimulation and thus can be referred to as "dopaminergic apathy." Even in the absence of tapering, some patients may develop a form of apathy as PD progresses. This form is often related to cognitive decline and does not respond to dopaminergic medications (dopa-resistant apathy). We aimed at determining whether dopa-resistant apathy in PD is related to striatofrontal morphological changes. We compared the shape of the striatum (using spherical harmonic parameterization and sampling in a three-dimensional point distribution model [SPHARM-PDM]), cortical thickness, and fractional anisotropy (using tract-based spatial statistics) in 10 consecutive patients with dopamine-refractory apathy, 10 matched nonapathetic PD patients and 10 healthy controls. Apathy in PD was associated with atrophy of the left nucleus accumbens. The SPHARM-PDM analysis highlighted (1) a positive correlation between the severity of apathy and atrophy of the left nucleus accumbens, (2) greater atrophy of the dorsolateral head of the left caudate in apathetic patients than in nonapathetic patients, and (3) greater atrophy in the bilateral nucleus accumbens in apathetic patients than in controls. There were no significant intergroup differences in cortical thickness or fractional anisotropy. Dopa-resistant apathy in PD was associated with atrophy of the left nucleus accumbens and the dorsolateral head of the left caudate.
Our knowledge on temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis has evolved towards the view that this syndrome affects widespread brain networks. Diffusion weighted imaging studies have shown alterations of large white matter tracts, most notably in left temporal lobe epilepsy, but the degree of altered connections between cortical and subcortical structures remains to be clarified. We performed a whole brain connectome analysis in 39 patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (20 right and 19 left) and 28 healthy subjects. We performed whole-brain probabilistic fiber tracking using MRtrix and segmented 164 cortical and subcortical structures with Freesurfer. Individual structural connectivity graphs based on these 164 nodes were computed by mapping the mean fractional anisotropy (FA) onto each tract. Connectomes were then compared using two complementary methods: permutation tests for pair-wise connections and Network Based Statistics to probe for differences in large network components. Comparison of pair-wise connections revealed a marked reduction of connectivity between left TLE patients and controls, which was strongly lateralized to the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Specifically, infero-lateral cortex and temporal pole were strongly affected, and so was the perisylvian cortex. In contrast, for right TLE, focal connectivity loss was much less pronounced and restricted to bilateral limbic structures and right temporal cortex. Analysis of large network components revealed furthermore that both left and right hippocampal sclerosis affected diffuse global and interhemispheric connectivity. Thus, left temporal lobe epilepsy was associated with a much more pronounced pattern of reduced FA, that included major landmarks of perisylvian language circuitry. These distinct patterns of connectivity associated with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis show how a focal pathology influences global network architecture, and how left or right-sided lesions may have differential and specific impacts on cerebral connectivity.
Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is found in high concentrations in the extracellular microenvironment of tumours and is postulated to play critical roles in cancer progression. In the present study, we found that stimulation of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells with 30 µM ATP increased their migration by 140 ± 31%, whereas it had minor or no effect on their proliferation. This effect was prevented by the ectonucleotidase apyrase and was antagonized by suramin and pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, consistently with the participation of P2 receptors. MCF-7 cells expressed messenger RNA for all known P2Y receptors and for P2X2, P2X4, P2X5, P2X6 and P2X7 receptors. Brief applications (20 s) of external ATP resulted in a 50 pA P2X-like inward current. ATP, but not adenosine diphosphate or uridine diphosphate, increased the intracellular calcium concentration in absence of extracellular calcium, and this effect was prevented by the inhibition of phospholipase C. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) (10 µM) and 2-thio-UTP (10 µM) increased intracellular calcium concentration and cell migration to the same extent as ATP. The UTP-dependent increase in cell migration was absent in cells knocked-down for P2Y2. It was inhibited by MEK inhibitor PD98059. UTP induced a time-dependent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), which was prevented by the incubation with PD98059. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of the purinergic signalling in cancer cells and indicate that the activation of P2Y2 receptors enhances breast cancer cells migration through the activation of a MEK-ERK1/2-dependent signalling pathway.
Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram and functional MRI (EEG-fMRI) is a powerful tool for localizing epileptic networks via the detection of hemodynamic changes correlated with interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs). fMRI can be used to study the long-lasting effect of epileptic activity by assessing stationary functional connectivity during the resting-state period [especially, the connectivity of the default mode network (DMN)]. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) are associated with low responsiveness and disruption of DMN activity. A dynamic functional connectivity approach might enable us to determine the effect of IEDs on DMN connectivity and to better understand the correlation between DMN connectivity changes and altered consciousness.
The degradation of the extracellular matrix by cancer cells represents an essential step in metastatic progression and this is performed by cancer cell structures called invadopodia. NaV1.5 (also known as SCN5A) Na(+) channels are overexpressed in breast cancer tumours and are associated with metastatic occurrence. It has been previously shown that NaV1.5 activity enhances breast cancer cell invasiveness through perimembrane acidification and subsequent degradation of the extracellular matrix by cysteine cathepsins. Here, we show that NaV1.5 colocalises with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger type 1 (NHE-1) and caveolin-1 at the sites of matrix remodelling in invadopodia of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. NHE-1, NaV1.5 and caveolin-1 co-immunoprecipitated, which indicates a close association between these proteins. We found that the expression of NaV1.5 was responsible for the allosteric modulation of NHE-1, rendering it more active at the intracellular pH range of 6.4-7; thus, it potentially extrudes more protons into the extracellular space. Furthermore, NaV1.5 expression increased Src kinase activity and the phosphorylation (Y421) of the actin-nucleation-promoting factor cortactin, modified F-actin polymerisation and promoted the acquisition of an invasive morphology in these cells. Taken together, our study suggests that NaV1.5 is a central regulator of invadopodia formation and activity in breast cancer cells.
The SK3 channel, a potassium channel, was recently shown to control cancer cell migration, a critical step in metastasis outgrowth. Here, we report that expression of the SK3 channel was markedly associated with bone metastasis. The SK3 channel was shown to control constitutive Ca(2+) entry and cancer cell migration through an interaction with the Ca(2+) channel Orai1. We found that the SK3 channel triggers an association with the Orai1 channel within lipid rafts. This localization of an SK3-Orai1 complex seemed essential to control cancer cell migration. This suggests that the formation of this complex in lipid rafts is a gain-of-function, because we showed that none of the individual proteins were able to promote the complete phenotype. We identified the alkyl-lipid Ohmline as a disrupting agent for SK3-Orai1 lipid raft localization. Upon Ohmline treatment, the SK3-Orai1 complex moved away from lipid rafts, and SK3-dependent Ca(2+) entry, migration, and bone metastases were subsequently impaired. The colocalization of SK3 and Orai1 in primary human tumors and bone metastases further emphasized the clinical relevance of our observations. Targeting SK3-Orai1 in lipid rafts may inaugurate innovative approaches to inhibit bone metastases.
The effect of numerous anticancer drugs on breast cancer cell lines and rodent mammary tumors can be enhanced by a treatment with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) which is a natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). In order to identify the PPAR regulating breast cancer cell growth, we tested the impact of siRNA, selected to suppress PPAR?, PPAR? or PPAR? mRNA in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The siPPAR? was the most effective to inhibit breast cancer cell growth in both cell lines. Using PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR? pharmacological antagonists, we showed that PPAR? regulated DHA-induced inhibition of growth in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. In addition, the expressions of all 3 PPAR mRNA were co-regulated in both cell lines, upon treatments with siRNA or PPAR antagonists. PPAR mRNA expression was also examined in the NitrosoMethylUrea (NMU)-induced rat mammary tumor model. The expressions of PPAR? and PPAR? mRNAs were correlated in the control group but not in the n-3 PUFA group in which the expression of PPAR? mRNA was reduced. Although PPAR? expression was also increased in the n-3 PUFA-enriched diet group under docetaxel treatment, it is only the expression of PPAR? mRNA that correlated with the regression of mammary tumors: those that most regressed displayed the lowest PPAR? mRNA expression. Altogether, these data identify PPAR? as an important player capable of modulating other PPAR mRNA expressions, under DHA diet, for inhibiting breast cancer cell growth and mammary tumor growth.
Gaining new insights into the anatomy of the human hypothalamus is crucial for the development of new treatment strategies involving functional stereotactic neurosurgery. Here, using anatomical comparisons between histology and magnetic resonance images of the human hypothalamus in the coronal plane, we show that discrete gray and white hypothalamic structures are consistently identifiable by MRI. Macroscopic and microscopic images were used to precisely annotate the MRI sequences realized in the coronal plane in twenty healthy volunteers. MRI was performed on a 1.5 T scanner, using a protocol including T1-weighted 3D fast field echo, T1-weighted inversion-recovery, turbo spin echo and T2-weighted 2D fast field echo imaging. For each gray matter structure as well as for white matter bundles, the different MRI sequences were analyzed in comparison to each other. The anterior commissure and the fornix were often identifiable, while the mammillothalamic tract was more difficult to spot. Qualitative analyses showed that MRI could also highlight finer structures such as the paraventricular nucleus, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus and the infundibular (arcuate) nucleus, brain nuclei that play key roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. The posterior hypothalamic area, a target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of cluster headaches, was readily identified, as was the lateral hypothalamic area, which similar to the aforementioned hypothalamic nuclei, could be a putative target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of obesity. Finally, each of the identified structures was mapped to Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) space.
Cancers are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Voltage-gated sodium channels, among other ion channels, appear as new molecular players in epithelial cancers. Highly metastatic breast cancer cells express Na(V)1.5, the main isoform expressed in cardiac cells, where the current generated by the flux of sodium ions is responsible for the excitability. Breast cancer cells are not excitable and the protein activity regulates cell invasiveness, through the modulation of activity of acidic cathepsins, a characteristic involved in the metastatic phenotype. Interestingly, it is known that ?-3 LC-PUFA can exert beneficial effects by preventing post-myocardial infarction arrhythmias and by reducing the incidence of metastatic breast cancer. In this review, we compare the effects of some ?-3 LC-PUFA on Na(V)1.5 expressed in both cardiac and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. We propose that some of the effects of ?-3 LC-PUFA act through common mechanisms involved in both diseases.
Taxol is widely used in breast cancer chemotherapy. Its effects are primarily attributed to its anti-mitotic activity. Microtubule perturbators also exert antimetastatic activities which cannot be explained solely by the inhibition of proliferation. Voltage-dependent sodium channels (Na(V)) are abnormally expressed in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and not in MDA-MB-468 cell line. Inhibiting Na(V) activity with tetrodotoxin is responsible for an approximately 0.4-fold reduction of MDA-MB-231 cell invasiveness. In this study, we focused on the effect of a single, 2-h application of 10 nM taxol on the two cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468. At this concentration, taxol had no effect on proliferation after 7 days and on migration in any cell line. However it led to a 40% reduction of transwell invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. There was no additive effect when taxol and tetrodotoxin were simultaneously applied. Na(V) activity, as assessed by patch-clamp, indicates that it was changed by taxol pre-treatment. We conclude that taxol can exert anti-tumoral activities, in cells expressing Na(V), at low doses that have no effect on cell proliferation. This effect might be due to a modulation of signalling pathways involving sodium channels.
Voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)) are functionally expressed in highly metastatic cancer cells derived from nonexcitable epithelial tissues (breast, prostate, lung, and cervix). MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells express functional sodium channel complexes, consisting of Na(V)1.5 and associated auxiliary beta-subunits, that are responsible for a sustained inward sodium current at the membrane potential. Although these channels do not regulate cellular multiplication or migration, their inhibition by the specific blocker tetrodotoxin impairs both the extracellular gelatinolytic activity (monitored with DQ-gelatin) and cell invasiveness leading to the attenuation of colony growth and cell spreading in three-dimensional Matrigel-composed matrices. MDA-MB-231 cells express functional cysteine cathepsins, which we found play a predominant role ( approximately 65%) in cancer invasiveness. Matrigel invasion is significantly decreased in the presence of specific inhibitors of cathepsins B and S (CA-074 and Z-FL-COCHO, respectively), and co-application of tetrodotoxin does not further reduce cell invasion. This suggests that cathepsins B and S are involved in invasiveness and that their proteolytic activity partly depends on Na(V) function. Inhibiting Na(V) has no consequence for cathepsins at the transcription, translation, and secretion levels. However, Na(V) activity leads to an intracellular alkalinization and a perimembrane acidification favorable for the extracellular activity of these acidic proteases. We propose that Na(v) enhance the invasiveness of cancer cells by favoring the pH-dependent activity of cysteine cathepsins. This general mechanism could lead to the identification of new targets allowing the therapeutic prevention of metastases.
Body weight loss during the course of cancer disease has been associated with poor prognosis. Beside cancer-associated cachexia, weight loss can also result from chemotherapy. This work explored whether a model of mammary tumors in female Sprague Dawley rats could be appropriate to study the effect of doxorubicin on body weight, described weight change in this model, and assessed the effect of DHA on weight during chemotherapy. After tumor induction, rats were randomly assigned to a control or a DHA-enriched diet, and treated with doxorubicin or placebo twice a week for 2.5 wk (n = 6 in each group). Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were monitored. Neither the induction of tumors nor their initial development impaired body weight gain. No reduction in food intake was observed. Tumor growth was similar between groups from day 1 to day 11. Although doxorubicin induced body weight loss from day 4 compared to placebo (P< 0.01) in rats fed the control diet, it did not induce body weight loss in rats fed the DHA-enriched diet (P = 0.02), indicating that DHA had a protective effect. These results indicate that doxorubicin can induce body weight loss in this model and that a DHA-enriched diet can prevent this effect.
Developing approaches that will increase the selectivity of anticancer drugs remains a challenge. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has the potential to increase tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy with no sensitization of normal tissues. This study was aimed at exploring the mechanism involved in this differential sensitization with a focus on oxidative stress, one of the main determinants involved in DHA enhancement of anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.