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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Peeling-angle dependence of the stick-slip instability during adhesive tape peeling.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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The influence of peeling angle on the dynamics observed during the stick-slip peeling of an adhesive tape has been investigated. This study relies on a new experimental setup for peeling at a constant driving velocity while keeping constant the peeling angle and peeled tape length. The thresholds of the instability are shown to be associated with a subcritical bifurcation and bistability of the system. The velocity onset of the instability is moreover revealed to strongly depend on the peeling angle. This could be the consequence of peeling angle dependance of either the fracture energy of the adhesive-substrate joint or the effective stiffness at play between the peeling front and the point at which the peeling is enforced. The shape of the peeling front velocity fluctuations is finally shown to progressively change from typical stick-slip relaxation oscillations to nearly sinusoidal oscillations as the peeling angle is increased. We suggest that this transition might be controlled by inertial effects possibly associated with the propagation of the peeling force fluctuations through elongation waves in the peeled tape.
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Lactobacillus gorillae sp. nov. isolated from the faeces of captive and wild western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Four strains of gram- staining positive anaerobic rods were isolated from the faeces of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla). Three strains, KZ01T, KZ02 and KZ03, were isolated at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan and one strain, GG02, was isolated in the Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. These strains were taxonomically investigated. These strains belonged to Lactobacillus reuteri phylogenetic group according to the phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and specific phenotypic characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains KZ01T, KZ02, KZ03 and GG02 formed a single monophyletic cluster and had a distinct line of descent. Based on sequence similarity of 16S rRNA gene, the type strain of Lactobacillus fermentum JCM 1173T (96.6%) was the closest neighbour to these novel strains, although it was clear that these strains belonged to a different species. Partial pheS sequences also supported these relationships. The values of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain KZ01T and Lactobacillus fermentum JCM 1173T was less than 22% and the DNA G + C content of strain KZ01T was 50.7 mol%. The cell wall peptidoglycan type was A4? (L-Orn-D-Asp) and major fatty acids were C16:0, C18:1 ?9c and C19:1 cyclo 9,10. Therefore, based on phylogenetic, phenotypic and physiological evidence, these strains represent a novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, for which the name Lactobacillus gorillae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KZ01T (= JCM 19575T = DSM 28356T).
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Inhibition of TRPM8 channels reduces pain in the cold pressor test in humans.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The transient receptor potential (subfamily M, member 8; TRPM8) is a nonselective cation channel localized in primary sensory neurons, and is a candidate for cold thermosensing, mediation of cold pain, and bladder overactivity. Studies with TRPM8 knockout mice and selective TRPM8 channel blockers demonstrate a lack of cold sensitivity and reduced cold pain in various rodent models. Furthermore, TRPM8 blockers significantly lower body temperature. We have identified a moderately potent (IC50 = 103 nM), selective TRPM8 antagonist, PF-05105679 [(R)-3-[(1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl)(quinolin-3-ylcarbonyl)amino]methylbenzoic acid]. It demonstrated activity in vivo in the guinea pig bladder ice water and menthol challenge tests with an IC50 of 200 nM and reduced core body temperature in the rat (at concentrations >1219 nM). PF-05105679 was suitable for acute administration to humans and was evaluated for effects on core body temperature and experimentally induced cold pain, using the cold pressor test. Unbound plasma concentrations greater than the IC50 were achieved with 600- and 900-mg doses. The compound displayed a significant inhibition of pain in the cold pressor test, with efficacy equivalent to oxycodone (20 mg) at 1.5 hours postdose. No effect on core body temperature was observed. An unexpected adverse event (hot feeling) was reported, predominantly periorally, in 23 and 36% of volunteers (600- and 900-mg dose, respectively), which in two volunteers was nontolerable. In conclusion, this study supports a role for TRPM8 in acute cold pain signaling at doses that do not cause hypothermia.
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Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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We previously demonstrated that the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload contributes to ensuing regenerative and hypertrophic processes in skeletal muscle. The objective of the present study is to reveal mechanisms through which skeletal muscle cell expression of ICAM-1 augments regenerative and hypertrophic processes of myogenesis. This was accomplished by genetically engineering C2C12 myoblasts to stably express ICAM-1, and by inhibiting the adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 through the use of a neutralizing antibody or cell penetrating peptide, respectively. Expression of ICAM-1 by cultured skeletal muscle cells augmented myoblast-myoblast adhesion, myotube formation, myonuclear number, myotube alignment, myotube-myotube fusion, and myotube size without influencing the ability of myoblasts to proliferate or differentiate. ICAM-1 augmented myotube formation, myonuclear accretion, and myotube alignment through a mechanism involving adhesion-induced activation of ICAM-1 signaling, as these dependent measures were reduced via antibody and peptide inhibition of ICAM-1. The adhesive and signaling functions of ICAM-1 also facilitated myotube hypertrophy through a mechanism involving myotube-myotube fusion, protein synthesis, and Akt/p70s6k signaling. Our findings demonstrate that ICAM-1 expression by skeletal muscle cells augments myogenesis, and establish a novel mechanism through which the inflammatory response facilitates growth processes in skeletal muscle.
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TRNA mutations that affect decoding fidelity deregulate development and the proteostasis network in zebrafish.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Mutations in genes that encode tRNAs, aminoacyl-tRNA syntheases, tRNA modifying enzymes and other tRNA interacting partners are associated with neuropathies, cancer, type-II diabetes and hearing loss, but how these mutations cause disease is unclear. We have hypothesized that levels of tRNA decoding error (mistranslation) that do not fully impair embryonic development can accelerate cell degeneration through proteome instability and saturation of the proteostasis network. To test this hypothesis we have induced mistranslation in zebrafish embryos using mutant tRNAs that misincorporate Serine (Ser) at various non-cognate codon sites. Embryo viability was affected and malformations were observed, but a significant proportion of embryos survived by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) and downregulating protein biosynthesis. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage and disruption of the mitochondrial network, were also observed, suggesting that mistranslation had a strong negative impact on protein synthesis rate, ER and mitochondrial homeostasis. We postulate that mistranslation promotes gradual cellular degeneration and disease through protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction and genome instability.
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Strong dynamical effects during stick-slip adhesive peeling.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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We consider the classical problem of the stick-slip dynamics observed when peeling a roller adhesive tape at a constant velocity. From fast imaging recordings, we extract the dependence of the stick and slip phase durations on the imposed peeling velocity and peeled ribbon length. Predictions of Maugis and Barquins [in Adhesion 12, edited by K. W. Allen, Elsevier ASP, London, 1988, pp. 205-222] based on a quasistatic assumption succeed to describe quantitatively our measurements of the stick phase duration. Such a model however fails to predict the full stick-slip cycle duration, revealing strong dynamical effects during the slip phase.
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PPAR? activation attenuates glucose intolerance induced by mTOR inhibition with rapamycin in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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mTOR inhibition with rapamycin induces a diabetes-like syndrome characterized by severe glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, which is due to increased hepatic glucose production as well as reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake and adipose tissue PPAR? activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacological PPAR? activation attenuates the diabetes-like syndrome associated with chronic mTOR inhibition. Rats treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in combination or not with the PPAR? ligand rosiglitazone (15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 15 days were evaluated for insulin secretion, glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake, and insulin signaling. Rosiglitazone corrected fasting hyperglycemia, attenuated the glucose and insulin intolerances, and abolished the increase in fasting plasma insulin and C-peptide levels induced by rapamycin. Surprisingly, rosiglitazone markedly increased the plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to refeeding in rapamycin-treated rats. Furthermore, rosiglitazone partially attenuated rapamycin-induced gluconeogenesis, as evidenced by the improved pyruvate tolerance and reduced mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase. Rosiglitazone also restored insulin's ability to stimulate glucose uptake and its incorporation into glycogen in skeletal muscle of rapamycin-treated rats, which was associated with normalization of Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation. However, the rapamycin-mediated impairments of adipose tissue glucose uptake and incorporation into triacylglycerol were unaffected by rosiglitazone. Our findings indicate that PPAR? activation ameliorates some of the disturbances in glucose homeostasis and insulin action associated with chronic rapamycin treatment by reducing gluconeogenesis and insulin secretion and restoring muscle insulin signaling and glucose uptake.
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Viruses and fullerenes--symmetry as a common thread?
Acta Crystallogr A Found Adv
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The principle of affine symmetry is applied here to the nested fullerene cages (carbon onions) that arise in the context of carbon chemistry. Previous work on affine extensions of the icosahedral group has revealed a new organizational principle in virus structure and assembly. This group-theoretic framework is adapted here to the physical requirements dictated by carbon chemistry, and it is shown that mathematical models for carbon onions can be derived within this affine symmetry approach. This suggests the applicability of affine symmetry in a wider context in nature, as well as offering a novel perspective on the geometric principles underpinning carbon chemistry.
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Stimulation of chondrogenic differentiation of adult human bone marrow-derived stromal cells by a moderate-strength static magnetic field.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Tissue-engineering strategies for the treatment of osteoarthritis would benefit from the ability to induce chondrogenesis in precursor cells. One such cell source is bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs). Here, we examined the effects of moderate-strength static magnetic fields (SMFs) on chondrogenic differentiation in human BMSCs in vitro. Cells were cultured in pellet form and exposed to several strengths of SMFs for various durations. mRNA transcript levels of the early chondrogenic transcription factor SOX9 and the late marker genes ACAN and COL2A1 were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and production of the cartilage-specific macromolecules sGAG, collage type 2 (Col2), and proteoglycans was determined both biochemically and histologically. The role of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling pathway was also examined. Results showed that a 0.4 T magnetic field applied for 14 days elicited a strong chondrogenic differentiation response in cultured BMSCs, so long as TGF-?3 was also present, that is, a synergistic response of a SMF and TGF-?3 on BMSC chondrogenic differentiation was observed. Further, SMF alone caused TGF-? secretion in culture, and the effects of SMF could be abrogated by the TGF-? receptor blocker SB-431542. These data show that moderate-strength magnetic fields can induce chondrogenesis in BMSCs through a TGF-?-dependent pathway. This finding has potentially important applications in cartilage tissue-engineering strategies.
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Protectin DX alleviates insulin resistance by activating a myokine-liver glucoregulatory axis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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We previously demonstrated that low biosynthesis of ?-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, termed protectins, is associated with an impaired global resolution capacity, inflammation and insulin resistance in obese high-fat diet-fed mice. These findings prompted a more direct study of the therapeutic potential of protectins for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Herein we show that protectin DX (PDX) exerts an unanticipated glucoregulatory activity that is distinct from its anti-inflammatory actions. We found that PDX selectively stimulated the release of the prototypic myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) from skeletal muscle and thereby initiated a myokine-liver signaling axis, which blunted hepatic glucose production via signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated transcriptional suppression of the gluconeogenic program. These effects of PDX were abrogated in Il6-null mice. PDX also activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK); however, it did so in an IL-6-independent manner. Notably, we demonstrated that administration of PDX to obese diabetic db/db mice raises skeletal muscle IL-6 levels and substantially improves their insulin sensitivity without any impact on adipose tissue inflammation. Our findings thus support the development of PDX-based selective muscle IL-6 secretagogues as a new class of therapy for the treatment of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.
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Peptide-directed spatial organization of biomolecules in dynamic gradient scaffolds.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Specific binding peptides are used to spatially organize biomolecule gradients within an electrospun fiber scaffold. Different biomolecule-binding peptide-polymer conjugates are sequentially co-electrospun with a fiber-forming host polymer to generate opposing gradients of peptide functionalization. The binding peptides specifically and non-covalently guide the spatial arrangement of biomolecules into dynamic gradients within the scaffold, mimicking biological gradients found in native tissues.
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Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: a year in review.
Tissue Eng Part B Rev
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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It is an exciting time to be involved in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) research. Despite its relative youth, the field is expanding fast and breaking new ground in both the laboratory and clinically. In this "Year in Review," we highlight some of the high-impact advances in the field. Building upon last year's article, we have identified the recent "hot topics" and the key publications pertaining to these themes as well as ideas that have high potential to direct the field. Based on a modified methodology grounded on last year's approach, we have identified and summarized some of the most impactful publications in five main themes: (1) pluripotent stem cells: efforts and hurdles to translation, (2) tissue engineering: complex scaffolds and advanced materials, (3) directing the cell phenotype: growth factor and biomolecule presentation, (4) characterization: imaging and beyond, and (5) translation: preclinical to clinical. We have complemented our review of the research directions highlighted within these trend-setting studies with a discussion of additional articles along the same themes that have recently been published and have yet to surface in citation analyses. We conclude with a discussion of some really interesting studies that provide a glimpse of the high potential for innovation of TERM research.
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Childhood allergic asthma is not a single phenotype.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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IgE-mediated allergic asthma phenotype appears to be heterogeneous. We set out to define distinct allergic phenotypes by unsupervised cluster analysis.
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Most human proteins made in both nucleus and cytoplasm turn over within minutes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In bacteria, protein synthesis can be coupled to transcription, but in eukaryotes it is believed to occur solely in the cytoplasm. Using pulses as short as 5 s, we find that three analogues--L-azidohomoalanine, puromycin (detected after attaching fluors using 'click' chemistry or immuno-labeling), and amino acids tagged with 'heavy' 15N and 13C (detected using secondary ion mass spectrometry)--are incorporated into the nucleus and cytoplasm in a process sensitive to translational inhibitors. The nuclear incorporation represents a significant fraction of the total, and labels in both compartments have half-lives of less than a minute; results are consistent with most newly-made peptides being destroyed soon after they are made. As nascent RNA bearing a premature termination codon (detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization) is also eliminated by a mechanism sensitive to a translational inhibitor, the nuclear turnover of peptides is probably a by-product of proof-reading the RNA for stop codons (a process known as nonsense-mediated decay). We speculate that the apparently-wasteful turnover of this previously-hidden ('dark-matter') world of peptide is involved in regulating protein production.
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Determinants of allergic rhinitis in young children with asthma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma.
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Reduced gamma oscillations in a mouse model of intellectual disability: a role for impaired repetitive neurotransmission?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intellectual disability affects 2-3% of the population; mutations of the X-chromosome are a major cause of moderate to severe cases. The link between the molecular consequences of the mutation and impaired cognitive function remains unclear. Loss of function mutations of oligophrenin-1 (OPHN1) disrupt Rho-GTPase signalling. Here we demonstrate abnormal neurotransmission at CA3 synapses in hippocampal slices from Ophn1-/y mice, resulting from a substantial decrease in the readily releasable pool of vesicles. As a result, synaptic transmission fails at high frequencies required for oscillations associated with cognitive functions. Both spontaneous and KA-induced gamma oscillations were reduced in Ophn1-/y hippocampal slices. Spontaneous oscillations were rapidly rescued by inhibition of the downstream signalling pathway of oligophrenin-1. These findings suggest that the intellectual disability due to mutations of oligophrenin-1 results from a synaptopathy and consequent network malfunction, providing a plausible mechanism for the learning disabilities. Furthermore, they raise the prospect of drug treatments for affected individuals.
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Bifidobacterium moukalabense sp. nov. isolated from the faeces of wild west lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Gabon.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Gram staining positive anaerobic rods were isolated from the faeces of a wild lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon and the strain GG01T was taxonomically investigated. Based on phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the strain belonged to the genus Bifidobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain GG01T formed a single monophyletic cluster and had a distinct line of descent. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Bifidobacterium catenulatum (98.3%) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (98.1%) were the closest neighbours of this novel strain, although it was clearly indicated that they belonged to different species. hsp60 sequence also supported these relationships. The DNA G+C content of this novel strain was 60.1 mol%. Bifidobacterium moukalabense sp. nov. (type strain GG01T = JCM 18751T = DSM 27321T) is proposed.
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Development of a multivariate light-induced fluorescence (LIF) PAT tool for in-line quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical granules in a V-blender.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Process analytical technologies (PAT) enable process insight, process control and real-time testing. Light-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is especially well suited for low-concentration ingredients as, in many cases, it is the most sensitive probe of the in-line PAT toolbox. This study is aimed at verifying the applicability of a multivariate LIF analyzer to monitor granulated powder blends in industrial settings. Its targets are to: 1) evaluate the critical parameters of powders to obtain robust, precise and accurate concentration predictions, 2) assess technology performance for in-line monitoring of blending operations. Varying dye properties, moisture levels and particle sizes have been shown to have the most significant impact on fluorescence emission. Reliable quantitative models can be obtained by controlling and/or mitigating these factors.
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Fatty acid remodeling in cellular glycerophospholipids following the activation of human T cells.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Changes in fatty acid (FA) and glycerophospholipid (GPL) metabolism associated with cell cycle entry are not fully understood. In this study FA-GPL remodeling was investigated in resting and proliferating primary human T cells. Significant changes were measured in the composition and distribution of FAs in GPLs following receptor activation of human T cells. The FA distribution of proliferating T cells was very similar to that of the human Jurkat T cell line and when the stimulus was removed from proliferating T cells, they stopped proliferating and the FA distribution largely reverted back to that of resting T cells. The cellular content of saturated and monounsaturated FAs was significantly increased in proliferating cells, which was associated with an induction of FA synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 gene expression. Additionally, cellular arachidonate was redistributed in GPLs in a distinct pattern that was unlike any other FAs. This redistribution was associated with an induction of CoA-dependent and CoA-independent remodeling. Accordingly, significant changes in the expression of several acyl-CoA synthetases, lysophospholipid acyltransferases, and phospholipase A2 were measured. Overall, these results suggest that metabolic pathways are activated in proliferating T cells that may represent fundamental changes associated with human cell proliferation.
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The use of HyPer to examine spatial and temporal changes in H2O2 in high light-exposed plants.
Meth. Enzymol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Exposure of photosynthetic cells of leaf tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) to high light intensities (HL) may provoke a rapid rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in chloroplasts and subcellular compartments, such as peroxisomes, associated with photosynthetic metabolism. It has been hypothesized that when H2O2 is contained at or near its site of production then it plays an important role in signaling to induce acclimation to HL. However, should this discrete containment fail and H2O2 levels exceed the capacity of antioxidant systems to scavenge them, then oxidative stress ensues which triggers cell death. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal accumulation of H2O2 needs to be quantified in different subcellular compartments. In this chapter, preliminary experiments are presented on the use of Arabidopsis seedlings transformed with a nuclear-encoded cytosol-located yellow fluorescent protein-based sensor for H2O2, called HyPer. HyPer allows ratiometric determination of its fluorescence at two excitation wavelengths, which frees quantification of H2O2 from the variable levels of HyPer in vivo. HyPer fluorescence was shown to have the potential to provide the necessary spatial, temporal, and quantitative resolution to study HL responses of seedlings using confocal microscopy. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was used to quantify photoinhibition of photosynthesis induced by HL treatment of seedlings on the microscope staging. However, several technical issues remain, the most challenging of which is the silencing of HyPer expression beyond the seedling stage. This limited our pilot studies to cotyledon epidermal cells, which while not photosynthetic, nevertheless responded to HL with 45% increase in cytosolic H2O2.
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Optimization of computed tomography (CT) arthrography of hip for the visualization of cartilage: an in vitro study.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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We sought to optimize the kilovoltage, tube current, and the radiation dose of computed tomographic arthrography of the hip joint using in vitro methods.
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Platonic solids generate their four-dimensional analogues.
Acta Crystallogr., A, Found. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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This paper shows how regular convex 4-polytopes - the analogues of the Platonic solids in four dimensions - can be constructed from three-dimensional considerations concerning the Platonic solids alone. Via the Cartan-Dieudonné theorem, the reflective symmetries of the Platonic solids generate rotations. In a Clifford algebra framework, the space of spinors generating such three-dimensional rotations has a natural four-dimensional Euclidean structure. The spinors arising from the Platonic solids can thus in turn be interpreted as vertices in four-dimensional space, giving a simple construction of the four-dimensional polytopes 16-cell, 24-cell, the F4 root system and the 600-cell. In particular, these polytopes have `mysterious symmetries, that are almost trivial when seen from the three-dimensional spinorial point of view. In fact, all these induced polytopes are also known to be root systems and thus generate rank-4 Coxeter groups, which can be shown to be a general property of the spinor construction. These considerations thus also apply to other root systems such as A(1)oplus I(2)(n) which induces I(2)(n)oplus I(2)(n), explaining the existence of the grand antiprism and the snub 24-cell, as well as their symmetries. These results are discussed in the wider mathematical context of Arnolds trinities and the McKay correspondence. These results are thus a novel link between the geometries of three and four dimensions, with interesting potential applications on both sides of the correspondence, to real three-dimensional systems with polyhedral symmetries such as (quasi)crystals and viruses, as well as four-dimensional geometries arising for instance in Grand Unified Theories and string and M-theory.
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Focal adhesion kinase is required for IGF-I-mediated growth of skeletal muscle cells via a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-associated pathway.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an attachment complex protein associated with the regulation of muscle mass through as-of-yet unclear mechanisms. We tested whether FAK is functionally important for muscle hypertrophy, with the hypothesis that FAK knockdown (FAK-KD) would impede cell growth associated with a trophic stimulus. C?C?? skeletal muscle cells harboring FAK-targeted (FAK-KD) or scrambled (SCR) shRNA were created using lentiviral transfection techniques. Both FAK-KD and SCR myotubes were incubated for 24 h with IGF-I (10 ng/ml), and additional SCR cells (±IGF-1) were incubated with a FAK kinase inhibitor before assay of cell growth. Muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and putative FAK signaling mechanisms (immunoblotting and coimmunoprecipitation) were assessed. IGF-I-induced increases in myotube width (+41 ± 7% vs. non-IGF-I-treated) and total protein (+44 ± 6%) were, after 24 h, attenuated in FAK-KD cells, whereas MPS was suppressed in FAK-KD vs. SCR after 4 h. These blunted responses were associated with attenuated IGF-I-induced FAK Tyr³?? phosphorylation and markedly suppressed phosphorylation of tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and critical downstream mTOR signaling (ribosomal S6 kinase, eIF4F assembly) in FAK shRNA cells (all P < 0.05 vs. IGF-I-treated SCR cells). However, binding of FAK to TSC2 or its phosphatase Shp-2 was not affected by IGF-I or cell phenotype. Finally, FAK-KD-mediated suppression of cell growth was recapitulated by direct inhibition of FAK kinase activity in SCR cells. We conclude that FAK is required for IGF-I-induced muscle hypertrophy, signaling through a TSC2/mTOR/S6K1-dependent pathway via means requiring the kinase activity of FAK but not altered FAK-TSC2 or FAK-Shp-2 binding.
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Inhibition of protein translation as a mechanism of acidotic pH protection against ischaemic injury through inhibition of CREB mediated tRNA synthetase expression.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Ischaemia associated reduction in local tissue pH is well documented but the mechanisms through which it influences cell survival remain poorly understood. Using renal epithelial HK-2 cells we demonstrate acidotic pH6.4 protects against oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) induced cell death. Initial exploration of the mechanisms responsible using microarray analysis revealed acidotic inhibition of OGD induced aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) gene expression. These genes are key components of protein translation, which was markedly attenuated by reduced pH. Inhibition of protein synthesis using the ARS inhibitor halofuginone or cycloheximide protected against OGD induced injury. To explore further we focussed on the transcription factor CREB, identified by pathway analysis of microarray data and observed a pH dependent decrease in OGD induced activation. Inhibition of CREB/CBP interaction prevented OGD induced isoleucyl-ARS (IARS) expression, reduced protein synthesis and protected against OGD induced cellular injury. In addition we also observed that acidotic pH attenuated the OGD induced pro-apoptotic unfolded protein response (UPR) activated gene DDIT3. We suggest that maladaptive activation of CREB and ARS gene expression, through the maintenance of protein synthesis contributes to ER stress and UPR activation and that acidotic pH through inhibition of CREB activation inhibits protein synthesis and ultimately UPR activated apoptotic signals.
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Wheeze phenotypes in young children have different courses during the preschool period.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Rules for predicting the course of asthma in wheezy infants have low specificity.
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Suppression of eIF2? kinases alleviates Alzheimers disease-related plasticity and memory deficits.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Expression of long-lasting synaptic plasticity and long-term memory requires protein synthesis, which can be repressed by phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 ?-subunit (eIF2?). Elevated phosphorylation of eIF2? has been observed in the brains of Alzheimers disease patients and Alzheimers disease model mice. Therefore, we tested whether suppressing eIF2? kinases could alleviate synaptic plasticity and memory deficits in Alzheimers disease model mice. Genetic deletion of eIF2? kinase PERK prevented enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2? and deficits in protein synthesis, synaptic plasticity and spatial memory in mice that express familial Alzheimers disease-related mutations in APP and PSEN1. Similarly, deletion of another eIF2? kinase, GCN2, prevented impairments of synaptic plasticity and defects in spatial memory exhibited by the Alzheimers disease model mice. Our findings implicate aberrant eIF2? phosphorylation as a previously unidentified molecular mechanism underlying Alzheimers disease-related synaptic pathophysioloy and memory dysfunction and suggest that PERK and GCN2 are potential therapeutic targets for treatment of individuals with Alzheimers disease.
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Species-specific impact of the autophagy machinery on Chikungunya virus infection.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a recently re-emerged arbovirus that triggers autophagy. Here, we show that CHIKV interacts with components of the autophagy machinery during its replication cycle, inducing a cytoprotective effect. The autophagy receptor p62 protects cells from death by binding ubiquitinated capsid and targeting it to autophagolysosomes. By contrast, the human autophagy receptor NDP52--but not its mouse orthologue--interacts with the non-structural protein nsP2, thereby promoting viral replication. These results highlight the distinct roles of p62 and NDP52 in viral infection, and identify NDP52 as a cellular factor that accounts for CHIKV species specificity.
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Intermittent stick-slip dynamics during the peeling of an adhesive tape from a roller.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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We study experimentally the fracture dynamics during the peeling at a constant velocity of a roller adhesive tape mounted on a freely rotating pulley. Thanks to a high speed camera, we measure, in an intermediate range of peeling velocities, high frequency oscillations between phases of slow and rapid propagation of the peeling fracture. This so-called stick-slip regime is well known as the consequence of a decreasing fracture energy of the adhesive in a certain range of peeling velocity coupled to the elasticity of the peeled tape. Simultaneously with stick slip, we observe low frequency oscillations of the adhesive roller angular velocity which are the consequence of a pendular instability of the roller submitted to the peeling force. The stick-slip dynamics is shown to become intermittent due to these slow pendular oscillations which produce a quasistatic oscillation of the peeling angle while keeping constant the peeling fracture velocity (averaged over each stick-slip cycle). The observed correlation between the mean peeling angle and the stick-slip amplitude questions the validity of the usually admitted independence with the peeling angle of the fracture energy of adhesives.
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1,25(OH)2 -vitamin D3 enhances the stimulating effect of leucine and insulin on protein synthesis rate through Akt/PKB and mTOR mediated pathways in murine C2C12 skeletal myotubes.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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In recent years, there has been a growing body of evidence pointing to an effect of vitamin D on muscle mass and function. Our aim was to investigate the combined effect of 1,25(OH)2 -vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) with anabolic factors insulin and leucine on protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and regulation in the mouse C2C12 myotube.
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Mapping the crossroads of immune activation and cellular stress response pathways.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The innate immune cell network detects specific microbes and damages to cell integrity in order to coordinate and polarize the immune response against invading pathogens. In recent years, a cross-talk between microbial-sensing pathways and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has been discovered and have attracted the attention of many researchers from the inflammation field. Abnormal accumulation of proteins in the ER can be seen as a sign of cellular malfunction and triggers a collection of conserved emergency rescue pathways. These signalling cascades, which increase ER homeostasis and favour cell survival, are collectively known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The induction or activation by microbial stimuli of several molecules linked to the ER stress response pathway have led to the conclusion that microbe sensing by immunocytes is generally associated with an UPR, which serves as a signal amplification cascade favouring inflammatory cytokines production. Induction of the UPR alone was shown to promote inflammation in different cellular and pathological models. Here we discuss how the innate immune and ER-signalling pathways intersect. Moreover, we propose that the induction of UPR-related molecules by microbial products does not necessarily reflect ER stress, but instead is an integral part of a specific transcription programme controlled by innate immunity receptors.
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A novel method for quantified, superresolved, three-dimensional colocalisation of isotropic, fluorescent particles.
Histochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Colocalisation, the overlap of subcellular structures labelled with different colours, is a key step to characterise cellular phenotypes. We have developed a novel bioimage informatics approach for quantifying colocalisation of round, blob-like structures in two-colour, highly resolved, three-dimensional fluorescence microscopy datasets. First, the algorithm identifies isotropic fluorescent particles, of relative brightness compared to their immediate neighbourhood, in three dimensions and for each colour. The centroids of these spots are then determined, and each object in one location of a colour image is checked for a corresponding object in the other colour image. Three-dimensional distance maps between the centroids of differently coloured spots then display where and how closely they colocalise, while histograms allow to analyse all colocalisation distances. We use the method to reveal sparse colocalisation of different human leukocyte antigen receptors in choriocarcinoma cells. It can also be applied to other isotropic subcellular structures such as vesicles, aggresomes and chloroplasts. The simple, robust and fast approach yields superresolved, object-based colocalisation maps and provides a first indication of protein-protein interactions of fluorescent, isotropic particles.
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Skeletal muscle cells express ICAM-1 after muscle overload and ICAM-1 contributes to the ensuing hypertrophic response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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We previously reported that leukocyte specific ?2 integrins contribute to hypertrophy after muscle overload in mice. Because intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is an important ligand for ?2 integrins, we examined ICAM-1 expression by murine skeletal muscle cells after muscle overload and its contribution to the ensuing hypertrophic response. Myofibers in control muscles of wild type mice and cultures of skeletal muscle cells (primary and C2C12) did not express ICAM-1. Overload of wild type plantaris muscles caused myofibers and satellite cells/myoblasts to express ICAM-1. Increased expression of ICAM-1 after muscle overload occurred via a ?2 integrin independent mechanism as indicated by similar gene and protein expression of ICAM-1 between wild type and ?2 integrin deficient (CD18-/-) mice. ICAM-1 contributed to muscle hypertrophy as demonstrated by greater (p<0.05) overload-induced elevations in muscle protein synthesis, mass, total protein, and myofiber size in wild type compared to ICAM-1-/- mice. Furthermore, expression of ICAM-1 altered (p<0.05) the temporal pattern of Pax7 expression, a marker of satellite cells/myoblasts, and regenerating myofiber formation in overloaded muscles. In conclusion, ICAM-1 expression by myofibers and satellite cells/myoblasts after muscle overload could serve as a mechanism by which ICAM-1 promotes hypertrophy by providing a means for cell-to-cell communication with ?2 integrin expressing myeloid cells.
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Response of the rat spinal cord to X-ray microbeams.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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To quantify the late dose-related responses of the rat cervical spinal cord to X-ray irradiations by an array of microbeams or by a single millimeter beam.
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Quantified colocalization reveals heterotypic histocompatibility class I antigen associations on trophoblast cell membranes: relevance for human pregnancy.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Human placental syncytiotrophoblasts lack expression of most types of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II molecules; this is thought to contribute to a successful pregnancy. However, the HLA class Ib antigens HLA-G, -E, and -F and the HLA class Ia antigen HLA-C are selectively expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells, and they are thought to play a major role in controlling feto-maternal tolerance. We have hypothesized that selective expression, coupled with the preferential physical association of pairs of HLA molecules, contribute to the function of HLA at the feto-maternal interface and the maternal recognition of the fetus. We have developed a unique analytical model that allows detection and quantification of the heterotypic physical associations of HLA class I molecules expressed on the membrane of human trophoblast choriocarcinoma cells, ACH-3P and JEG-3. Automated image analysis was used to estimate the degree of overlap of HLA molecules labeled with different fluorochromes. This approach yields an accurate measurement of the degree of colocalization. In both JEG-3 and ACH-3P cells, HLA-C, -E, and -G were detected on the cell membrane, while the expression of HLA-F was restricted to the cytoplasm. Progesterone treatment alone induced a significant increase in the expression level of the HLA-G/HLA-E association, suggesting that this heterotypic association is modulated by this hormone. Our data shows that the cell-surface HLA class I molecules HLA-G, -E, and -C colocalize with each other and have the potential to form preferential heterotypic associations.
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BtpB, a novel Brucella TIR-containing effector protein with immune modulatory functions.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Several bacterial pathogens have TIR domain-containing proteins that contribute to their pathogenesis. We identified a second TIR-containing protein in Brucella spp. that we have designated BtpB. We show it is a potent inhibitor of TLR signaling, probably via MyD88. BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that is translocated into host cells and interferes with activation of dendritic cells. In vivo mouse studies revealed that BtpB is contributing to virulence and control of local inflammatory responses with relevance in the establishment of chronic brucellosis. Together, our results show that BtpB is a novel Brucella effector that plays a major role in the modulation of host innate immune response during infection.
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Rapid reversal of impaired inhibitory and excitatory transmission but not spine dysgenesis in a mouse model of mental retardation.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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Intellectual disability affects 2-3% of the population: those due to mutations of the X-chromosome are a major cause of moderate to severe cases (1.8/1000 males). Established theories ascribe the cellular aetiology of intellectual disability to malformations of dendritic spines. Recent work has identified changes in synaptic physiology in some experimental models. Here, we investigated the pathophysiology of a mouse model of intellectual disability using electrophysiological recordings combined with confocal imaging of dentate gyrus granule neurons. Lack of oligophrenin-1 resulted in reductions in dendritic tree complexity and mature dendritic spine density and in evoked and spontaneous EPSCs and IPSCs. In the case of inhibitory transmission, the physiological change was associated with a reduction in the readily releasable pool and vesicle recycling which impaired the efficiency of inhibitory synaptic transmission. Acute inhibition of the downstream signalling pathway of oligophrenin-1 fully reversed the functional changes in synaptic transmission but not the dendritic abnormalities. The impaired inhibitory (as well as excitatory) synaptic transmission at frequencies associated with cognitive function suggests a cellular mechanism for the intellectual disability, because cortical oscillations associated with cognition normally depend on inhibitory neurons firing on every cycle.
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The incorporation of a zone of calcified cartilage improves the interfacial shear strength between in vitro-formed cartilage and the underlying substrate.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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A major challenge for cartilage tissue engineering remains the proper integration of constructs with surrounding tissues in the joint. Biphasic osteochondral constructs that can be anchored in a joint through bone ingrowth partially address this requirement. In this study, a methodology was devised to generate a cell-mediated zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) between the in vitro-formed cartilage and a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute in an attempt to improve the mechanical integrity of that interface. To do so, a calcium phosphate (CaP) film was deposited on CPP by a sol-gel process to prevent the accumulation of polyphosphates and associated inhibition of mineralization as the substrate degrades. Cartilage formed in vitro on the top surface of CaP-coated CPP by deep-zone chondrocytes was histologically and biochemically comparable to that formed on uncoated CPP. Furthermore, the mineral in the ZCC was similar in crystal structure, morphology and length to that formed on uncoated CPP and native articular cartilage. The generation of a ZCC at the cartilage-CPP interface led to a 3.3-fold increase in the interfacial shear strength of biphasic constructs. Improved interfacial strength of these constructs may be critical to their clinical success for the repair of large cartilage defects.
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BAD-LAMP is a novel biomarker of nonactivated human plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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The brain and dendritic cell (BAD)-associated lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-like molecule (BAD-LAMP, c20orf103, UNC-46) is a newly identified member of the family of LAMPs. BAD-LAMP expression in the mouse is confined to neurons. We demonstrate here that in humans, BAD-LAMP can specifically be found in the type I IFN-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Human BAD-LAMP is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) of freshly isolated CD123(+) pDCs and is rapidly lost upon activation by unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) oligonucleotides. The restricted pattern of BAD-LAMP expression allows for the rapid identification of normal and leukemic human pDCs in tissues and blood.
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Thoracic duct fistula after thyroid cancer surgery: towards a new treatment?
Case Rep Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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The use of somatostatin analogs is a new conservative therapeutic approach for the treatment of chyle fistulas developing after thyroid cancer surgery. The combination therapy with a total parenteral nutrition should avoid the high morbidity of a re-intervention with an uncertain outcome. This promising trend is supported by the present case report of a chyle leak occurring after total thyroidectomy with central and lateral neck dissection for a papillary carcinoma, which was treated successfully without immediate or distant sequelae.
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Systems biology of infectious diseases: a focus on fungal infections.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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The study of infectious disease concerns the interaction between the host species and a pathogen organism. The analysis of such complex systems is improving with the evolution of high-throughput technologies and advanced computational resources. This article reviews integrative, systems-oriented approaches to understanding mechanisms underlying infection, immune response and inflammation to find biomarkers of disease and design new drugs. We focus on the systems biology process, especially the data gathering and analysis techniques rather than the experimental technologies or latest computational resources.
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Nobiletin attenuates VLDL overproduction, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis in mice with diet-induced insulin resistance.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Increased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein B100 often present in patients with insulin resistance and confer increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis. Naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds including flavonoids have antiatherogenic properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the polymethoxylated flavonoid nobiletin on lipoprotein secretion in cultured human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and in a mouse model of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.
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RNA binding targets aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases to translating ribosomes.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Here, we examine tRNA-aminoacyl synthetase (ARS) localization in protein synthesis. Proteomics reveals that ten of the twenty cytosolic ARSs associate with ribosomes in sucrose gradients: phenylalanyl-RS (FRS), and the 9 ARSs that form the multi-ARS complex (MSC). Using the ribopuromycylation method (RPM) for localizing intracellular translation, we show that FRS and the MSC, and to a lesser extent other ARSs, localize to translating ribosomes, most strikingly when translation is restricted to poxvirus or alphavirus factories in infected cells. Immunoproximity fluorescence indicates close proximity between MSC and the ribosome. Stress induced-translational shutdown recruits the MSC to stress-granules, a depot for mRNA and translation components. MSC binding to mRNA provides a facile explanation for its delivery to translating ribosomes and stress granules. These findings, along with the abundance of the MSC (9 × 10(6) copies per cell, roughly equimolar with ribosomes), is consistent with the idea that MSC specificity, recently reported to vary with cellular stress (Netzer, N., Goodenbour, J. M., David, A., Dittmar, K. A., Jones, R. B., Schneider, J. R., Boone, D., Eves, E. M., Rosner, M. R., Gibbs, J. S., Embry, A., Dolan, B., Das, S., Hickman, H. D., Berglund, P., Bennink, J. R., Yewdell, J. W., and Pan, T. (2009) Nature 462, 522-526) can be modulated at the level of individual mRNAs to modify decoding of specific gene products.
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Risk factors for recurrence of venous thromboembolism associated with the use of oral contraceptives.
Contraception
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Combined oral contraceptives (COC) increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but the risk of recurrent VTE is not precisely determined. In this retrospective cohort study, we sought the risk factors for recurrence after a first VTE that occurred in women taking COC.
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Direct measurements of anisotropic energy transfers in a rotating turbulence experiment.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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We investigate experimentally the influence of a background rotation on the energy transfers in decaying grid turbulence. The anisotropic energy flux density F(r) = , where ?u is the vector velocity increment over separation r, is determined for the first time by using particle image velocimetry. We show that rotation induces an anisotropy of the energy flux ?·F, which leads to an anisotropy growth of the energy distribution E(r) = <(?u)²>, in agreement with the von Kármán-Howarth-Monin equation. Surprisingly, our results prove that this anisotropy growth is essentially driven by a nearly radial, but orientation-dependent, energy flux density F(r).
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Integration of ER stress and viral nucleotide sensing in DCs: mounting a response commensurate to the threat?
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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In response to inflammatory stimulation, DCs have a remarkable pattern of differentiation, including the triggering of specific mechanisms to control the immune response. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, a study reports that concomitant stimulation of pattern-recognition receptors by viral-type nucleic acids and induction of the unfolded protein response by chemicals synergize in DCs to augment type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Expression of the transcription factor XBP1 was shown to be necessary and sufficient to induce this synergistic effect. These findings confirm the existence of important connections between the unfolding protein response/ER stress pathway and the production of inflammatory cytokines, which have been recently revealed in different models and immune contexts, as discussed in this Commentary.
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Inhibition of the interactions between eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and 4G impairs long-term associative memory consolidation but not reconsolidation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Considerable evidence indicates that the general blockade of protein synthesis prevents both the initial consolidation and the postretrieval reconsolidation of long-term memories. These findings come largely from studies of drugs that block ribosomal function, so as to globally interfere with both cap-dependent and -independent forms of translation. Here we show that intra-amygdala microinfusions of 4EGI-1, a small molecule inhibitor of cap-dependent translation that selectively disrupts the interaction between eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4E and 4G, attenuates fear memory consolidation but not reconsolidation. Using a combination of behavioral and biochemical techniques, we provide both in vitro and in vivo evidence that the eIF4E-eIF4G complex is more stringently required for plasticity induced by initial learning than for that triggered by reactivation of an existing memory.
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The endosomal proteome of macrophage and dendritic cells.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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The essential roles of the endovacuolar system in health and disease call for the development of new tools allowing a better understanding of the complex molecular machinery involved in endocytic processes. We took advantage of the floating properties of small latex beads (sLB) on a discontinuous sucrose gradient to isolate highly purified endosomes following internalization of small latex beads in J774 macrophages and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC). We particularly focused on the isolation of macrophages early endosomes and late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LYS) as well as the isolation of LE/LYS from immature and lipopolysaccharide-activated (mature) DC. We subsequently performed a comparative analysis of their respective protein contents by MS. As expected, proteins already known to localize to the early endosomes were enriched in the earliest fraction of J774 endosomes, while proteins known to accumulate later in the process, such as hydrolases, were significantly enriched in the LE/LYS preparations. We next compared the LE/LYS protein contents of immature DC and mature DC, which are known to undergo massive reorganization leading to potent immune activation. The differences between the protein contents of endocytic organelles from macrophages and DC were underlined by focusing on previously poorly characterized biochemical pathways, which could have an unexpected but important role in the endosomal functions of these highly relevant immune cell types.
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Novel insights into the regulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis as revealed by a new nonradioactive in vivo technique.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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In this study, the principles of surface sensing of translation (SUnSET) were used to develop a nonradioactive method for ex vivo and in vivo measurements of protein synthesis (PS). Compared with controls, we first demonstrate excellent agreement between SUnSET and a [(3)H]phenylalanine method when detecting synergist ablation-induced increases in skeletal muscle PS ex vivo. We then show that SUnSET can detect the same synergist ablation-induced increase in PS when used in vivo (IV-SUnSET). In addition, IV-SUnSET detected food deprivation-induced decreases in PS in the heart, kidney, and skeletal muscles, with similar changes being visualized with an immunohistochemical version of IV-SUnSET (IV-IHC-SUnSET). By combining IV-IHC-SUnSET with in vivo transfection, we demonstrate that constitutively active PKB induces a robust increase in skeletal muscle PS. Furthermore, transfection with Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) revealed that a PKB-independent activation of mammalian target of rapamycin is also sufficient to induce an increase in skeletal muscle PS. Finally, IV-IHC-SUnSET exposed the existence of fiber type-dependent differences in skeletal muscle PS, with PS in type 2B and 2X fibers being significantly lower than that in type 2A fibers within the same muscle. Thus, our nonradioactive method allowed us to accurately visualize and quantify PS under various ex vivo and in vivo conditions and revealed novel insights into the regulation of PS in skeletal muscle.
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DC-ATLAS: a systems biology resource to dissect receptor specific signal transduction in dendritic cells.
Immunome Res
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2010
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The advent of Systems Biology has been accompanied by the blooming of pathway databases. Currently pathways are defined generically with respect to the organ or cell type where a reaction takes place. The cell type specificity of the reactions is the foundation of immunological research, and capturing this specificity is of paramount importance when using pathway-based analyses to decipher complex immunological datasets. Here, we present DC-ATLAS, a novel and versatile resource for the interpretation of high-throughput data generated perturbing the signaling network of dendritic cells (DCs).
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Chikungunya virus induces IPS-1-dependent innate immune activation and protein kinase R-independent translational shutoff.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that is undergoing reemergence in areas around the Indian Ocean. Despite the current and potential danger posed by this virus, we know surprisingly little about the induction and evasion of CHIKV-associated antiviral immune responses. With this in mind we investigated innate immune reactions to CHIKV in human fibroblasts, a demonstrable in vivo target of virus replication and spread. We show that CHIKV infection leads to activation of the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and subsequent transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes, including beta interferon (IFN-?). IRF3 activation occurs by way of a virus-induced innate immune signaling pathway that includes the adaptor molecule interferon promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1). Despite strong transcriptional upregulation of these genes, however, translation of the corresponding proteins is not observed. We further demonstrate that translation of cellular (but not viral) genes is blocked during infection and that although CHIKV is found to trigger inactivation of the translational molecule eukaryotic initiation factor subunit 2? by way of the double-stranded RNA sensor protein kinase R, this response is not required for the block to protein synthesis. Furthermore, overall diminution of cellular RNA synthesis is also observed in the presence of CHIKV and transcription of IRF3-dependent antiviral genes appears specifically blocked late in infection. We hypothesize that the observed absence of IFN-? and antiviral proteins during infection results from an evasion mechanism exhibited by CHIKV that is dependent on widespread shutoff of cellular protein synthesis and a targeted block to late synthesis of antiviral mRNA transcripts.
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Pneumatosis intestinalis associated with treatment of cancer patients with the vascular growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors sorafenib and sunitinib.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Recently, pneumatosis intestinalis has been described in patients receiving bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody to VEGF-A. Pneumatosis intestinalis is a condition characterized by subserosal and submucosal gas-filled cysts in the gastrointestinal tract. We report on pneumatosis intestinalis in patients receiving oral anti-VEGF agents. Patients shared the following characteristics: long-term (> 4 months) exposure to anti-VEGF agents, lack of other factors predisposing to pneumatosis intestinalis, and lack of recent surgical intervention. Taken together, these observations suggest that pneumatosis intestinalis is a probable class-effect of anti-VEGF agents.
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Calcification of cartilage formed in vitro on calcium polyphosphate bone substitutes is regulated by inorganic polyphosphate.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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A major challenge to the successful clinical application of bioengineered cartilage remains its integration to surrounding tissues upon implantation. One way to address this consists of generating biphasic constructs composed of articular cartilage formed in vitro on the top surface and integrated with the porous sub-surface of a bone substitute material - in the case of this study, calcium polyphosphate (CPP). To improve the mechanical integrity of the cartilage-bone substitute interface, attempts have been made to generate a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC) within the CPP-cartilage interface, thereby mimicking the native joint architecture. The purpose of this work was to establish the effects of the degradation products of CPP on cartilage calcification in order to explain the observed positioning of a ZCC away from the interface junction. It was determined that polyphosphate released from the CPP accumulates within in vitro-grown cartilage and inhibits cartilage calcification in a concentration and chain length (i.e. molecular weight) dependent manner. It was found that this effect is transient as chondrocytes express exopolyphosphatases which hydrolyze polyphosphate to release orthophosphate. Hence, the generation of biphasic constructs with a properly located ZCC will require tailoring of CPP substrates with lower degradation rates or the upregulation of exopolyphosphatases by chondrocytes.
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Molecular identification of the causative agent of human strongyloidiasis acquired in Tanzania: dispersal and diversity of Strongyloides spp. and their hosts.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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In order to identify the causative agent of imported strongyloidiasis found in a Japanese mammalogist, who participated in a field survey in Tanzania, the hyper-variable region IV (HVR-IV) of 18S ribosomal DNA and partial mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) were analyzed and compared with Strongyloides fuelleborni collected from apes and monkeys of Africa and Japan, and S. stercoralis from humans, apes and dogs. The HVR-IV and cox1 of the patients worms were identical to or only slightly differed from those of worms parasitic in Tanzanian chimpanzees and yellow baboons, demonstrating that the patient acquired the infection during her field survey in Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis with the maximum-likelihood method largely divided isolates of S. fuelleborni into three groups, which corresponded to geographical localities but not to host species. Meanwhile, isolates of S. stercoralis were grouped by the phylogenetic analysis into dog-parasitic and primate-parasitic clades, and not to geographical regions. It is surmised that subspeciation has occurred in S. fuelleborni during the dispersal of primates in Africa and Asia, while worldwide dispersal of S. stercoralis seems to have occurred more recently by migration and the activities of modern humans.
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NAD(P)H quinone-oxydoreductase 1 protects eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI from degradation by the proteasome.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI) serves as a central adapter in cap-binding complex assembly. Although eIF4GI has been shown to be sensitive to proteasomal degradation, how the eIF4GI steady-state level is controlled remains unknown. Here, we show that eIF4GI exists in a complex with NAD(P)H quinone-oxydoreductase 1 (NQO1) in cell extracts. Treatment of cells with dicumarol (dicoumarol), a pharmacological inhibitor of NQO1 known to preclude NQO1 binding to its protein partners, provokes eIF4GI degradation by the proteasome. Consistently, the eIF4GI steady-state level also diminishes upon the silencing of NQO1 (by transfection with small interfering RNA), while eIF4GI accumulates upon the overexpression of NQO1 (by transfection with cDNA). We further reveal that treatment of cells with dicumarol frees eIF4GI from mRNA translation initiation complexes due to strong activation of its natural competitor, the translational repressor 4E-BP1. As a consequence of cap-binding complex dissociation and eIF4GI degradation, protein synthesis is dramatically inhibited. Finally, we show that the regulation of eIF4GI stability by the proteasome may be prominent under oxidative stress. Our findings assign NQO1 an original role in the regulation of mRNA translation via the control of eIF4GI stability by the proteasome.
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Maintenance and growth requirements for nitrogen, lysine and methionine and their utilisation efficiencies in juvenile black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, using a factorial approach.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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We used a factorial approach to distinguish maintenance from growth requirements for protein, lysine and methionine in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Juvenile P. monodon (initial weight 2.4 g) were fed during 6 weeks one of ten semi-purified diets based on casein and purified amino acids (AA) as N source. The diets contained four levels of crude protein (CP, from 5 to 54 % DM diet) with two levels (% CP) of lysine or methionine (normal or 30 % deficient). Requirements were determined using linear and non-linear regression models. We could thus obtain the first ever data on maintenance (N equilibrium) requirements for CP and AA in P. monodon. CP requirements for maintenance (4.5 g/kg body weight (BW) per d) represented approximately 19 % of the CP requirement for maximal N gain (23.9 g/kg BW per d). The marginal efficiency of utilisation reached a maximum of 38 % for N, 0.77 for lysine and 1.62 for methionine using N gain as response. Lysine requirements were 0.20 g/kg BW per d for N maintenance and 1.40 g/kg BW per d for maximal N gain. Methionine requirements were 0.11 g/kg BW per d for N maintenance and 0.70 g/kg BW per d for maximal N gain. The lysine (5.8 %) and methionine (2.9 %) requirements for maximal N gain, expressed as percentage of protein requirement, agree with literature data using a dose-response technique with smaller P. monodon. The observed interaction between dietary CP and methionine for N gain demonstrates that requirements for indispensable AA (expressed as % CP) cannot be evaluated separately from CP requirements.
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Ribosomal protein mRNAs are translationally-regulated during human dendritic cells activation by LPS.
Immunome Res
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are the sentinels of the mammalian immune system, characterized by a complex maturation process driven by pathogen detection. Although multiple studies have described the analysis of activated DCs by transcriptional profiling, recent findings indicate that mRNAs are also regulated at the translational level. A systematic analysis of the mRNAs being translationally regulated at various stages of DC activation was performed using translational profiling, which combines sucrose gradient fractionation of polysomal-bound mRNAs with DNA microarray analysis.
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Pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: the conservative treatment of choice.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2009
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A pancreatic fistula (PF) is the most common complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), and its reported incidence varies from 2% to 28%. The aim of the present study was to analyse the treatment of a complicated PF comparing the surgical approach with conservative techniques.
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Articular cartilage subpopulations respond differently to cyclic compression in vitro.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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The inferior biomechanical properties of in vitro-formed tissue remain a significant obstacle in bioengineering articular cartilage tissue. We have previously shown that cyclic compression (30 minutes, 1 kPa, 1 Hz) of chondrocytes isolated from full-thickness cartilage can induce greater matrix synthesis, although articular cartilage is composed of different subpopulations of chondrocytes, and their individual contribution to enhanced tissue formation has not been fully characterized. This study examines the contribution of chondrocyte subpopulations to this response. Bovine articular chondrocytes were isolated from superficial to mid zones (SMZs) or deep zones (DZs), placed in three-dimensional culture, and subjected to cyclic compression. DZ chondrocytes on calcium polyphosphate substrates formed thicker tissue than those from SMZs. Compression increased matrix accumulation in SMZ chondrocytes while decreasing accumulation in DZ chondrocytes. The SMZ and DZ chondrocytes also differed in their type 1 membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and MMP-13 expression, enzymes that play a crucial role in mediating the response to mechanical stimulation. In addition, the duration of the culture period was important in determining the DZ response, raising the possibility that matrix accumulation plays a role in the response to stimulation. Understanding the cellular response to mechanical stimulation during tissue formation will facilitate our understanding of tissue growth and allow for further optimization of cartilage tissue formation in vitro.
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Discovery of a new family of bis-8-hydroxyquinoline substituted benzylamines with pro-apoptotic activity in cancer cells: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and action mechanism studies.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Bis-8-hydroxyquinoline substituted benzylamines have been synthesized and screened for their antitumor activity on KB3 cell line model. Synthesis of this series of new analogues was accomplished using a one pot specific methodology which allows the synthesis of both bis- and mono-8-hydroxyquinoline substituted benzylamines. Among the synthesized compounds two compounds (4a and 5a), respectively, named JLK 1472 and JLK 1486, were particularly potent on KB3 cell line. Their CC(50) values being, respectively, 2.6 and 1.3 nM. Screened on a panel of cell lines showing various phenotype alterations, both compounds were found inactive on some cell lines such as PC3 (prostate cell line) and SF268 (neuroblastoma cell line) while highly active on other different cell lines. Mechanistic studies reveal that these two analogues did not affect tubulin and microtubules neither they exert a proteasomal inhibition effect. In contrast 4a and 5a activate specifically caspase 3/7 and not caspase 8 and 9, suggesting that their biological target should be located upstream from caspase 3/7. Moreover their cytotoxic effect is potentiated by the pro-apoptotic effects of TRAIL.
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Decreased microvascular vasomotion and myogenic response in rat skeletal muscle in association with acute insulin resistance.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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In addition to increased glucose uptake, insulin action is associated with increased total and microvascular blood flow, and vasomotion in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of acute insulin resistance caused by the peripheral vasoconstrictor alpha-methylserotonin (alphaMT) on microvascular vasomotion in muscle. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), femoral blood flow (FBF), whole body glucose infusion (GIR) and hindleg glucose uptake (HGU) were determined during control and hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp conditions in anaesthetized rats receiving alphaMT infusion. Changes in muscle microvascular perfusion were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and vasomotion was assessed by applying wavelet analysis to the LDF signal. Insulin increased GIR and HGU. Five frequency bands corresponding to cardiac, respiratory, myogenic, neurogenic and endothelial activities were detected in the LDF signal. Insulin infusion alone increased FBF (1.18 +/- 0.10 to 1.78 +/- 0.12 ml min(-1), P < 0.05), LDF signal strength (by 16% compared to baseline) and the relative amplitude of the myogenic component of vasomotion (0.89 +/- 0.09 to 1.18 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05). When infused alone alphaMT decreased LDF signal strength and the myogenic component of vasomotion by 23% and 27% respectively compared to baseline, but did not affect HGU or FBF. Infusion of alphaMT during the insulin clamp decreased the stimulatory effects of insulin on GIR, HGU, FBF and LDF signal and blocked the myogenic component of vasomotion. These data suggest that insulin action to recruit microvascular flow may in part involve action on the vascular smooth muscle to increase vasomotion in skeletal muscle to thereby enhance perfusion and glucose uptake. These processes are impaired with this model of alphaMT-induced acute insulin resistance.
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Genetic modification of murine dendritic cells by RNA transfection.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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The ability to manipulate in vitro cultured dendritic cells (DCs) by transfection represents an attractive strategy to load these antigen-presenting cells with genetic material encoding various immunogenic epitopes. The gene transfer approach can also be applied to DCs with the aim of expressing immunologically active molecules such as cytokines, costimulatory molecules, or simply to transiently express proteins to perform cell biology studies. Available gene transfer technologies for DCs include both viral and non-viral vector-based approaches. In this chapter, we describe non-viral strategies of RNA transfection. Special emphasis is given to murine bone-marrow-derived DCs, since gene transfer to human DCs has been extensively described in the literature, especially in the context of cancer immunotherapy and other clinical applications. Methods to deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) to DCs are described as well. Finally, the potential of exogenously delivered RNA to activate DCs is discussed and some practical advice to avoid DC activation is described.
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Immunity and the regulation of protein synthesis: surprising connections.
Curr. Opin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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The plasticity that is needed by the cell to respond to rapid changes in its environment cannot only be provided by means of transcriptional regulation, which generally confers on cells a set of stable properties. Alternatively, the control of mRNA translation allows the cell to modulate rapidly and over short period of time its gene expression program, without invoking the slower nuclear pathways for mRNA synthesis and transport. Several recent findings indicate that regulation of translation affects directly antigen presentation, cytokine production, as well as the survival of dendritic cells. I describe here some of the regulatory mechanisms that control translation in response to microbial products or cytokine exposure and their contribution to the overall immune response.
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SUnSET, a nonradioactive method to monitor protein synthesis.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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We developed a nonradioactive fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based assay, called surface sensing of translation (SUnSET), which allows the monitoring and quantification of global protein synthesis in individual mammalian cells and in heterogeneous cell populations. We demonstrate here, using mouse dendritic and T cells as a model, that SUnSET offers a technical alternative to classical radioactive labeling methods for the study of mRNA translation and cellular activation.
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MicroRNA-155 modulates the interleukin-1 signaling pathway in activated human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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In response to inflammatory stimulation, dendritic cells (DCs) have a remarkable pattern of differentiation (maturation) that exhibits specific mechanisms to control immunity. Here, we show that in response to Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), several microRNAs (miRNAs) are regulated in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Among these miRNAs, miR-155 is highly up-regulated during maturation. Using LNA silencing combined to microarray technology, we have identified the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 (TLR/IL-1) inflammatory pathway as a general target of miR-155. We further demonstrate that miR-155 directly controls the level of TAB2, an important signal transduction molecule. Our observations suggest, therefore, that in mature human DCs, miR-155 is part of a negative feedback loop, which down-modulates inflammatory cytokine production in response to microbial stimuli.
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Molecular assemblies and membrane domains in multivesicular endosome dynamics.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Along the degradation pathway, endosomes exhibit a characteristic multivesicular organization, resulting from the budding of vesicles into the endosomal lumen. After endocytosis and transport to early endosomes, activated signaling receptors are incorporated into these intralumenal vesicles through the action of the ESCRT machinery, a process that contributes to terminate signaling. Then, the vesicles and their protein cargo are further transported towards lysosomes for degradation. Evidence also shows that intralumenal vesicles can undergo "back-fusion" with the late endosome limiting membrane, a route exploited by some pathogens and presumably followed by proteins and lipids that need to be recycled from within the endosomal lumen. This process depends on the late endosomal lipid lysobisphosphatidic acid and its putative effector Alix/AIP1, and is presumably coupled to the invagination of the endosomal limiting membrane at the molecular level via ESCRT proteins. In this review, we discuss the intra-endosomal transport routes in mammalian cells, and in particular the different mechanisms involved in membrane invagination, vesicle formation and fusion in a space inaccessible to proteins known to control intracellular membrane traffic.
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Exaggerated translation causes synaptic and behavioural aberrations associated with autism.
Nature
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Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an early onset, heterogeneous group of heritable neuropsychiatric disorders with symptoms that include deficits in social interaction skills, impaired communication abilities, and ritualistic-like repetitive behaviours. One of the hypotheses for a common molecular mechanism underlying ASDs is altered translational control resulting in exaggerated protein synthesis. Genetic variants in chromosome 4q, which contains the EIF4E locus, have been described in patients with autism. Importantly, a rare single nucleotide polymorphism has been identified in autism that is associated with increased promoter activity in the EIF4E gene. Here we show that genetically increasing the levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in mice results in exaggerated cap-dependent translation and aberrant behaviours reminiscent of autism, including repetitive and perseverative behaviours and social interaction deficits. Moreover, these autistic-like behaviours are accompanied by synaptic pathophysiology in the medial prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus. The autistic-like behaviours displayed by the eIF4E-transgenic mice are corrected by intracerebroventricular infusions of the cap-dependent translation inhibitor 4EGI-1. Our findings demonstrate a causal relationship between exaggerated cap-dependent translation, synaptic dysfunction and aberrant behaviours associated with autism.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.