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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Species-directed therapy for leishmaniasis in returning travellers: a comprehensive guide.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Leishmaniasis is increasingly reported among travellers. Leishmania species vary in sensitivity to available therapies. Fast and reliable molecular techniques have made species-directed treatment feasible. Many treatment trials have been designed poorly, thus developing evidence-based guidelines for species-directed treatment is difficult. Published guidelines on leishmaniasis in travellers do not aim to be comprehensive or do not quantify overall treatment success for available therapies. We aimed at providing comprehensive species-directed treatment guidelines.
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Impact of treating young children with antimalarials with or without antibiotics on morbidity: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Ghana.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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Community health workers in Dangme-West district, Ghana, treated children aged 2-59 months with fever with either artesunate-amodiaquine (AAQ) or AAQ plus amoxicillin (AAQ + AMX) within a cluster-randomized controlled trial (registration no. TDR/UNDP Trial registration A: 20189). The intervention was introduced in a stepped-wedge manner. The aim of the study was reduction of mortality. This paper reports on the reduction of morbidity, notably anaemia, severe anaemia and severe illness. Clusters of 100 children were randomized in to AAQ, AAQ + AMX and pre-intervention arms. Six months later the pre-intervention clusters were randomized in to the AAQ and AAQ + AMX arms.
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Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to ITN effectiveness.
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The effect of insecticide-treated bed nets on the incidence and prevalence of malaria in children in an area of unstable seasonal transmission in western Myanmar.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) reduce malaria morbidity and mortality consistently in Africa, but their benefits have been less consistent in Asia. This studys objective was to evaluate the malaria protective efficacy of village-wide usage of ITN in Western Myanmar and estimate the cost-effectiveness of ITN compared with extending early diagnosis and treatment services.
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Assessment of the adherence of community health workers to dosing and referral guidelines for the management of fever in children under 5 years: a study in Dangme West District, Ghana.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Community health workers (CHW) manage simple childhood illnesses in many developing countries. Information on CHWs referral practices is limited. As part of a large cluster-randomised trial, this study assessed CHWs adherence to dosing and referral guidelines.
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Variation in clinical presentation and genotype of causative Leishmania major strain in cutaneous leishmaniasis in north and south Afghanistan.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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A different clinical picture and therapeutic response were observed when data from Leishmania major-infected Dutch military personnel stationed in southern (N = 8) and northern (N = 169) Afghanistan were analyzed. Clinical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in personnel in the south was milder and seemed to respond better to antileishmanial treatment; molecular analyses of parasite isolates seem to indicate that these differences may be genetic.
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania major infection) in Dutch troops deployed in northern Afghanistan: epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2010
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major infection affected 172 (18.3%) of 938 Dutch military troops deployed in northern Afghanistan in 2005. The high attack rate was a result of initial insufficient availability of means of prevention and insufficient adherence to preventive measures. At presentation, the lymphatic system was involved in 24.8%. Treatment with intralesional injections of antimony with or without cryotherapy was satisfactory, but 19.5% of patients received secondary treatment with miltefosine. Six months after treatment, 128 (77.1%) of 166 treated patients were cured, 16 (9.6%) were lost to follow-up, and 22 (13.3%) already experienced cure at six weeks but were not seen at six months. Natural evolution played a role in this observational study, which showed cure of all patients seen at six months. In general, management of cutaneous leishmaniasis was feasible under field conditions.
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Congenital and neonatal malaria in a rural Kenyan district hospital: an eight-year analysis.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Malaria remains a significant burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data on burden of congenital and neonatal malaria is scarce and contradictory, with some recent studies reporting a high burden. Using prospectively collected data on neonatal admissions to a rural district hospital in a region of stable malaria endemicity in Kenya, the prevalence of congenital and neonatal malaria was described.
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Accordance and concordance of PCR and NASBA followed by oligochromatography for the molecular diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of four simplified molecular assays for the diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei spp. or Leishmania ssp. in a multicentre ring trial with seven participating laboratories.
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Antenatal and delivery care in rural western Kenya: the effect of training health care workers to provide "focused antenatal care".
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Maternal mortality remains high in developing countries and data to monitor indicators of progress in maternal care is needed. We examined the status of maternal care before and after health care worker (HCW) training in WHO recommended Focused Antenatal Care.
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An increase in the burden of neonatal admissions to a rural district hospital in Kenya over 19 years.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Most of the global neonatal deaths occur in developing nations, mostly in rural homes. Many of the newborns who receive formal medical care are treated in rural district hospitals and other peripheral health centres. However there are no published studies demonstrating trends in neonatal admissions and outcome in rural health care facilities in resource poor regions. Such information is critical in planning public health interventions. In this study we therefore aimed at describing the pattern of neonatal admissions to a Kenyan rural district hospital and their outcome over a 19 year period, examining clinical indicators of inpatient neonatal mortality and also trends in utilization of a rural hospital for deliveries.
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Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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There are conflicting reports on whether iron deficiency changes susceptibility to seizures. We examined the hypothesis that iron deficiency is associated with an increased risk of acute seizures in children in a malaria endemic area.
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First cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi infection in Surinam.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Surinam is generally caused by infection by Leishmania guyanensis. We report three cases of infection with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi, a Leishmania species not described from Surinam before. Treatment with pentamidine proved to be effective.
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Simplified molecular detection of Leishmania parasites in various clinical samples from patients with leishmaniasis.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Molecular methods to detect Leishmania parasites are considered specific and sensitive, but often not applied in endemic areas of developing countries due to technical complexity. In the present study isothermal, nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) was coupled to oligochromatography (OC) to develop a simplified detection method for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. NASBA-OC, detecting Leishmania RNA, was evaluated using clinical samples from visceral leishmaniasis patients from East Africa (n = 30) and cutaneous leishmaniasis from South America (n = 70) and appropriate control samples.
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Magnetic resonance imaging findings in human African trypanosomiasis: a four-year follow-up study in a patient and review of the literature.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed up to 4 years after treatment in a patient with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection. Four years after treatment and cure abnormalities were still present, although the patient led a normal social life, without physical and mental impairments. The literature on MRI in human African trypanosomiasis is reviewed. The MRI is useful to discriminate between encephalitis induced by trypanosomiasis and post-treatment reactive encephalopathy, a severe and often fatal complication of treatment, in particular of treatment with arsenicals. The MRI is not useful for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).
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Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with oligochromatography for detection of Trypanosoma brucei in clinical samples.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Molecular tools, such as real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and PCR, have been developed to detect Trypanosoma brucei parasites in blood for the diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). Despite good sensitivity, these techniques are not implemented in HAT control programs due to the high cost of the equipment, which is unaffordable for laboratories in developing countries where HAT is endemic. In this study, a simplified technique, oligochromatography (OC), was developed for the detection of amplification products of T. brucei 18S rRNA by NASBA. The T. brucei NASBA-OC test has analytical sensitivities of 1 to 10 parasites/ml on nucleic acids extracted from parasite culture and 10 parasites/ml on spiked blood. The test showed no reaction with nontarget pathogens or with blood from healthy controls. Compared to the composite standard applied in the present study, i.e., parasitological confirmation of a HAT case by direct microscopy or by microscopy after concentration of parasites using either a microhematocrit centrifugation technique or a mini-anion-exchange centrifugation technique, NASBA-OC on blood samples had a sensitivity of 73.0% (95% confidence interval, 60 to 83%), while standard expert microscopy had a sensitivity of 57.1% (95% confidence interval, 44 to 69%). On cerebrospinal fluid samples, NASBA-OC had a sensitivity of 88.2% (95% confidence interval, 75 to 95%) and standard microscopy had a sensitivity of 86.2% (95% confidence interval, 64 to 88%). The T. brucei NASBA-OC test developed in this study can be employed in field laboratories, because it does not require a thermocycler; a simple heat block or a water bath maintained at two different temperatures is sufficient for amplification.
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Impact of community management of fever (using antimalarials with or without antibiotics) on childhood mortality: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Ghana.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Malaria and pneumonia are leading causes of childhood mortality. Home Management of fever as Malaria (HMM) enables presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs but excludes pneumonia. We aimed to evaluate the impact of adding an antibiotic, amoxicillin (AMX) to an antimalarial, artesunate amodiaquine (AAQ + AMX) for treating fever among children 2-59 months of age within the HMM strategy on all-cause mortality. In a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized, open trial, children 2-59 months of age with fever treated with AAQ or AAQ + AMX within HMM were compared with standard care. Mortality reduced significantly by 30% (rate ratio [RR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.92, P = 0.011) in AAQ clusters and by 44% (RR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.41-0.76, P = 0.011) in AAQ + AMX clusters compared with control clusters. The 21% mortality reduction between AAQ and AAQ + AMX (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.56-1.12, P = 0.195) was however not statistically significant. Community fever management with antimalarials significantly reduces under-five mortality. Given the lower mortality trend, adding an antibiotic is more beneficial.
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Adaptation of glucose metabolism to fasting in young children with infectious diseases: a perspective.
J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
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Abstract Hypoglycemia is a frequently encountered complication in young children with infectious diseases and may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Mortality rate in young children under 5 years of age is increased four- to six-fold when severe infectious disease is complicated by hypoglycemia. Young age, prolonged fasting and severity of disease are considered important risk factors. This perspective describes the combined results of recently conducted studies on the effect of these risk factors on glucose metabolism in children with different infectious diseases. The results of these studies have nutritional implications for the approach in clinical practice towards young children with infectious diseases and specific recommendations are made. A unique finding is the existence of infectious disease-related differences in the adaptation of glucose metabolism during fasting in young children.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.