JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Near-Infrared Fluorescent Semiconducting Polymer Dots with High Brightness and Pronounced Effect of Positioning Alkyl Chains on the Comonomers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In recent years, semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have emerged as a new class of extraordinarily bright fluorescent probes with burgeoning applications in biological imaging and sensing. With the increasing demand for near-infrared (NIR)-emitting probes for in vivo biological measurements, the direct synthesis of semiconducting polymers that can form Pdots with ultrahigh fluorescence brightness are extremely lacking due to the severe aggregation-caused quenching of the NIR chromophores in Pdots. Here we describe the design and synthesis of dithienylbenzoselenadiazole (DBS)-based NIR-fluorescing Pdots with ultrahigh brightness and excellent photostability. More importantly, the fluorescence quantum yields of these Pdots could be effectively increased by the introduction of long alkyl chains into the thiophene rings of DBS to significantly inhibit the aggregation-caused emission quenching. Additionally, these new series of DBS-based Pdots can be excited by a commonly used 488 nm laser and show a fluorescence quantum yield as high as 36% with a Stokes shift larger than 200 nm. Single-particle analysis indicates that the per-particle brightness of the Pdots is at least 2 times higher than that of the commercial quantum dot (Qdot705) under identical laser excitation and acquisition conditions. We also functionalized the Pdots with carboxylic acid groups and then conjugated biomolecules onto the surface of Pdots to demonstrate their capability for specific cellular labeling without any noticeable nonspecific binding. Our results suggest that these DBS-based NIR-fluorescing Pdots will be very useful in a variety of bioimaging and analytical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation of Core-Shell Coordination Molecular Assemblies via the Enrichment of Structure-Directing "Codes" of Bridging Ligands and Metathesis of Metal Units.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of molybdenum- and copper-based MOPs was synthesized through coordination-driven process of a bridging ligand (3,3'-PDBAD, L1) and dimetal paddlewheel clusters. Three conformers of the ligand exist with an ideal bridging angle between the two carboxylate groups of 0o (H2?-L1), 120o (H2?-L1), and of 90o (H2?-L1), respectively. At ambient or lower temperature H2L1 and Mo2(OAc)4 or Cu2(OAc)4 were crystallized into a molecular square with ?-L1 and Mo2 /Cu2 units. With proper temperature elevation, not only the molecular square with ?-L1 but also a lantern-shaped cage with ?-L1 formed simultaneously. Similar to how Watson-Crick pairs stabilize the helical structure of duplex DNA, the core-shell molecular assembly possesses favorable H-bonding interaction sites. This is dictated by the ligand conformation in the shell, coding for the formation and providing stabilization of the central lantern shaped core, which was not observed without this complementary interaction. Based on the crystallographic implications, a heterobimetallic cage was obtained through a post-synthetic metal ion metathesis, showing different reactivity of coordination bonds in the core and shell. As an innovative synthetic strategy, the site-selective metathesis broadens the structural diversity and properties of coordination assemblies.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacological inhibition of TGF? receptor improves Nkx2.5 cardiomyoblast-mediated regeneration.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous study found that A83-01, a small molecule type 1 TGF? receptor inhibitor, could induce proliferation of postnatal Nkx2.5+ cardiomyoblasts in vitro and enhance their cardiomyogenic differentiation. The present study addresses whether A83-01 treatment in vivo could increase cardiomyogenesis and improve cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI) through an Nkx2.5+ cardiomyoblast-dependent process.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcome in a Taiwanese Population of Patients with Epstein-Barr Virus-positive Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is a provisional entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification of tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues. Reports on the characteristics and clinical outcome of this disease in different geographic regions showed great disparities.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of anti-Müllerian hormone and follicle stimulating hormone levels on in vitro fertilization pregnancy rate.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the relationship between in vitro fertilization (IVF) pregnancy rate and basal serum hormone levels before patients begin an IVF course.
Related JoVE Video
Association between the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism and glioma risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumors. The XRCC1 Arg194Trp variant affects the proliferating cell nuclear antigen( PCNA) binding region, which suggests that this mutation may contribute to gliomagenesis and a number of articles have examine the association between XRCC1 Arg194Trp and the susceptibility to glioma. However, the results were conflicting. Test of heterogeneity, sensitivity analysis, meta- analysis, and assessment of publication bias were all performed in our present meta-analysis, covering a total of 5,407 patients and 7,715 healthy persons. In the overall analysis the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism showed a significant association with glioma susceptibility in a recessive mode l(for TrpTrp vs ArgArg+ArgTrp: OR=1.918, 95%CI=1.575-2.336, I2=2.3%). In addition, analysis of subgroups presented an increased risk in Asians and populations-based on hospitals. The results suggested that the XRCC1 Arg194Trp polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for glioma, especially in Asian population. To further evaluate gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on XRCC1 polymorphisms and glioma risk, thousands of subjects and tissue-specific biochemical characterizations are required.
Related JoVE Video
MCPIP1 suppresses hepatitis C virus replication and negatively regulates virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine responses.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human MCP-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1, also known as ZC3H12A and Regnase-1) plays important roles in negatively regulating the cellular inflammatory response. Recently, we found that as an RNase, MCPIP1 has broad-spectrum antiviral effects by targeting viral RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that MCPIP1 expression was induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Huh7.5 hepatoma cells. MCPIP1 expression was higher in liver tissue from patients with chronic HCV infection compared with those without chronic HCV infection. Knockdown of MCPIP1 increased HCV replication and HCV-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-?, IL-6, and MCP-1. However, overexpression of MCPIP1 significantly inhibited HCV replication and HCV-mediated expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Various mutants of functional domains of MCPIP1 showed disruption of the RNA binding and oligomerization abilities, as well as RNase activity, but not deubiquitinase activity, which impaired the inhibitory activity against HCV replication. On immunocytochemistry, MCPIP1 colocalized with HCV RNA. Use of a replication-defective HCV John Cunningham 1/AAG mutant and in vitro RNA cleavage assay demonstrated that MCPIP1 could directly degrade HCV RNA. MCPIP1 may suppress HCV replication and HCV-mediated proinflammatory responses with infection, which might contribute to the regulation of host defense against the infection and virus-induced inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor l (XAFl) enhances the sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to cisplatin.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of present study was to investigate the roles of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis-associated factor l (XAFl) in regulation apoptosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells after treatment with cisplatin (DDP). A total of ten paired cancerous and non-cancerous tissues were collected from patients with CRC after surgery. The levels of XAFl protein were detected by Western blot. Primary CRC cells were separated from cancer tissues, and its viability or apoptosis after treatment with DDP was determined with MTT or Annexin V/PI assays, respectively. Furthermore, we either up-regulated transfecting a XAF1 overexpression vector or down-regulated XAF1 by siRNA interference. And then, the XAF1 levels and its sensitivity to cisplatin were assessed. XAFl had a lower expression in the cancerous tissues from samples T1, T2 and T3 than their paired non-cancerous tissues N1, N2 and N3. However, the expression of XAF1 was not detected in samples T4 and N1. XAF1 levels in cancer tissues significantly decreased in comparison with normal tissues. Cell abilities of primary cells were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner, after treatment with a series concentrations of cisplatin (2, 5, 10 ?g/mL) for 48 h. Although, after down-expression of XAFl by siRNA, cisplatin caused a significant decreases in apoptosis rates in CRC cells. The up-regulation of XAF1 distinctly increased apoptosis in CRC cells administered by cisplatin (P < 0.001). The XAFl could promoted apoptosis and enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity to cisplatin in CRC cells.
Related JoVE Video
A Series of Highly Stable Mesoporous Metalloporphyrin Fe-MOFs.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of mesoporous metalloporphyrin Fe-MOFs, namely PCN-600(M) (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu), have been synthesized using the preassembled [Fe3O(OOCCH3)6] building block. PCN-600 exhibits a one-dimensional channel as large as 3.1 nm and the highest experimental pore volume of 1.80 cm(3)g(-1) among all the reported porphyrinic MOFs. It also shows very high stability in aqueous solutions with pH values ranging from 2-11 and is to our knowledge the only mesoporous porphyrinic MOF stable under basic aqueous conditions. PCN-600(Fe) has been demonstrated as an effective peroxidase mimic to catalyze the co-oxidation reaction.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of 5-chloro-4-((1-(5-chloropyrimidin-2-yl)piperidin-4-yl)oxy)-1-(2-fluoro-4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)pyridin-2(1H)-one (BMS-903452), an antidiabetic clinical candidate targeting GPR119.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is expressed predominantly in pancreatic ?-cells and in enteroendocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract. GPR119 agonists have been shown to stimulate glucose-dependent insulin release by direct action in the pancreas and to promote secretion of the incretin GLP-1 by action in the gastrointestinal tract. This dual mechanism of action has generated significant interest in the discovery of small molecule GPR119 agonists as a potential new treatment for type 2 diabetes. Herein, we describe the discovery and optimization of a new class of pyridone containing GPR119 agonists. The potent and selective BMS-903452 (42) was efficacious in both acute and chronic in vivo rodent models of diabetes. Dosing of 42 in a single ascending dose study in normal healthy humans showed a dose dependent increase in exposure and a trend toward increased total GLP-1 plasma levels.
Related JoVE Video
Highly stretchable and conductive silver nanowire thin films formed by soldering nanomesh junctions.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been widely used for stretchable and foldable conductors due to their percolating network nanostructure. To enhance the mechanical strength of AgNW thin films under extreme stretching conditions, in this study, we utilize a simple chemical reaction to join AgNW network connections. Upon applying a reactive ink over AgNW thin films, silver nanoparticles are preferentially generated over the nanowire junctions and solder the nanomesh structures. The soldered nanostructure reinforces the conducting network and exhibits no obvious change in electrical conductivity in the stretching or rolling process with elongation strains up to 120%. Several examples are also demonstrated to show potential applications of this material in stretchable electronic devices.
Related JoVE Video
Trajectories of Sleep and Its Predictors in the First Year Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
J Head Trauma Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine how sleep patterns change over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to determine whether specific demographic and disease characteristics predict the trajectories of sleep.
Related JoVE Video
The synergistic effects for the co-cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus on the biomass and total lipids accumulation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this co-culture of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus, microalgae potentially acts as an oxygen generator for the growth of aerobic yeast while the yeast mutually provides CO2 to the microalgae as both carry out the production of lipids. To explore the synergistic effects of co-cultivation on the cells growth and total lipids accumulation, several co-culture process parameters including the carbon source concentration, temperature and dissolved oxygen level would be firstly investigated in the flask trials. The results of co-culture in a 5L photobioreactor revealed that about 40-50% of biomass increased and 60-70% of total lipid increased was observed as compared to the single culture batches. Besides the synergistic effects of gas utilization, the providing of trace elements to each other after the natural cells lysis was believed to be another benefit to the growth of the overall co-culture system.
Related JoVE Video
Reduced structural integrity and functional lateralization of the dorsal language pathway correlate with hallucinations in schizophrenia: A combined diffusion spectrum imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies suggest that structural and functional alterations of the language network are associated with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) in schizophrenia. However, the ways in which the underlying structure and function of the network are altered and how these alterations are related to each other remain unclear. To elucidate this, we used diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) to reconstruct the dorsal and ventral pathways and employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a semantic task to obtain information about the functional activation in the corresponding regions in 18 patients with schizophrenia and 18 matched controls. The results demonstrated decreased structural integrity in the left ventral, right ventral and right dorsal tracts, and decreased functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in schizophrenia. There was a positive correlation between the microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway and the functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway in patients with schizophrenia. Additionally, both functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway and microstructural integrity of the right dorsal pathway were negatively correlated with the scores of the delusion/hallucination symptom dimension. Our results suggest that impaired structural integrity of the right dorsal pathway is related to the reduction of functional lateralization of the dorsal pathway, and these alterations may aggravate AVHs in schizophrenia.
Related JoVE Video
Chylothorax following endovascular aortic repair with subclavian revascularization ¿ a case report.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BackgroundThoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is becoming increasingly popular due to reduced perioperative morbidity and mortality compared with open surgical repair. However, complications can occur when the left subclavian artery is involved. When performing TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass the stent graft will extend to the left common carotid artery. We herein present the case of a patient with a type B aortic dissection with an acute intramural hematoma. Chylothorax was noted after TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass.Case reportA 66-year-old female with descending aortic dissection that was treated conservatively developed the sudden onset of back pain. Aortic computed tomography (CT) showed a type B intramural aortic dissection. TEVAR with left carotid-subclavian artery bypass was performed. Left chylothorax was noted after surgery with drainage of up to 1000 mL per day. Conservative management was ineffective. Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct was performed with resolution of the chyle leakage.ConclusionChylothorax can occur after TEVAR with carotid-subclavian artery bypass and likely results from thoracic duct injury. When conservative treatments fail, ligation of the thoracic duct cephalad to aortic hiatus can resolve the chyle leakage.
Related JoVE Video
Complementary Usage of Rhodiola crenulata (L.) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: The Effects on Cytokines and T Cells.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease predominantly involving T cells, no study of Rhodiola as an immunomodulator in COPD patients has been reported. In this study, COPD patients took Rhodiola crenulata 500?mg (n?=?38) or placebo (starch/phosphate buffered saline) (n?=?19) daily for 12?weeks and were compared with untreated, age-matched, and sex-matched non-COPD control subjects. Our results showed that serum levels of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-? in COPD patients before treatment are significantly higher than levels in non-COPD controls (p??0.05). The results suggested that Rhodiola treatment had beneficial antiinflammation effects, lower COPD assessment test score and decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, on COPD patients (p?
Related JoVE Video
Rigidifying fluorescent linkers by metal-organic framework formation for fluorescence blue shift and quantum yield enhancement.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate that rigidifying the structure of fluorescent linkers by structurally constraining them in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) to control their conformation effectively tunes the fluorescence energy and enhances the quantum yield. Thus, a new tetraphenylethylene-based zirconium MOF exhibits a deep-blue fluorescent emission at 470 nm with a unity quantum yield (99.9 ± 0.5%) under Ar, representing ca. 3600 cm(-1) blue shift and doubled radiative decay efficiency vs the linker precursor. An anomalous increase in the fluorescence lifetime and relative intensity takes place upon heating the solid MOF from cryogenic to ambient temperatures. The origin of these unusual photoluminescence properties is attributed to twisted linker conformation, intramolecular hindrance, and framework rigidity.
Related JoVE Video
Association of interferon regulatory factor 4 gene polymorphisms rs12203592 and rs872071 with skin cancer and haematological malignancies susceptibility: a meta-analysis of 19 case-control studies.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research has indicated that the rs12203592 and rs872071 interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene polymorphisms correlate with the risk of cancer, especially skin cancer and haematological malignancies, but the results remain controversial. To understand better the effects of these two polymorphisms on skin cancer and haematological malignancies susceptibility, a cumulative meta-analysis was performed.
Related JoVE Video
Stepwise synthesis of robust metal-organic frameworks via postsynthetic metathesis and oxidation of metal nodes in a single-crystal to single-crystal transformation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Utilizing PCN-426-Mg as a template, two robust metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), PCN-426-Fe(III) and PCN-426-Cr(III), have been synthesized through a strategy of postsynthetic metathesis and oxidation (PSMO) of the metal nodes step by step. The frameworks remained in their single crystal form throughout. Furthermore, the stability and porosity of the frameworks were significantly improved after PSMO. By taking advantage of both the kinetically labile metal-ligand exchange reactions prior to oxidation and the kinetically inert metal-ligand bonds after oxidation, robust MOFs, which would otherwise be difficult to synthesize, can be readily prepared.
Related JoVE Video
Gene expression profiling of Cecropin B-resistant Haemophilus parasuis.
J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Synthetically designed antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) present the potential of replacing antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. However, microbial resistance to AMPs has been reported and little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of such resistance. The naturally occurring AMP cecropin B (CB) disrupts the anionic cell membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, CB resistance (CBR) was induced in Haemophilusparasuis SH0165 by exposing it to a series of CB concentrations. The CB-resistant H.parasuis strains CBR30 and CBR30-50 were obtained. The growth curves of SH0165 and CBR30 showed that CBR30 displayed lower growth rates than SH0165. The result of transmission electron microscopy showed cell membranes of the CB-resistant CBR30 and CBR30-50 were smoother than SH0165. Microarrays detected 257 upregulated and 254 downregulated genes covering 20 clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) of the CB-resistant CBR30 compared with SH0165 (>1.5-fold change, p < 0.05). Sixty genes were affected in CBR30-50 covering 18 COGs, with 28 upregulated and 32 downregulated genes. Under the COG function classification, the majority of affected genes in the CB-resistant CBR30 and CBR30-50 belong to the category of inorganic ion transport, amino acid transport, and metabolism. The microarray results were validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. This study may provide useful guidance for understanding the molecular mechanism underlying H.parasuis resistance to CB.
Related JoVE Video
IMP-3 Promotes Migration and Invasion of Melanoma Cells by Modulating the Expression of HMGA2 and Predicts Poor Prognosis in Melanoma.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP-3) has been reported to be a novel marker of melanoma progression. However, the mechanisms by which it impacts melanoma are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the clinical significance of IMP-3 in melanoma progression and also its underlying mechanisms. We found that IMP-3 expression was much higher in advanced stage/metastatic melanomas and that it was associated with a poor prognosis (P=.001). Univariate analysis showed IMP-3 expression was associated with stage III/IV melanomas (odds ratio=5.40, P=.031) and the acral lentiginous subtype (odds ratio=3.93, P=.0034). MeWo cells with overexpression of IMP-3 showed enhanced proliferation and migration and significantly increased tumorigenesis and metastatic ability in nude mice. We further demonstrated that IMP-3 could bind and enhance the stability of the mRNA of HMGA2. It was also confirmed that IMP-3 played an important role in melanoma invasion and metastasis through regulating HMGA2 mRNA expression. IMP-3 expression was positively correlated with HMGA2 expression in melanoma cells and also in melanoma tissues. Our results show that IMP-3 expression is a strong prognostic factor for melanoma, especially the acral lentiginous melanoma.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 07 November 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.480.
Related JoVE Video
Failure to utilize feedback causes decision-making deficits among excessive Internet gamers.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is an increasing mental health issue worldwide. Previous studies have revealed decision-making impairments in excessive Internet gamers (EIGs) with high symptoms of IGA. However, the role of feedback processing in decision-making deficits among EIGs remains unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback processing on decision-making deficits under risk among EIGs, using the Game of Dice Task (GDT) and a modified version of the GDT in which no feedback was provided. Twenty-six EIGs and 26 matched occasional Internet gamers (OIGs) were recruited. The results showed: (a) OIGs performed better on the original GDT than on the modified GDT (no feedback condition); however, EIGs performed similarly on both tasks; (b) EIGs and OIGs performed equally on the modified GDT; however, EIGs chose more disadvantageous options than OIGs on the original GDT; (c) EIGs utilized feedback less frequently on the original GDT relative to OIGs. These results suggest that EIGs are not able to utilize feedback to optimize their decisions, which could underlie their poor decision-making under risk.
Related JoVE Video
Azobenzene-functionalized metal-organic polyhedra for the optically responsive capture and release of guest molecules.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stimuli-responsive metal-organic polyhedra (srMOPs) functionalized with azobenzene showed UV-irradiation-induced isomerization from the insoluble trans-srMOP to the soluble cis-srMOP, whereas irradiation with blue light reversed this process. Guest molecules were trapped and released upon cis-to-trans and trans-to-cis isomerization of the srMOPs, respectively. This study provides a new direction in the ever-diversifying field of MOPs, while laying the groundwork for a new class of optically responsive materials.
Related JoVE Video
Polydiacetylene-enclosed near-infrared fluorescent semiconducting polymer dots for bioimaging and sensing.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Semiconducting polymer dots (P-dots) recently have emerged as a new type of ultrabright fluorescent probe with promising applications in biological imaging and detection. With the increasing desire for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescing probes for in vivo biological measurements, the currently available NIR-emitting P-dots are very limited and the leaching of the encapsulated dyes/polymers has usually been a concern. To address this challenge, we first embedded the NIR dyes into the matrix of poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-co-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-co-4,7-di(thiophen-2-yl)-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] (PF-BT-DBT) polymer and then enclosed the doped P-dots with polydiacetylenes (PDAs) to avoid potential leakage of the entrapped NIR dyes from the P-dot matrix. These PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dots not only emitted much stronger NIR fluorescence than conventional organic molecules but also exhibited enhanced photostability over CdTe quantum dots, free NIR dyes, and gold nanoclusters. We next conjugated biomolecules onto the surface of the resulting P-dots and demonstrated their capability for specific cellular labeling without any noticeable nonspecific binding. To employ this new class of material as a facile sensing platform, an easy-to-prepare test paper, obtained by soaking the paper into the PDA-enclosed NIR-emitting P-dot solution, was used to sense external stimuli such as ions, temperature, or pH, depending on the surface functionalization of PDAs. We believe these PDA-coated NIR-fluorescing P-dots will be very useful in a variety of bioimaging and analytical applications.
Related JoVE Video
The design, fabrication and characterization of a transparent atom chip.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study describes the design and fabrication of transparent atom chips for atomic physics experiments. A fabrication process was developed to define the wire patterns on a transparent glass substrate to create the desired magnetic field for atom trapping experiments. An area on the chip was reserved for the optical access, so that the laser light can penetrate directly through the glass substrate for the laser cooling process. Furthermore, since the thermal conductivity of the glass substrate is poorer than other common materials for atom chip substrate, for example silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride. Thus, heat dissipation copper blocks are designed on the front and back of the glass substrate to improve the electrical current conduction. The testing results showed that a maximum burnout current of 2 A was measured from the wire pattern (with a width of 100 ?m and a height of 20 ?m) without any heat dissipation design and it can increase to 2.5 A with a heat dissipation design on the front side of the atom chips. Therefore, heat dissipation copper blocks were designed and fabricated on the back of the glass substrate just under the wire patterns which increases the maximum burnout current to 4.5 A. Moreover, a maximum burnout current of 6 A was achieved when the entire backside glass substrate was recessed and a thicker copper block was electroplated, which meets most requirements of atomic physics experiments.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and property investigations of TDO in aqueous phase by density functional theory, UV absorption, and Raman spectroscopy.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Density functional theory, UV absorption, and Raman spectroscopy are used to investigate the structure and properties of TDO in aqueous solution. The equilibrium structures, UV absorption spectra, interaction energies, and Raman spectroscopy data of TDO, AIMSA, and 12 TDO or AIMSA clusters are calculated. Raman spectroscopy experiments are carried out by 488 and 208 nm laser excitation. The Raman spectra of TDO in solid and aqueous phases have been compared, and the most possible structure for TDO in aqueous phase was deduced from analysis of the DFT calculations for the examined models, the experimental UV absorption spectrum, and Raman spectra of TDO. The interaction energy results show that TDO's solubility in water is originated from the TDO-water cyclic oligomer. The calculated UV absorption and Raman spectra of the I2·2H2O-cyc cluster model agree with the experimental results of TDO in aqueous solution very well.
Related JoVE Video
Caffeic acid phenethyl amide ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion injury and cardiac dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has been shown to protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury by various mechanisms including its antioxidant effect. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of a CAPE analog with more structural stability in plasma, caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA), on I/R injury in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases in lung tissue of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.
Respiration
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although blebs and bullae are frequently found in the apexes of lungs of patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), its pathogens remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Selective apoptotic cell death effects of oral cancer cells treated with destruxin B.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have revealed that destruxins (Dtx) have potent cytotoxic activities on individual cancer cells, however, data on oral cancer cells especial human are absent.
Related JoVE Video
Design and experimental evaluation of a 256-channel dual-frequency ultrasound phased-array system for transcranial blood-brain barrier opening and brain drug delivery.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Focused ultrasound (FUS) in the presence of microbubbles can bring about transcranial and local opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for potential noninvasive delivery of drugs to the brain. A phased-array ultrasound system is essential for FUS-BBB opening to enable electronic steering and correction of the focal beam which is distorted by cranial bone. Here, we demonstrate our prototype design of a 256-channel ultrasound phased-array system for large-region transcranial BBB opening in the brains of large animals. One of the unique features of this system is the capability of generating concurrent dual-frequency ultrasound signals from the driving system for potential enhancement of BBB opening. A wide range of signal frequencies can be generated (frequency = 0.2-1.2 MHz) with controllable driving burst patterns. Precise output power can be controlled for individual channels via 8-bit duty-cycle control of transistor-transistor logic signals and the 8-bit microcontroller-controlled buck converter power supply output voltage. The prototype system was found to be in compliance with the electromagnetic compatibility standard. Moreover, large animal experiments confirmed the phase switching effectiveness of this system, and induction of either a precise spot or large region of BBB opening through fast focal-beam switching. We also demonstrated the capability of dual-frequency exposure to potentially enhance the BBB-opening effect. This study contributes to the design of ultrasound phased arrays for future clinical applications, and provides a new direction toward optimizing FUS brain drug delivery.
Related JoVE Video
Considering angle selection when using ultrasound electrode displacement elastography to evaluate radiofrequency ablation of tissues.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive treatment to thermally destroy tumors. Ultrasound-based electrode-displacement elastography is an emerging technique for evaluating the region of RFA-induced lesions. The angle between the imaging probe and the RFA electrode can influence electrode-displacement elastography when visualizing the ablation zone. We explored the angle effect on electrode-displacement elastography to measure the ablation zone. Phantoms embedded with meatballs were fabricated and then ablated using an RFA system to simulate RFA-induced lesions. For each phantom, a commercial ultrasound scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear probe was used to acquire raw image data at different angles, ranging from 30° to 90° at increments of 10°, to construct electrode-displacement images and facilitate comparisons with tissue section images. The results revealed that the ablation regions detected using electrode-displacement elastography were highly correlated with those from tissue section images when the angle was between 30° and 60°. However, the boundaries of lesions were difficult to distinguish, when the angle was larger than 60°. The experimental findings suggest that angle selection should be considered to achieve reliable electrode-displacement elastography to describe ablation zones.
Related JoVE Video
Gadolinium-functionalized nanographene oxide for combined drug and microRNA delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The delivery of anti-cancer therapeutics to tumors at clinically effective concentrations, while avoiding nonspecific toxicity, remains a major challenge for cancer treatment. Here we present nanoparticles of poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-grafted gadolinium-functionalized nanographene oxide (Gd-NGO) as effective carriers to deliver both chemotherapeutic drugs and highly specific gene-targeting agents such as microRNAs (miRNAs) to cancer cells. The positively charged surface of Gd-NGO was capable of simultaneous adsorption of the anti-cancer drug epirubicin (EPI) and interaction with negatively charged Let-7g miRNA. Using human glioblastoma (U87) cells as a model, we found that this conjugate of Let-7g and EPI (Gd-NGO/Let-7g/EPI) not only exhibited considerably higher transfection efficiency, but also induced better inhibition of cancer cell growth than Gd-NGO/Let-7g or Gd-NGO/EPI. The concentration of Gd-NGO/Let-7g/EPI required for 50% inhibition of cellular growth (IC50) was significantly reduced (to the equivalent of 1.3 ?g/mL EPI) compared to Gd-NGO/EPI (3.4 ?g/mL EPI). In addition, Gd-NGO/Let-7g/EPI could be used as a contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging to identify the location and extent of blood-brain barrier opening and quantitate drug delivery to tumor tissues. These results suggest that Gd-NGO/Let-7g/EPI may be a promising non-viral vector for chemogene therapy and molecular imaging diagnosis in future clinical applications.
Related JoVE Video
Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome after blood transfusion.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report 2 cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) after blood transfusion for severe anemia.
Related JoVE Video
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial of lovastatin for various endpoints of melanoma pathobiology.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On the basis of large cardiovascular clinical trials of lipid-lowering agents that showed a considerable decrease in the incidence of primary melanomas in the active agent arm, we have carried out a randomized, double-blind clinical trial examining the impact of lovastatin on various biomarkers of melanoma pathogenesis. Subjects with at least two clinically atypical nevi were randomized to receive oral lovastatin or placebo for a 6-month period. Clinical, histopathologic, and molecular biomarkers were evaluated for change in the two groups. Eighty subjects were randomized, evaluable, and included in the analyses. Lovastatin showed no benefit in comparison with placebo in the primary endpoint of decreasing the level of histopathologic atypia, nor in any of the secondary endpoints of decreasing clinical atypia, impact on nevus number, nor in showing significant changes in any of the molecular biomarkers. There were no significant differences in adverse event profiles for lovastatin compared with placebo. The lovastatin arm did show a significant and considerable decrease in total serum cholesterol and serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels compared with placebo, an expected result. This finding bolsters confidence in subject compliance. Given the results of this trial, it is concluded that if lovastatin were to lower the incidence of melanoma, it would appear not to be doing so by reversing atypia of precursor atypical nevi over the 6-month time frame studied. Further research into the pathogenesis of melanoma and in other potential chemopreventive agents is needed.
Related JoVE Video
Mortality after cardiac or vascular operations by preexisting serious mental illness status in the Veterans Health Administration.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate 1-year mortality risk associated with preoperative serious mental illness (SMI) as defined by the Veterans Health Administration (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], major depression) following nonambulatory cardiac or vascular surgical procedures compared to patients without SMI. Cardiac/vascular operations were selected because patients with SMI are known to be at elevated risk of cardiovascular disease.
Related JoVE Video
Microencapsulation of mechano growth factor E peptide for sustained delivery and bioactivity maintenance.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mechano growth factor (MGF) and its C-terminal E-peptide with 24 amino acids, MGF-Ct24E, have superiority in resolving the delayed or failed bone repair derived from shortness of suitable biomechanical stimulation. The chitosan/tripolyphosphate microspheres encapsulated with MGF-Ct24E (CS/TPP/MGF-Ct24E) are prepared using emulsion-ionic cross-linking method in order to achieve the sustained release and preserve the bioactivity of MGF-Ct24E. The microspheres are micron-sized and spherical in shape with smooth surface morphology. The TPP component disintegrates in advance of CS matrix and the MGF-Ct24E maintains sustained delivery during in vitro hydrolytic degradation. With the disappearance of TPP, the total weight loss of CS/TPP/MGF-Ct24E is 32% and the release amount of MGF-Ct24E reaches 84.6% after degrading for 2 weeks. In vitro bioactivity assays reveal that the MGF-Ct24E can accelerate MC3T3-E1 cells proliferation and delay their differentiation as well. The encapsulated MGF-Ct24E shows long-term effects after being loaded in the CS/TPP microspheres and the cells exhibit excellent morphology on the surface of microspheres. The continuous delivery of MGF-Ct24E provides a new perspective on resolving the unsatisfactory bone reconstruction associated with microgravity and stress shielding.
Related JoVE Video
Strangulation of chronic transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transdiaphragmatic intercostal hernia (TIH) caused by violent coughing is a rare clinical diagnosis. Most patients diagnosed with TIH have a chronic condition consisting of a hernia that can be reduced completely by surgical intervention. Our patient presented with acute abdomen resulting from mechanical bowel obstruction secondary to an incarcerated hernia. Acute TIH presents a diagnostic challenge because of its rarity and lack of specific signs or symptoms in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. We recommend performing diagnostic computed tomography (CT) early if there is suspicion of TIH. Surgical intervention is always needed. Surgical intervention was complicated in this case, necessitating both transthoracic and abdominal exposure to resect the ischemic bowel segment. Nonetheless, the patient recovered uneventfully.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency by measuring 3-O-methyldopa concentrations in dried blood spots.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inherited defects that affect the synthesis or metabolism of neurotransmitters cause severe motor dysfunction. The diagnosis of these diseases, including aromatic L-amino-acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency, typically requires cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitter analysis. However, 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which is a catabolic product of L-dopa that accumulates in individuals with AADC deficiency, can be detected in blood.
Related JoVE Video
Causal inference in longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose a principal stratification approach to assess causal effects in nonrandomized longitudinal comparative effectiveness studies with a binary endpoint outcome and repeated measures of a continuous intermediate variable. Our method is an extension of the principal stratification approach originally proposed for the longitudinal randomized study "Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial" to assess the treatment effect on the continuous Hamilton depression score adjusting for the heterogeneity of repeatedly measured binary compliance status. Our motivation for this work comes from a comparison of the effect of two glucose-lowering medications on a clinical cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. Here, we consider a causal inference problem assessing how well the two medications work relative to one another on two binary endpoint outcomes: cardiovascular disease-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality. Clinically, these glucose-lowering medications can have differential effects on the intermediate outcome, glucose level over time. Ultimately, we want to compare medication effects on the endpoint outcomes among individuals in the same glucose trajectory stratum while accounting for the heterogeneity in baseline covariates (i.e., to obtain 'principal effects' on the endpoint outcomes). The proposed method involves a three-step model estimation procedure. Step 1 identifies principal strata associated with the intermediate variable using hybrid growth mixture modeling analyses. Step 2 obtains the stratum membership using the pseudoclass technique and derives propensity scores for treatment assignment. Step 3 obtains the stratum-specific treatment effect on the endpoint outcome weighted by inverse propensity probabilities derived from Step 2.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of frailty-related diagnoses, high-risk prescribing in elderly adults, and primary care use on readmissions in fewer than 30 days for veterans aged 65 and older.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the effect of two variables not previously studied in the readmissions literature (frailty-related diagnoses and high-risk medications in the elderly (HRME)) and one understudied variable (volume of primary care visits in the prior year).
Related JoVE Video
The arrhythmogenic effect of self-assembling nanopeptide hydrogel scaffolds on neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The chaotic spatial disarray due to extracellular matrix expansion disrupts cardiomyocytes interaction and causes arrhythmia. We hypothesized that disordered nanopeptide scaffolds can mimic the chaotic spatial disarray related to cardiac fibrosis and have arrhythmogenic effects on cardiomyocytes. Primary mouse cardiomyocytes were cultured in 2D traditional and 3D nanopeptide hydrogel scaffold systems. Cardiomyocytes in 3D scaffolds showed irregular spontaneous contractile activity as compared with 2D culture controls. Calcium fluorimetric imaging revealed that basal intracellular calcium level increased 1.42-fold in cardiomyocytes cultured in the 3D scaffold, in vitro. The mRNA levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport ATPase, ryanodine 2 receptor and connexin 43 elevated 2.14-fold, 2.33-fold and 2.62-fold in 3D compared with 2D. Immunofluorescence imaging revealed lateralization of the distribution of connexin 43 in 3D group. These findings suggest that 3D hydrogel culture system provides a model for the development of cardiac dysrhythmia. These limitations should be considered during cardiac tissue engineering.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of Surfactant and Budesonide on the Pulmonary Distribution of Fluorescent Dye in Mice.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Surfactant is a useful vehicle for the intratracheal delivery of medicine to the distal lung. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of intratracheal surfactant and budesonide instillation on the pulmonary distribution of fluorescent dye in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Utilizing multiple in silico analyses to identify putative causal SCN5A variants in Brugada syndrome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inheritable sudden cardiac death disease mainly caused by SCN5A mutations. Traditional approaches can be costly and time-consuming if all candidate variants need to be validated through in vitro studies. Therefore, we developed a new approach by combining multiple in silico analyses to predict functional and structural changes of candidate SCN5A variants in BrS before conducting in vitro studies. Five SCN5A non-synonymous variants (1651G>A, 1776C>G, 1673A>G, 3269C>T and 3578G>A) were identified in 14 BrS patients using direct DNA sequencing. Several bioinformatics algorithms were applied and predicted that 1651G>A (A551T) and 1776C>G (N592K) were high-risk SCN5A variants (odds ratio 59.59 and 23.93). The results were validated by Mass spectrometry and in vitro electrophysiological assays. We concluded that integrating sequence-based information and secondary protein structures elements may help select highly potential variants in BrS before conducting time-consuming electrophysiological studies and two novel SCN5A mutations were validated.
Related JoVE Video
The deviation of growth model for transparent conductive graphene.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An approximate growth model was employed to predict the time required to grow a graphene film by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Monolayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil at various hydrogen flow rates from 10 to 50 sccm. The sheet resistance of the graphene film was 310?/? and the optical transmittance was 97.7%. The Raman intensity ratio of the G-peak to the 2D peak of the graphene film was as high as ~4 when the hydrogen flow rate was 30 sccm. The fitting curve obtained by the deviation equation of growth model closely matches the data. We believe that under the same conditions and with the same setup, the presented growth model can help manufacturers and academics to predict graphene growth time more accurately.
Related JoVE Video
Transglutaminase 2 expression is increased as a function of malignancy grade and negatively regulates cell growth in meningioma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most meningiomas are benign, but some clinical-aggressive tumors exhibit brain invasion and cannot be resected without significant complications. To identify molecular markers for these clinically-aggressive meningiomas, we performed microarray analyses on 24 primary cultures from 21 meningiomas and 3 arachnoid membranes. Using this approach, increased transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) expression was observed, which was subsequently validated in an independent set of 82 meningiomas by immunohistochemistry. Importantly, the TGM2 expression level was associated with increasing WHO malignancy grade as well as meningioma recurrence. Inhibition of TGM2 function by siRNA or cystamine induced meningioma cell death, which was associated with reduced AKT phosphorylation and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that TGM2 expression increases as a function of malignancy grade and tumor recurrence and that inhibition of TGM2 reduces meningioma cell growth.
Related JoVE Video
Porcine coronin 1A contributes to nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) inactivation during Haemophilus parasuis infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Haemophilus parasuis (H.parasuis) is the etiological agent of porcine polyserositis and arthritis (Glässer's disease) characterized by fibrinous polyserositis, meningitis and polyarthritis, causing severe economic losses to the swine industry. Currently, the molecular basis of this infection is largely unkonwn. Coronin 1A (Coro1A) plays important roles in host against bacterial infection, yet little is known about porcine Coro1A. In this study, we investigated the molecular characterization of porcine Coro1A, revealing that porcine Coro1A was widely expressed in different tissues. Coro1A could be induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] and H.parasuis in porcine kidney-15 (PK-15) cells. Functional analyses revealed that porcine Coro1A suppressed the NF-?B activation during H.parasuis infection by inhibiting the degradation of I?B? and nuclear translocation of p65. Overexpression of porcine Coro1A inhibited the transcription of NF-?B-mediated downstream genes [Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and COX-2] through down-regulation of NF-?B. The results indicated that porcine Coro1A is an important immunity related gene that helps to inhibit NF-kB activation during H. parasuis infection.
Related JoVE Video
Combination of gefitinib and DNA methylation inhibitor decitabine exerts synergistic anti-cancer activity in colon cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite recent advances in the treatment of human colon cancer, the chemotherapy efficacy against colon cancer is still unsatisfactory. In the present study, effects of concomitant inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and DNA methyltransferase were examined in human colon cancer cells. We demonstrated that decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) synergized with gefitinib (an EGFR inhibitor) to reduce cell viability and colony formation in SW1116 and LOVO cells. However, the combination of the two compounds displayed minimal toxicity to NCM460 cells, a normal human colon mucosal epithelial cell line. The combination was also more effective at inhibiting the AKT/mTOR/S6 kinase pathway. In addition, the combination of decitabine with gefitinib markedly inhibited colon cancer cell migration. Furthermore, gefitinib synergistically enhanced decitabine-induced cytotoxicity was primarily due to apoptosis as shown by Annexin V labeling that was attenuated by z-VAD-fmk, a pan caspase inhibitor. Concomitantly, cell apoptosis resulting from the co-treatment of gefitinib and decitabine was accompanied by induction of BAX, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved PARP, along with reduction of Bcl-2 compared to treatment with either drug alone. Interestingly, combined treatment with these two drugs increased the expression of XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) which play an important role in cell apoptosis. Moreover, small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of XAF1 significantly attenuated colon cancer cells apoptosis induced by the combination of the two drugs. Our findings suggested that gefitinib in combination with decitabine exerted enhanced cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells were involved in mitochondrial-mediated pathway and induction of XAF1 expression. In conclusion, based on the observations from our study, we suggested that the combined administration of these two drugs might be considered as a novel therapeutic regimen for treating colon cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship between Rad51 G135C and G172T variants and the susceptibility to cancer: a meta-analysis involving 54 case-control studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The associations between Rad51 gene polymorphisms (G135C and G172T) and risk of cancer have been investigated, but the results were inconclusive. To get a comprehensive evaluation of the association above, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies.
Related JoVE Video
The Effects of ABCC2 G1249A Polymorphism on the Risk of Resistance to Antiepileptic Drugs: A Meta-Analysis of the Literature.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aims: The G1249A variant of the multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) gene may be associated with the development of antiepileptic drug (AED) resistance. Although numerous studies have investigated the association between the G1249A variant and the risk of drug resistance in epilepsy, the results of these studies have been inconclusive. To assess the role of G1249A polymorphism in drug resistance in epilepsy, a meta-analysis was performed. Materials and Methods: We systematically reviewed relevant studies retrieved by the PubMed and Embase. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on the date extracted from the studies to evaluate the strength of association. We also analyzed the heterogeneity and sensitivity of each report and the publication bias of the studies. Results: A total of 6 published studies, involving 2213 patients (1100 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and 1113 controls with drug-responsive epilepsy) were reviewed in the present meta-analysis. The overall results indicated that the variant genotypes were associated with a significantly decreased risk of AED resistance (AA vs. GG: OR=0.372, 95% CI=0.182-0.762; recessive model: OR=0.399, 95% CI=0.200-0.795) (fixed-effects model). A stratified analysis by ethnicity showed similar findings for Caucasians in an additive model (A vs. G: OR=0.700, 95% CI=0.494-0.992). Conclusions: The meta-analysis suggests that the ABCC2 G1249A polymorphism is significantly associated with a decreased risk of AED resistance. However, further functional investigations are warranted to validate the association.
Related JoVE Video
Autonomic dysfunction in reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes.
J Headache Pain
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autonomic imbalance may play an important role in the pathogenesis of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes (RCVS). This study aimed to assess the autonomic function by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV) in patients with RCVS.
Related JoVE Video
Construction of ultrastable porphyrin Zr metal-organic frameworks through linker elimination.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of highly stable MOFs with 3-D nanochannels, namely PCN-224 (no metal, Ni, Co, Fe), have been assembled with six-connected Zr6 cluster and metalloporphyrins by a linker-elimination strategy. The PCN-224 series not only exhibits the highest BET surface area (2600 m(2)/g) among all the reported porphyrinic MOFs but also remains intact in pH = 0 to pH = 11 aqueous solution. Remarkably, PCN-224(Co) exhibits high catalytic activity for the CO2/propylene oxide coupling reaction and can be used as a recoverable heterogeneous catalyst.
Related JoVE Video
Temporal trends in new exposure to antiepileptic drug monotherapy and suicide-related behavior.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because some recent studies suggest increased risk for suicide-related behavior (SRB; ideation, attempts) among those receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), we examined the temporal relationship between new AED exposure and SRB in a cohort of older veterans.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of revised American Joint Committee on Cancer staging for gallbladder cancer based on a single institution experience.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy, which often goes undiagnosed until advanced stages of disease and is associated with poor prognosis. The only potentially curative treatment is surgical resection. This retrospective study aims to investigate the validity of the revised 7th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria and determine prognostic factors. Forty-two patients with confirmed gallbladder cancer who underwent attempted curative resection from 1999 to 2012 at the University of California, Irvine Medical Center were reviewed. Survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Ten patients underwent laparoscopy, were deemed unresectable, and no further surgical intervention was performed. R0 surgical resection, which included radical portal lymphadenectomy, liver segment IVb/V resection, with or without bile duct resection, was performed in the remaining 32 patients. N2 nodes were resected if positive on frozen section. Overall survival probability for Stage I to II patients was 100 per cent. Overall survival probability for Stage III patients was 80 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI], 61 to 99%) and 39.3 per cent (95% CI, 28 to 78%) for Stage IV patients. This study demonstrates that 7th edition clinical stage, T stage, and liver involvement are statistically significant predictors of prognosis. These data also demonstrate a benefit to extended resection in patients even with Stage III and IV disease.
Related JoVE Video
Metal-organic frameworks based on previously unknown Zr8/Hf8 cubic clusters.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ongoing study of zirconium- and hafnium-porphyrinic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) led to the discovery of isostructural MOFs based on Zr8 and Hf8 clusters, which are unknown in both cluster and MOF chemistry. The Zr8O6 cluster features an idealized Zr8 cube, in which each Zr atom resides on one vertex and each face of the cube is capped by one ?4-oxygen atom. On each edge of the cube, a carboxylate from a porphyrinic ligand bridges two Zr atoms to afford a 3D MOF with a very rare (4,12)-connected ftw topology, in which two types of polyhedral cages with diameters of ?1.1 and ?2.0 nm and a cage opening of ?0.8 nm are found. The isostructural Zr- and Hf-MOFs exhibit high surface areas, gas uptakes, and catalytic selectivity for cyclohexane oxidation.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of doxorubicin-loaded 3-helix micelles as nanocarriers.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Designing stable drug nanocarriers, 10-30 nm in size, would have significant impact on their transport in circulation, tumor penetration, and therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, biological properties of 3-helix micelles loaded with 8 wt % doxorubicin (DOX), ~15 nm in size, were characterized to validate their potential as a nanocarrier platform. DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high stability in terms of size and drug retention in concentrated protein environments similar to conditions after intravenous injections. DOX-loaded micelles were cytotoxic to PPC-1 and 4T1 cancer cells at levels comparable to free DOX. 3-Helix micelles can be disassembled by proteolytic degradation of peptide shell to enable drug release and clearance to minimize long-term accumulation. Local administration to normal rat striatum by convection enhanced delivery (CED) showed greater extent of drug distribution and reduced toxicity relative to free drug. Intravenous administration of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles demonstrated improved tumor half-life and reduced toxicity to healthy tissues in comparison to free DOX. In vivo delivery of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles through two different routes clearly indicates the potential of 3-helix micelles as safe and effective nanocarriers for cancer therapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
Chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic polyelectrolyte complex: Process-dependent appearance, microstructure analysis and its application.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Novel chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) solutions and membranes with various compositions were prepared for biomedical applications. The appearance of the PEC solutions, either clear or turbid, was process-dependent and depended on how the three components were dissolved and mixed. The addition of gum Arabic to the chitosan and pectin significantly decreased the viscosities of the resultant PEC solutions due to the formation of globe-like microstructures that was accompanied by network-like microstructures and other molecular entanglements. The mechanical strength and hydrophilicity of the PEC membranes manufactured from the PEC solutions, especially for a weight ratio of 84/8/8 (chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic), were enhanced compared to pure chitosan membranes. Moreover, the use of the 84/8/8 PEC membranes as a drug carrier exhibited steady and fairly complete release of a drug (insulin) for 6h. Based on these promising results, the chitosan/pectin/gum Arabic PEC membranes have great potential in controlled drug release applications.
Related JoVE Video
Psychiatric comorbidities in allodynic migraineurs.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the prevalence and the association of psychological disturbance in migraine patients with allodynia.
Related JoVE Video
An exceptionally stable, porphyrinic Zr metal-organic framework exhibiting pH-dependent fluorescence.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A reaction between a Zr(IV) salt and a porphyrinic tetracarboxylic acid leads to a metal-organic framework (MOF) with two types of open channels, representing a MOF featuring a (4,8)-connected sqc net. The MOF remains intact in both boiling water and aqueous solutions with pH ranging from 1 to 11, a remarkably extensive pH range that a MOF can sustain. Given its exceptional stability and pH-dependent fluorescent intensity, the MOF can potentially be applied in fluorescent pH sensing.
Related JoVE Video
Symmetry-Guided Synthesis of Highly Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Fluorite Topology.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two stable, non-interpenetrated MOFs, PCN-521 and PCN-523, were synthesized by a symmetry-guided strategy. Augmentation of the 4-connected nodes in the fluorite structure with a rigid tetrahedral ligand and substitution of the 8-connected nodes by the Zr/Hf clusters yielded MOFs with large octahedral interstitial cavities. They are the first examples of Zr/Hf MOFs with tetrahedral linkers. PCN-521 has the largest BET surface area (3411 m(2) ?g(-1) ), pore size (20.5×20.5×37.4 Å) and void volume (78.5%) of MOFs formed from tetrahedral ligands. This work not only demonstrates a successful implementation of rational design of MOFs with desired topology, but also provides a systematic way of constructing non-interpenetrated MOFs with high porosity.
Related JoVE Video
Kinetics of Changes in Oxyhemoglobin Saturation during Walking and Cycling Tests in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The patterns and kinetics of changes in oxyhemoglobin saturation measured with pulse oximetry (?SpO2) in six-minute walking test (6MWT) and cycling test has not been addressed in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Related JoVE Video
[The treatment outcomes of 21 cases of rapidly growing mycobacteria related pulmonary disease].
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the efficacy of the chemotherapeutic regimen with clarithromycin (CTM) and amikacin (AMK) as the main drugs in the therapy of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) related pulmonary disease.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy on fibroglandular tissue volume and percent breast density in the contralateral normal breast evaluated by 3T MR.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the change of breast density in the normal breast of patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). Forty-four breast cancer patients were studied. MRI acquisition was performed before treatment (baseline), and 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. A computer-algorithm-based program was used to segment breast tissue and calculate breast volume (BV), fibroglandular tissue volume (FV), and percent density (PD) (the ratio of FV over BV × 100%). The reduction of FV and PD after treatment was compared with baseline using paired t-tests with a Bonferroni-Holm correction. The association of density reduction with age was analyzed. FV and PD after NAC showed significant decreases compared with the baseline. FV was 110.0 ml (67.2, 189.8) (geometric mean (interquartile range)) at baseline, 104.3 ml (66.6, 164.4) after 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), and 94.7 ml (60.2, 144.4) after 12 weeks (comparison with baseline, p < 0.0001; comparison with 4 weeks, p = 0.016). PD was 11.2% (6.4, 22.4) at baseline, 10.6% (6.6, 20.3) after 4 weeks (p < 0.0001), and 9.7% (6.2, 17.9) after 12 weeks (comparison with baseline, p = 0.0001; comparison with 4 weeks, p = 0.018). Younger patients tended to show a higher density reduction, but overall correlation with age was only moderate (r = 0.28 for FV, p = 0.07, and r = 0.52 for PD, p = 0.0003). Our study showed that breast density measured from MR images acquired at 3T MR can be accurately quantified using a robust computer-aided algorithm based on non-parametric non-uniformity normalization (N3) and an adaptive fuzzy C-means algorithm. Similar to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide regimens, the taxane-based NAC regimen also caused density atrophy in the normal breast and showed reduction in FV and PD. The effect of breast density reduction was age related and duration related. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of sevoflurane versus propofol under auditory evoked potential monitoring in female patients undergoing breast surgery.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
General anesthesia is used for most major surgeries, and the most common side effects include headache, nausea, vomiting, and sore throat. Major breast surgery is associated with a high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We compared the postoperative nausea and vomiting of propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and sevoflurane (SEVO) anesthesia under auditory evoked potential (AEP) monitoring in female patients undergoing breast surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of factors affecting the residual tumor size diagnosed by MRI following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in comparison to pathology.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for measuring residual tumor size in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).
Related JoVE Video
Incidence and risk factors of chronic daily headache in young adolescents: a school cohort study.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of chronic daily headache (CDH) and its major subtypes in young adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Photoactivated ratiometric copper(II) ion sensing with semiconducting polymer dots.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper describes a simple platform that employs spiropyran-functionalized semiconducting polymer dots as a fluorescent probe for photoactivated ratiometric and sensitive Cu(2+) detection, in which the sensing mechanism is based on photogenerated merocyanine that can selectively bind Cu(2+) to induce Förster resonance energy transfer.
Related JoVE Video
Association between the XRCC6 Promoter rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence based on the current literature.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that the DNA repair gene XRCC6 (Ku70) may be critically involved in the aetiology of the human carcinogenesis. Many studies have investigated the association between the rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. However, the results of these studies have been controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively summarize the evidence for a relationship between the rs2267437 polymorphism and cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Trajectories of sleep changes during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury: a 7-day actigraphy study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine trajectories of change in sleep during the acute phase of traumatic brain injury (TBI), and whether specific demographic and disease characteristics predicted the initial levels of sleep and the trajectories of change in sleep parameters.
Related JoVE Video
The Association Between Use of Dietary Supplements and Headache or Migraine Complaints.
Headache
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the prevalence of headache or migraine complaints and the use of dietary supplements, and to determine their correlation according to sex.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.