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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Safety of immunization during pregnancy: A review of the evidence of selected inactivated and live attenuated vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines.
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The effects of school holidays on transmission of varicella zoster virus, England and Wales, 1967-2008.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Changes in children's contact patterns between termtime and school holidays affect the transmission of several respiratory-spread infections. Transmission of varicella zoster virus (VZV), the causative agent of chickenpox, has also been linked to the school calendar in several settings, but temporal changes in the proportion of young children attending childcare centres may have influenced this relationship.
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The effects of school closures on influenza outbreaks and pandemics: systematic review of simulation studies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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School closure is a potential intervention during an influenza pandemic and has been investigated in many modelling studies.
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Protection by BCG against tuberculosis: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Background.?Randomized trials assessing BCG vaccine protection against tuberculosis have widely varying results, for reasons that are not well understood. Methods.?We examined associations of trial setting and design with BCG efficacy against pulmonary and miliary or meningeal tuberculosis by conducting a systematic review, meta-analyses and meta-regression. Results.?We identified 18 trials reporting pulmonary and 6 miliary or meningeal tuberculosis. Univariable meta-regression indicated efficacy against pulmonary tuberculosis varied according to three characteristics. Protection appeared greatest in children stringently tuberculin tested, to try to exclude prior infection with M tuberculosis or sensitisation to environmental mycobacteria (rate ratio [RR] 0.26; 95% CI 0.18-0.37), or infants (0.41; 0.29-0.58). Protection was weaker in children not stringently tested (0.59; 0.35-1.01) and older individuals stringently or not-stringently tested (0.88; 0.59-1.31 and 0.81; 0.55-1.22 respectively). Protection was higher in trials further from the equator where environmental mycobacteria are less and with lower risk of diagnostic detection bias. These associations were attenuated in a multivariable model, but each had an independent effect. There was no evidence that efficacy was associated with BCG strain. Protection against meningeal and miliary tuberculosis was also high in infants (RR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01-0.77) and children stringently tuberculin tested (0.08; 0.03-0.25). Conclusions.?Absence of prior M tuberculosis infection or sensitisation with environmental mycobacteria is associated with higher efficacy of BCG against pulmonary tuberculosis and possibly against miliary and meningeal tuberculosis. Evaluations of new tuberculosis vaccines should account for the possibility that prior infection may mask or block their effects.
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The impact of targeting all elderly persons in England and Wales for yearly influenza vaccination: excess mortality due to pneumonia or influenza and time trend study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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To investigate the impact on mortality due to pneumonia or influenza of the change from risk-based to age group-based targeting of the elderly for yearly influenza vaccination in England and Wales.
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Uptake of neonatal BCG vaccination in England: performance of the current policy recommendations.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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BCG uptake among infants in England has not been measured since targeted infant vaccination replaced universal schoolchildren vaccination in 2005, mainly because of the challenges in defining denominators. We estimated uptake between 2006 and 2008 by dividing number of BCG doses administered to infants by number of all live births (where BCG vaccination is universal) or ethnic minority/Eastern Europeans live births (where infant-BCG vaccination is selective). Weighted average uptake was 68% (95% CI 65% to 71%), slightly higher in primary care trusts with universal (72% (95% CI 64% to 80%)) than selective (66% (95% CI 61% to 70%)) policy; and also 13% higher in areas vaccinating in postnatal wards compared with community settings.
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Effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administered according to various schedules: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational data.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are widely used. The full implications of Hib vaccination schedule for vaccine effectiveness (VE) are unclear.
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Interventions for avian influenza A (H5N1) risk management in live bird market networks.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic in Asia, with live bird trade as a major disease transmission pathway. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in northern Vietnam to investigate the structure of the live bird market (LBM) contact network and the implications for virus spread. Based on the movements of traders between LBMs, weighted and directed networks were constructed and used for social network analysis and individual-based modeling. Most LBMs were connected to one another, suggesting that the LBM network may support large-scale disease spread. Because of cross-border trade, it also may promote transboundary virus circulation. However, opportunities for disease control do exist. The implementation of thorough, daily disinfection of the market environment as well as of traders vehicles and equipment in only a small number of hubs can disconnect the network dramatically, preventing disease spread. These targeted interventions would be an effective alternative to the current policy of a complete ban of LBMs in some areas. Some LBMs that have been banned still are very active, and they likely have a substantial impact on disease dynamics, exhibiting the highest levels of susceptibility and infectiousness. The number of trader visits to markets, information that can be collected quickly and easily, may be used to identify LBMs suitable for implementing interventions. This would not require prior knowledge of the force of infection, for which laboratory-confirmed surveillance would be necessary. These findings are of particular relevance for policy development in resource-scarce settings.
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Effectiveness of Inactivated Influenza Vaccines in Preventing Influenza-Associated Deaths and Hospitalizations among Ontario Residents Aged ?65 Years: Estimates with Generalized Linear Models Accounting for Healthy Vaccinee Effects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Estimates of the effectiveness of influenza vaccines in older adults may be biased because of difficulties identifying and adjusting for confounders of the vaccine-outcome association. We estimated vaccine effectiveness for prevention of serious influenza complications among older persons by using methods to account for underlying differences in risk for these complications.
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School closures and influenza: systematic review of epidemiological studies.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To review the effects of school closures on pandemic and seasonal influenza outbreaks.
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Effectiveness of trivalent and pandemic influenza vaccines in England and Wales 2008-2010: results from a cohort study in general practice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Estimation of influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) is complicated by various degrees of mismatch between circulating and vaccine strains each season. We carried out a cohort study to estimate VE of trivalent (TIV) and pandemic influenza vaccines (PIV) in preventing various respiratory outcomes among general practice (GP) patients in England and Wales between 2008 and 2010. Dates of consultations for influenza-like illness (ILI), acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI), lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from the patient-level electronic records of the 100 practices enrolled in a national GP network. Dates of vaccination with TIV and PIV were also extracted. Confounders including age, time period and consultation frequency were adjusted for through Poisson regression models. In the winter of 2008/9, adjusted VE of TIV in preventing ILI was 22.3% (95% CI 13.5%, 30.2%). During the 2009/10 winter VE for PIV in preventing ILI was 21.0% (5.3%, 34.0%). The VE for PIV in preventing PCR-confirmed influenza A/H1N1 (2009) was 63.7% (-6.1%, 87.6%). TIV during the period of influenza circulation of 2008/9 and PIV in the winter of 2009/10 were effective in preventing GP consultations for ILI. The cohort study design could be used each season to estimate VE; however, residual confounding by indication could still present issues, despite adjustment for propensity to consult.
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School closures and student contact patterns.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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To determine how school closure for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 affected students contact patterns, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire survey at a UK school 2 weeks after the school reopened. School closure was associated with a 65% reduction in the mean total number of contacts for each student.
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Methodology and measurement of the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine: systematic review.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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The use of the highly effective Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has increased globally. We review the benefits and limitations of studies measuring Hib vaccine effectiveness (VE). We critically examine the case-control approach by assessing the similarities and differences in methodology and findings and discuss the need for future Hib VE studies. In the absence of good surveillance data, vaccine effectiveness studies can play an important role, particularly with the increasing use of pneumococcal vaccine that has not been well tested under field conditions in less developed countries. However, the effectiveness of Hib vaccine has been well documented so the need for future VE Hib studies is minimal.
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Estimates of the transmissibility of the 1968 (Hong Kong) influenza pandemic: evidence of increased transmissibility between successive waves.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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The transmissibility of the strain of influenza virus which caused the 1968 influenza pandemic is poorly understood. Increases in outbreak size between the first and second waves suggest that it may even have increased between successive waves. The authors estimated basic and effective reproduction numbers for both waves of the 1968 influenza pandemic. Epidemic curves and overall attack rates for the 1968 pandemic, based on clinical and serologic data, were retrieved from published literature. The basic and effective reproduction numbers were estimated from 46 and 17 data sets for the first and second waves, respectively, based on the growth rate and/or final size of the epidemic. Estimates of the basic reproduction number (R(0)) were in the range of 1.06-2.06 for the first wave and, assuming cross-protection, 1.21-3.58 in the second. Within each wave, there was little geographic variation in transmissibility. In the 10 settings for which data were available for both waves, R(0) was estimated to be higher during the second wave than during the first. This might partly explain the larger outbreaks in the second wave as compared with the first. This potential for change in viral behavior may have consequences for future pandemic mitigation strategies.
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Changes in poultry handling behavior and poultry mortality reporting among rural Cambodians in areas affected by HPAI/H5N1.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Since 2004, 21 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in domestic poultry and eight human cases have been confirmed in Cambodia. As a result, a large number of avian influenza education campaigns have been ongoing in provinces in which H5N1outbreaks have occurred in humans and/or domestic poultry.
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Formative research on the feasibility of hygiene interventions for influenza control in UK primary schools.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Interventions to increase hand washing in schools have been advocated as a means to reduce the transmission of pandemic influenza and other infections. However, the feasibility and acceptability of effective school-based hygiene interventions is not clear.
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Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in HIV-infected children: a review of the disease epidemiology and effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccines.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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The paper reviews the literature on the epidemiology of Hib disease and the effectiveness of Hib conjugate vaccine (HibCV) in HIV-infected children. The current three-dose primary Hib conjugate vaccine schedule in low-income settings has had a striking impact on the incidence of Hib disease. However, HIV-infected children have an almost 6-fold higher risk of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) invasive disease than HIV-uninfected children and HibCV effectiveness is lower in this population. HIV-related HibCV failures are difficult to detect without well functioning surveillance systems and HIV testing of cases. Breakthrough Hib cases have been noted in vaccinated HIV-infected children in South Africa. A HibCV booster dose in addition to the three-dose primary schedule is routine in many, but not all, high-income countries. In order to determine whether a booster dose should be given to HIV-infected children in developing countries, well-designed studies need to be conducted to better determine the persistence of protective antibody concentrations, response to booster doses of vaccine as well as timing of and risk factors for vaccine failure in HIV-infected children both treated and naive to antiretroviral drug therapy (ART). Meanwhile, physicians and public health personnel should be especially vigilant at ensuring that HIV-infected infants receive their primary doses of HibCV, ART and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Until more definitive evidence is available, physicians may also need to consider a booster dose for such children irrespective of ART status. In any updating of vaccine schedules, HIV-infected children need particular consideration.
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Poultry movement networks in Cambodia: implications for surveillance and control of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI/H5N1).
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
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Movement of poultry through markets is potentially important in the circulation and spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza. However little is understood about poultry market chains in Cambodia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 715 rural villagers, 123 rural, peri-urban and urban market sellers and 139 middlemen from six provinces and Phnom Penh, to evaluate live poultry movement and trading practices. Direct trade links with Thailand and Vietnam were identified via middlemen and market sellers. Most poultry movement occurs via middlemen into Phnom Penh making live bird wet markets in Phnom Penh a potential hub for the spread of H5N1 and ideal for surveillance and control.
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BCG vaccination in England since 2005: a survey of policy and practice.
BMJ Open
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Assess the current BCG vaccination policies and delivery pathways for immunisation in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England since the 2005 change in recommendations.
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Cancer incidence in South Asian migrants to England, 1986-2004: unraveling ethnic from socioeconomic differentials.
Int. J. Cancer
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Studies on cancer in migrants are informative about the relative influence of environmental and genetic factors on cancer risk. This study investigates trends in incidence from colorectal, lung, breast and prostate cancer in England among South Asians and examines the influence of deprivation, a key environmental exposure. South Asian ethnicity was assigned to patients recorded in the population-based National Cancer Registry of England during 1986-2004, using the computerized algorithm SANGRA: South Asian Names and Groups Recognition Algorithm. Population denominators were derived from population censuses. Multivariable flexible (splines) Poisson models were used to estimate trends and socioeconomic differentials in incidence in South Asians compared to non-South Asians. Overall, age-adjusted cancer incidence in South Asians was half that in non-South Asians but rose over time. Cancer-specific incidence trends and patterns by age and deprivation differed widely between the two ethnic groups. In contrast to non-South Asians, lung cancer incidence in South Asians did not fall. Colorectal and breast cancer incidence rose in both groups, more steeply in South Asians though remaining less common than in non-South Asians. The deprivation gaps in cancer-specific incidence were much less marked among South Asians, explaining some of the ethnic differences in overall incidence. Although still lower than in non-South Asians, cancer incidence is rising in South Asians, supporting the concept of transition in cancer incidence among South Asians living in England. Although these trends vary by cancer, they have important implications for both prevention and anticipating health-care demand.
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Identifying live bird markets with the potential to act as reservoirs of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus: a survey in northern Viet Nam and Cambodia.
PLoS ONE
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Wet markets are common in many parts of the world and may promote the emergence, spread and maintenance of livestock pathogens, including zoonoses. A survey was conducted in order to assess the potential of Vietnamese and Cambodian live bird markets (LBMs) to sustain circulation of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 (HPAIV H5N1). Thirty Vietnamese and 8 Cambodian LBMs were visited, and structured interviews were conducted with the market managers and 561 Vietnamese and 84 Cambodian traders. Multivariate and cluster analysis were used to construct a typology of traders based on their poultry management practices. As a result of those practices and large poultry surplus (unsold poultry reoffered for sale the following day), some poultry traders were shown to promote conditions favorable for perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 in LBMs. More than 80% of these traders operated in LBMs located in the most densely populated areas, Ha Noi and Phnom Penh. The profiles of sellers operating at a given LBM could be reliably predicted using basic information about the location and type of market. Consequently, LBMs with the largest combination of risk factors for becoming virus reservoirs could be easily identified, potentially allowing control strategies to be appropriately targeted. These findings are of particular relevance to resource-scarce settings with extensively developed LBM systems, commonly found in South-East Asia.
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Controversies and unresolved issues in tuberculosis prevention and control: a low-burden-country perspective.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Despite declining incidence in most high-income countries, tuberculosis shows no signs of disappearing in the near future. Although surveillance data from most Western European countries show relatively stable declines in the rate of tuberculosis over the past several decades, some have reported either an increasing rate or a decelerating pace of reduction in recent years. The burden of disease now disproportionately affects high-risk groups such as migrants, homeless persons, and prisoners. In view of the concentration of cases in urban areas and high-risk deprived groups, interventions that may not be efficient when applied to the general population may be highly cost effective when targeted at high-risk groups. In this article, we examine some controversial elements of tuberculosis prevention and control in low-burden countries and recommend issues for further research. In particular, we assess current evidence on the duration of protection by BCG vaccine, the screening of migrants and hard-to-reach groups, and the use of preventive therapy for contacts of cases of infectious multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. This analysis is presented from the perspective of low-tuberculosis-burden, high-income countries attempting to eliminate tuberculosis.
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Who uses telehealth? Setting a usage baseline for the early identification of pandemic influenza activity.
Telemed J E Health
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To describe Ontario Telehealth usage for respiratory complaints during normal (i.e., interpandemic) circumstances.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.