Allopolyploids generally undergo bivalent pairing at meiosis because only homologous chromosomes pair up. On the other hand, several studies have documented abnormal chromosome behavior during mitosis and meiosis in allopolyploids plants leading to the production of gametes with complete paternal or maternal chromosomes. Polyploidy is relatively rare in animals compared with plants; thus, chromosome behavior at meiosis in the allopolyploid animals is poorly understood.
The establishment of the tetraploid organism is difficult but useful in genetics and breeding. In the present study, we have artificially established an autotetraploid fish line (F2-F8) derived from the distant hybridization of Carassius auratus red var. (RR, 2n = 100) (female) × Megalobrama amblycephala (BB, 2n = 48) (male). The autotetraploid line (F2-F8) possess four sets of chromosomes from red crucian carp (RRRR, 4n = 200) and produce diploid ova and diploid sperm, which maintains the formation of the autotetraploid line. The F2 of the autotetraploid fish result from the fertilization of the autodiploidy diploid eggs and diploid sperm from the females and males of F1 hybrids (RRBB, 4n = 148), which exhibit abnormal chromosome behavior during meiosis as revealed by gynogenesis and backcrossing. This is the first report concerning the establishment of an autotetraploid fish line derived from distant hybridization. The autotetraploid fish line provides an important gamete source for the production of triploids and tetraploids. The autotetraploid fish line also provides an ideal system to investigate the poorly understood mechanisms that drive diploidization in autotetraploids and to study the hybrid progenies' characteristics, including the appearance of new traits that promote a diversity of traits and facilitate adaptation.
Distant hybridization can combine together the genomes of different species, which leads to changes of the offspring in phenotypes and genotypes. In this study, we successfully establish a fertile hybrid lineage by intergeneric hybridization of female blunt snout bream (BSB, Megalobrama amblycephala)×male topmouth culter (TC, Culter alburnus) and investigate some important biological traits of this lineage including the morphological traits, chromosomal number, karyotype, DNA content, gonadal development, egg and milt yield, sperm shape and density, fertilization rate and early survival rate. The results show that: (1) the diploid and triploid hybrids coexist in F1 and only diploid hybrids are found in F2, in which the diploid hybrids of F1 and F2 possess 48 chromosomes with one chromosome set of BSB and one chromosome set of TC, and the triploid hybrids of F1 possess 72 chromosomes with two chromosome sets of BSB and one chromosome set of TC. (2) All the tested males and females of the diploid F1 and F2 hybrids have the normal gonadal development and produce mature sperm and egg, respectively, which are fertilized with each other to form F2 and F3 hybrids, respectively, and finally form a diploid hybrid lineage (F1-F3). (3) The good fertility of the F1 and F2 hybrids of female BSB×male TC potentially provides reproductive base to make the hybrid lineage propagate from one generation to another. The formation of the hybrid lineage (F1-F3) also provides an ideal model to research the reproductive rules of distant hybrid progeny.
Distant hybridization refers to crosses between two different species or higher-ranking taxa that enables interspecific genome transfer and leads to changes in phenotypes and genotypes of the resulting progeny. If progeny derived from distant hybridization are bisexual and fertile, they can form a hybrid lineage through self-mating, with major implications for evolutionary biology, genetics, and breeding. Here, we review and summarize the published literature, and present our results on fish distant hybridization. Relevant problems involving distant hybridization between orders, families, subfamilies, genera, and species of animals are introduced and discussed, with an additional focus on fish distant hybrid lineages, genetic variation, patterns, and applications. Our review serves as a useful reference for evolutionary biology research and animal genetic breeding.
Hybridization is a useful strategy to alter the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring. It could transfer the genome of one species to another through combing the different genome of parents in the hybrid offspring. And the offspring may exhibit advantages in growth rate, disease resistance, survival rate and appearance, which resulting from the combination of the beneficial traits from both parents.
In many species of aquaculture importance, all-female and sterile populations possess superior productivity due to faster growth and a relatively homogenous size of individuals. However, the production of all-female and sterile fish in a large scale for aquaculture is a challenge in practice, because treatments necessary for gynogenesis induction usually cause massive embryonic and larval mortality, and the number of induced gynogens is too small for their direct use in aquaculture. Here we report the massive production of all-female triploid crucian carp by combining artificial gynogenesis, sex reversal and diploid-tetraploid hybridization. Previously, we have obtained an allotetraploid carp population (4n = 200) by hybridization between red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var; ?) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio; ?). We induced all-female diploid gynogens of the Japanese crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri; 2n = 100). We also generated male diploid gynogens of the same species treated gynogenetic fry with 17-?-methyltestosterone, leading to the production of sex-revered gynogenetic males. Finally, these males were used to cross with the female diploid Japanese crucian carp gynogens and the allotetraploid females, resulting in the production of fertile all-female diploid Japanese crucian carp (2n=100) and sterile all-female triploid hybrids (3n = 150), respectively. Therefore, diploid crucian carp gynogenetic females and sex-reversed male together with an allotetraploid line provide an opportunity to produce all-female triploid populations in a large scale to meet demands in aquaculture industry.
In this article, sequence analysis of the coding region (5S) and adjacent nontranscribed spacer (NTS) were conducted in red crucian carp (RCC), blunt snout bream (BSB), and their polyploid offspring. Three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) of RCC were characterized by distinct NTS types (designated NTS-I, II, and III for the 83, 220, and 357 bp monomers, respectively). In BSB, only one monomeric 5S rDNA was observed (designated class IV: 188 bp), which was characterized by one NTS type (designated NTS-IV: 68 bp). In the polyploid offspring, the tetraploid (4nRB) hybrids partially inherited 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC); however, they also possessed a unique 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-L: 203 bp) with a novel NTS sequence (designated NTS-I-L: 83 bp). The characteristic paternal 5S rDNA sequences (class IV) were not observed. The 5S rDNA of triploid (3nRB) hybrids was completely inherited from the parental species, and generally preserved the parental 5S rDNA structural organization. These results first revealed the influence of polyploidy on the organization and evolution of the multigene family of 5S rDNA of fish, and are also useful in clarifying aspects of vertebrate genome evolution.
The females and unexpected males of gynogenetic red crucian carps (GRCC) with the 1:1 sex ratio were found in the progeny of the distant crossing of red crucian carp (RCC; female symbol, 2n = 100) x blunt snout bream (BSB; male symbol, 2n = 48). The females and males of GRCC were fertile, and they mated each other to generate the red crucian carps (GRCC(1)) and another variational gray crucian carps (GGCC). The GRCC and their offspring were proved to be diploids (2n = 100) with one to three microchromosomes by examining the chromosomal metaphases. The evidences for the males genetic effect in GRCC were provided by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization, Sox-HMG DNA markers, and microsatellite DNA markers. The genotypic variances of GRCC resulted in their phenotypic variances which were quite different from their maternal parent. It was concluded that the formation of the male gynogenetic fish in GRCC resulted from the genetic leakage of the paternal fish in the form of the microchromosomes including the paternal male-determining gene. After being activated by the sperm of BSB, which was inactivated and finally degraded but left the microchromosomes, the egg of RCC, in which the 50 chromosomes were spontaneously doubled to 100 chromosomes, developed into the diploid male gynogenetic fish. The formation of the bisexual GRCC and their progeny indicated that the distant hybridization could generate the bisexual diploid gynogenetic fish with genetic variation derived from the paternal fish, which is of great significance in both fish genetic breeding and evolutionary biology.
An improved triploid crucian carp (ITCC) was produced by crossing improved tetraploids (G1xAT, male symbol) with improved red crucian carp (IRCC, female symbol), which were obtained by distant crossing and gynogenesis. The biological characteristics of ITCC, including the number and karyotype of chromosomes, gonadad and pituitary structures, phenotype, and growth rate are reported. ITCC possessed 150 chromosomes with the karyotype 33m+51sm+33st+33t. In the breeding season, both ovary-like and testis-like gonads of ITCC were unable to produce normal mature gametes. The ultrastructure of the pituitary of ITCC showed that most of the endocrine granules in gonadotrophic hormone (GTH) cells had not been released, providing endocrinological evidence for the sterility of ITCC. Compared with triploid crucian carp (TCC) produced by mating Japanese crucian carp with allotetraploid hybrids, ITCC not only retained the excellent traits of fast growth rate and sterility, but also acquired improved morphological characteristics, including higher body, shorter tail and smaller head.
With the pair of degenerate primers designed against the conserved regions of HMG-box of Sox gene family, DNA fragments of different sizes were obtained by amplifying the whole genome DNA samples of many animals, including natural fish, artificial hybrid fish, Aves, reptiles, amphibians and hexapods. Each sample was identified by the specific DNA-band pattern formed by the DNA fragments with defined number and size which marked the samples genetic characteristics. In addition, 50 DNA fragments from 22 kinds of animals were sequenced and comparatively analyzed so as to study their genetic relationships, especially that between artificial hybrids and their original parents. Based on the specific DNA-band pattern and the specific DNA sequence obtained in tissue DNA sample, we established the novel genetic DNA markers derived from the DNA fragments of Sox genes. The present results proved that the novel DNA markers provided fast and accurate markers for different animal phylogenetic branches and that these convenient markers can also distinguish closely related species and hybrids using a single gene family tool.
Through distant crossing, diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., RCC?, Cyprininae, 2n = 100) × topmouth culter (Erythroculter ilishaeformis Bleeker, TC?, Cultrinae, 2n = 48) were successfully produced. Diploid hybrids possessed 74 chromosomes with one set from RCC and one set from TC; triploid hybrids harbored 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from TC; tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from TC. The 5S rDNA of the three different ploidy-level hybrids and their parents were sequenced and analyzed. There were three monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class I: 203 bp; class II: 340 bp; and class III: 477 bp) in RCC and two monomeric 5S rDNA classes (designated class IV: 188 bp, and class V: 286 bp) in TC. In the hybrid offspring, diploid hybrids inherited three 5S rDNA classes from their female parent (RCC) and only class IV from their male parent (TC). Triploid hybrids inherited class II and class III from their female parent (RCC) and class IV from their male parent (TC). Tetraploid hybrids gained class II and class III from their female parent (RCC), and generated a new 5S rDNA sequence (designated class I-N). The specific paternal 5S rDNA sequence of class V was not found in the hybrid offspring. Sequence analysis of 5S rDNA revealed the influence of hybridization and polyploidization on the organization and variation of 5S rDNA in fish. This is the first report on the coexistence in vertebrates of viable diploid, triploid and tetraploid hybrids produced by crossing parents with different chromosome numbers, and these new hybrids are novel specimens for studying the genomic variation in the first generation of interspecific hybrids, which has significance for evolution and fish genetics.
Polyploids are organisms with three or more complete chromosome sets. Polyploidization is widespread in plants and animals, and is an important mechanism of speciation. Genome sequencing and related molecular systematics and bioinformatics studies on plants and animals in recent years support the view that species have been shaped by whole genome duplication during evolution. The stability of polyploids depends on rapid genome recombination and changes in gene expression after formation. The formation of polyploids and subsequent diploidization are important aspects in long-term evolution. Polyploids can be formed in various ways. Among them, hybrid organisms formed by distant hybridization could produce unreduced gametes and thus generate offspring with doubled chromosomes, which is a fast, efficient method of polyploidization. The formation of fertile polyploids not only promoted the interflow of genetic materials among species and enriched the species diversity, but also laid the foundation for polyploidy breeding. The study of polyploids has both important theoretical significance and valuable applications. The production and application of polyploidy breeding have brought remarkable economic and social benefits.
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