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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome-wide analysis of long noncoding RNA in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma by microarray.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Alterations in the expression of several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found in primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the effect of lncRNA expression on primary NPC as well as the molecular mechanism of lncRNA remains vague. This study was to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs involved in NPC on a genome-wide scale and predict their potential functions.
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Large-scale high quality glass microlens arrays fabricated by laser enhanced wet etching.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Large-scale high quality microlens arrays (MLAs) play an important role in enhancing the imaging quality of CCD and CMOS as well as the light extraction efficiency of LEDs and OLEDs. To meet the requirement in MLAs' wide application areas, a rapid fabrication method to fabricate large-scale MLAs with high quality, high fill factor and high uniformity is needed, especially on the glass substrate. In this paper, we present a simple and cost-efficient approach to the development of both concave and convex large-scale microlens arrays (MLAs) by using femtosecond laser wet etching method and replication technique. A large-scale high quality square-shaped microlens array with 512 × 512 units was fabricated.The unit size is 20 × 20 ?m2 on the whole scale of 1 × 1 cm2. Its perfect uniformity and optical performance are demonstrated.
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Stimulus-Classification and Stimulus-Action Associations: Effects of Repetition Learning and Durability.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove)
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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ABSTRACT It has been shown that acquired Stimulus-Response associations result from at least two types of associations from the stimulus to the task (Stimulus-Task or Stimulus-Classification; S-C) and from the stimulus to the motor response (Stimulus-Response or Stimulus-Action; S-A). These types of associations have been shown to independently affect behaviour. This finding suggests that they are processed in different pathways/ different parts of a pathway at the neural level. Here we test a hypothesis that such associations may be differentially affected by repetition learning and that such effects may be detected by measuring their durability against overwriting. We show that both S-C and S-A associations are in fact strengthened when learning is boosted by increasing repetitions of the primes. However, the results further suggest that associations between stimuli and actions have less durable effects on behaviour and that the durability of S-C and S-A associations is independent of repetition learning. This is an important finding for the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of associative learning and particularly raises the question of which processes may affect flexibility of learning.
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Hyperglycemia has no effect on restenosis development after PTA in diabetic rabbit model.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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It is well known that hyperglycemia is a trigger of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the role of hyperglycemia in restenosis remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of hyperglycemia on restenosis. Stenosis was evaluated in two sets of diabetic rabbit models: (1) diabetic restenosis versus non-diabetic restenosis; and (2) diabetic atherosclerosis versus non-diabetic atherosclerosis. Our results showed no difference in stenosis rates between the diabetic and the non-diabetic groups in restenosis rabbit models. However, the incidence of stenosis was significantly higher in the diabetic atherosclerosis group compared with the non-diabetic atherosclerosis group. Similarly, the intima-media thickness and cell proliferation rate were significantly increased in the diabetic atherosclerosis group compared with the non-diabetic atherosclerosis group, but had no difference between the diabetic restenosis and the non-diabetic restenosis groups. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis, but it has no evident effect on restenosis. These findings suggest that the processes of atherosclerosis and restenosis may involve different pathological mechanisms.
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Identifying actionable targets through integrative analyses of GEM model and human prostate cancer genomic profiling.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Copy number alterations (CNAs) are among the most common molecular events in human prostate cancer genomes and are associated with worse prognosis. Identification of the oncogenic drivers within these CNAs is challenging due to the broad nature of these genomic gains or losses which can include large numbers of genes within a given region. Here we profiled the genomes of four genetically engineered mouse prostate cancer models that reflect oncogenic events common in human prostate tumors, with the goal of integrating these data with human prostate cancer datasets to identify shared molecular events. Met was amplified in 67% of prostate tumors from Pten p53 prostate conditional null mice and in approximately 30% of metastatic human prostate cancer specimens, often in association with loss of PTEN and TP53. In murine tumors with Met amplification, Met copy number gain and expression was present in some cells but not others, revealing intratumoral heterogeneity. Forced MET overexpression in non-MET amplified prostate tumor cells activated PI3K and MAPK signaling and promoted cell proliferation and tumor growth, whereas MET kinase inhibition selectively impaired the growth of tumors with Met amplification. However, the impact of MET inhibitor therapy was compromised by the persistent growth of non-Met amplified cells within Met-amplified tumors. These findings establish the importance of MET in prostate cancer progression but reveal potential limitations in the clinical use of MET inhibitors in late state prostate cancer.
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Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution.
Bernhard Misof, Shanlin Liu, Karen Meusemann, Ralph S Peters, Alexander Donath, Christoph Mayer, Paul B Frandsen, Jessica Ware, Tomáš Flouri, Rolf G Beutel, Oliver Niehuis, Malte Petersen, Fernando Izquierdo-Carrasco, Torsten Wappler, Jes Rust, Andre J Aberer, Ulrike Aspöck, Horst Aspöck, Daniela Bartel, Alexander Blanke, Simon Berger, Alexander Böhm, Thomas R Buckley, Brett Calcott, Junqing Chen, Frank Friedrich, Makiko Fukui, Mari Fujita, Carola Greve, Peter Grobe, Shengchang Gu, Ying Huang, Lars S Jermiin, Akito Y Kawahara, Lars Krogmann, Martin Kubiak, Robert Lanfear, Harald Letsch, Yiyuan Li, Zhenyu Li, Jiguang Li, Haorong Lu, Ryuichiro Machida, Yuta Mashimo, Pashalia Kapli, Duane D McKenna, Guanliang Meng, Yasutaka Nakagaki, José Luis Navarrete-Heredia, Michael Ott, Yanxiang Ou, Günther Pass, Lars Podsiadlowski, Hans Pohl, Björn M von Reumont, Kai Schütte, Kaoru Sekiya, Shota Shimizu, Adam Slipinski, Alexandros Stamatakis, Wenhui Song, Xu Su, Nikolaus U Szucsich, Meihua Tan, Xuemei Tan, Min Tang, Jingbo Tang, Gerald Timelthaler, Shigekazu Tomizuka, Michelle Trautwein, Xiaoli Tong, Toshiki Uchifune, Manfred G Walzl, Brian M Wiegmann, Jeanne Wilbrandt, Benjamin Wipfler, Thomas K F Wong, Qiong Wu, Gengxiong Wu, Yinlong Xie, Shenzhou Yang, Qing Yang, David K Yeates, Kazunori Yoshizawa, Qing Zhang, Rui Zhang, Wenwei Zhang, Yunhui Zhang, Jing Zhao, Chengran Zhou, Lili Zhou, Tanja Ziesmann, Shijie Zou, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Yong Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Karl M Kjer, Xin Zhou.
Science
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Insects are the most speciose group of animals, but the phylogenetic relationships of many major lineages remain unresolved. We inferred the phylogeny of insects from 1478 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequences, with site-specific nucleotide or domain-specific amino acid substitution models, produced statistically robust and congruent results resolving previously controversial phylogenetic relations hips. We dated the origin of insects to the Early Ordovician [~479 million years ago (Ma)], of insect flight to the Early Devonian (~406 Ma), of major extant lineages to the Mississippian (~345 Ma), and the major diversification of holometabolous insects to the Early Cretaceous. Our phylogenomic study provides a comprehensive reliable scaffold for future comparative analyses of evolutionary innovations among insects.
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A crosstalk between class A scavenger receptor and receptor for advanced glycation end-products contributes to diabetic retinopathy.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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In response to hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes, a plethora of signaling pathways forge extensive dialogues cumulatively contributing to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Excessive production of inflammatory mediators plays an important role in this process. Amadori-glycated albumin (AGA), one of the major forms of advanced glycated end-product (AGE), has been implicated in DR by inducing inflammatory responses in microglia/macrophages. Our goal was to delineate the potential crosstalk between class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) in the context of DR. We show here that SR-A ablation caused an exacerbated form of diabetic retinopathy in STZ-injected C57BL/6J mice as evidenced by fundus imaging and electroretinography. Immunohistochemistry staining and RT-PCR assay suggest that there was augmented activation of pro-inflammatory macrophages with up-regulated synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators in the retina in Sr-a(-/-) mice. Over-expression of SR-A suppressed RAGE induced MAPK signaling whereas RAGE activation in macrophages favored a pro-inflammatory (M1) phenotype in the absence of SR-A. Mechanistic analysis on BMDMs and HEK293 cell line revealed that SR-A interacted with and inhibited the phosphorylation of MKK7 (Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7), the major kinase in the RAGE-MAPK-NF-?B signaling thereby leading to diminished secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our findings indicate that the antagonism between SR-A and RAGE contributes to the pathogenesis of DR by nurturing a disease-prone macrophage phenotype. Therefore, specific agonist that boosts SR-A signaling could potential provide benefits in the prevention and/or intervention of diabetic retinopathy.
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A predator-prey based mathematical model of the bone remodelling cycle: Exploring the relationship between the model parameters and biochemical factors.
Proc Inst Mech Eng H
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Bone remodelling is a vital process which enables bone to repair, renew and optimize itself. Disorders in the bone remodelling process are inevitably manifested in bone-related diseases, such as hypothyroidism, primary hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis. In our previous work, a predator-prey based mathematical model was developed to simulate bone remodelling cycles under normal and two pathological conditions, hypothyroidism and primary hyperparathyroidism, for trabecular bone at a fixed point. However, the biochemical meanings of the model parameters were not fully explored. This article first extends the previous work by proposing relationships between the model parameters and biochemical factors involved in the bone remodelling process and by examining whether those relationships do predict the behaviours observed in vivo. The model is then applied to the simulation and investigation of bone remodelling of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The proposed connections are supported by good agreement between the model simulations and published experimental observations for the normal condition and all three pathological variations in bone remodelling.
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[Chemical constituents from barks of Nothopanax delavayi].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Eleven compounds were isolated and purified from the barks extract of Nothopanax delavayi and their structures were identified as serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (1), serratagenic acid-3-0-alpha-L-arabi-nopyranosyl-28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), serratagenic acid (3), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), serratagenic acid-beta-O-beta-(2', 4'-O-diacetyl) -D-xylopyranosyl-28-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopy-ranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->46)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (5), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-(4'-O-acetyl)-L-arabino pyrano-syl-28-0- [-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester(6), serratagenic acid-3-O-alpha-(2'-O-acetyl)-L-arabinopyranosyl-28-O-[-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4) -beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester(7), serratagenic acid-3-0-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-28-O-[-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (8), protocatechuic acid (9), ethyl caffeate (10) and caffeic anhydride (11) by physicochemical properties and spectroscopic data analysis. Among them, compounds 3-4 and 9-11 were firstly isolated from the genus Nothopanax, and compounds 5-8 were isolated from this plant for the first time.
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[Effect on M1 macrophages of shenlian extracts].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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This study discusses the effects of Shenlian extracts (SL) on M1 macrophages in atherosclerosis. The MTT assay was used to detect the growth inhibition rates of RAW264.7 cells. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated with murine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce M1 macrophages. The different concentrations of SL extracts (high-dose 50 mg x L(-1), moderate-dose 25 mg x L(-1), low-dose 12.5 mg x L(-1)) were added. The CD86 of M1 macrophages in cell membrane was measured by flow cytometry. The mRNA expression of iNOS and TNF-alpha gene was detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). And the supernatants were collected, the content of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were detected with ELISA kits. The results of this experiment show that the expression of the cell membrane molecule CD86, iNOS and TNF-alpha gene, the content of IL-6 and TNF-alpha was obviously increased in M1 macrophages by IFN-gamma and LPS. The different doses of SL extract could reduce the expression of the above indicators. The above experimental results demonstrate that IFN-gamma combined LPS can induce RAW264.7 cell to type into M1 macrophages, and SL extracts can inhibit M1 macrophages.
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Crk-like adapter protein is required for TGF-?-induced AKT and ERK-signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL) was identified as an important biomarker in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. At the same time, the transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) pathway plays a key role in oncogenesis of advanced cancers. However, more detailed regulation mechanisms are still unclear. So we investigated the role of CrkL in TGF-? pathways in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. The small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to suppress CrkL in serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) cell line, TGF-? downstream signal molecules AKT and ERK phosphorylation status was tested using the Western blot. Wound healing assay was used to evaluate the capacity of cell migration and proliferation. In this study, CrkL can be activated by TGF-?1 treatment and inhibited by siCrkL. CrkL knockdown markedly suppressed the phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) as well as the phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) (p?
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Investigating the efficacy of bisphosphonates treatment against multiple myeloma induced bone disease using a computational model.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM)-induced bone disease is mortal for most MM patients. Bisphosphonates are first-line treatment for MM-induced bone disease, since it can inhibit osteoclast activity and the resultant bone resorption by suppressing the differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts, promoting osteoclast apoptosis and disrupting osteoclast function. However, it is still unclear whether bisphosphonates have an anti-tumour effect. In our previous work, a computational model was built to simulate the pathology of MM-induced bone disease. This paper extends this proposed computational model to investigate the efficacy of bisphosphonates treatment and then clear the controversy of this therapy. The extended model is validated through the good agreement between simulation results and experimental data. The simulation results suggest that bisphosphonates indeed have an anti-tumour effect.
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Association of serum uric acid and coronary artery disease in premenopausal women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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To date, no study in the published literature has investigated the role of various serum uric acid (SUA) concentrations in the development of angiographically-proven coronary artery disease (CAD) in premenopausal women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role SUA levels may play in the prevalence, severity, and prognosis of CAD in premenopausal women.
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The essential roles of CCR7 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition induced by hypoxia in epithelial ovarian carcinomas.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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The chemokine receptor CCR7 and its ligands CCL19/21 mediate the tumor mobility, invasion, and metastasis (Wu et al. Curr Pharm Des. 15:742-57, 2009). Hypoxia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to facilitate the tumor biology. Here, we addressed the roles of CCR7 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and hypoxia-induced serous papillary cystic adenocarcinoma (SKOV-3) EMT. The expression level of CCR7 protein was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 30 specimens of epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Western blot was used to investigate the expression of hypoxia-induced CCR7, HIF-1?, and EMT markers (N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-9). In addition, wound healing and Transwell assay were introduced to observe the capacity of migration and invasiveness. Our data showed CCR7 expression was observed in 22 cases of tissues and closely associated with lymph node metastasis and FIGO stage (III?+?IV). At 6, 12, 24, and 36 h following hypoxia, CCR7 and HIF-1? proteins were both obviously upregulated in a time-dependent method, compared with normal oxygen. In vitro, SKOV-3 expressed N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 once either CCL21 stimulation or hypoxia induction, while hypoxia accompanied with CCL21 induction exhibited strongest upregulation of N-cadherin, Snail, and MMP-9 proteins. Besides, wound healing and Transwell assay further identified that hypoxia with CCL21 stimulation can remarkably promote cell migration and invasiveness. Taken together, CCR7 can constitutively express in epithelial ovarian carcinomas and be induced rapidly in response to hypoxia, which indeed participates in EMT development and prompts the cell migration and invasion. Thus, this study suggested that the epithelial ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis can be inhibited by antagonizing CCR7.
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Lethal protein in mass consumption edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita linked to strong hepatic toxicity.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Edible mushrooms are well-known for their health and nutritional benefits, however, undesirable effects have been reported in animals fed with these types of edible mushrooms (Nieminen et al., 2009). For health and safety reason, it is necessary to evaluate the toxicity of edible mushrooms, especially those that have been artificially cultured in recent decades. The aim of this study was to assess the safety of the edible mushroom Agrocybe aegerita, which is also known as Agrocybe cylindracea in Europe and America. Components from A. aegerita (Yt) were extracted in water and unexpectedly displayed lethal effect and median lethal dose (LD50) at 8.77 g/kg. Strong hepatic toxicity in BALB/c mice was observed when mice were administered with 25 and 250 mg/kg body weight/day of Yt for 6 days. To identify the hepatotoxic components, Yt was further separated into two components by Diaion HP-20 column chromatography to produce the proteins (Yp) and small molecules (Ys) fractions. Biochemical and histopathological analysis showed that Yp could induce liver injury. LC-MS/MS analysis of Yp identified the main causative agent as AAL (A. aegerita lectin), which was shown to have similar hepatotoxicity in the Yt and Yp fractions. In addition, proteinase treatment assays indicated that AAL is resistant to the degradation by digestive enzymes. We have shown that the strong hepatic toxicity is due to a lectin in A. aegerita. This study suggests that correct consumption of A. aegerita can avoid human health risk and help us better understand its nutritional and medicinal value.
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An RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of floral buds of an interspecific Brassica hybrid between B. carinata and B. napus.
Plant Reprod
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Study on hybrid low fertility. Interspecific hybridizations promote gene transfer between species and play an important role in plant speciation and crop improvement. However, hybrid sterility that commonly found in the first generation of hybrids hinders the utilization of interspecific hybridization. The combination of divergent parental genomes can create extensive transcriptome variations, and to determine these gene expression alterations and their effects on hybrids, an interspecific Brassica hybrid of B. carinata × B. napus was generated. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some of the hybrid pollen grains were irregular in shape and exhibited abnormal exine patterns compared with those from the parents. Using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, 39,598, 32,403 and 42,208 genes were identified in flower buds of B. carinata cv. W29, B. napus cv. Zhongshuang 11 and their hybrids, respectively. The differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in pollen wall assembly, pollen exine formation, pollen development, pollen tube growth, pollination, gene transcription, macromolecule methylation and translation, which might be associated with impaired fertility in the F1 hybrid. These results will shed light on the mechanisms underlying the low fertility of the interspecific hybrids and expand our knowledge of interspecific hybridization.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa Mill. (Garden rocket).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Eruca sativa (Cruciferae family) is an ancient crop of great economic and agronomic importance. Here, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eruca sativa was sequenced and annotated. The circular molecule is 247,696 bp long, with a G+C content of 45.07%, containing 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes, and 18 tRNA genes. The Eruca sativa mitochondrial genome may be divided into six master circles and four subgenomic molecules via three pairwise large repeats, resulting in a more dynamic structure of the Eruca sativa mtDNA compared with other cruciferous mitotypes. Comparison with the Brassica napus MtDNA revealed that most of the genes with known function are conserved between these two mitotypes except for the ccmFN2 and rrn18 genes, and 27 point mutations were scattered in the 14 protein-coding genes. Evolutionary relationships analysis suggested that Eruca sativa is more closely related to the Brassica species and to Raphanus sativus than to Arabidopsis thaliana.
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A crystal structure-guided rational design switching non-carbohydrate inhibitors' specificity between two ?-GlcNAcase homologs.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Selective inhibition of function-specific ?-GlcNAcase has great potential in terms of drug design and biological research. The symmetrical bis-naphthalimide M-31850 was previously obtained by screening for specificity against human glycoconjugate-lytic ?-GlcNAcase. Using protein-ligand co-crystallization and molecular docking, we designed an unsymmetrical dyad of naphthalimide and thiadiazole, Q2, that changes naphthalimide specificity from against a human glycoconjugate-lytic ?-GlcNAcase to against insect and bacterial chitinolytic ?-GlcNAcases. The crystallographic and in silico studies reveal that the naphthalimide ring can be utilized to bind different parts of these enzyme homologs, providing a new starting point to design specific inhibitors. Moreover, Q2-induced closure of the substrate binding pocket is the structural basis for its 13-fold increment in inhibitory potency. Q2 is the first non-carbohydrate inhibitor against chitinolytic ?-GlcNAcases. This study provides a useful example of structure-based rationally designed inhibitors as potential pharmaceuticals or pesticides.
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Fast colloidal synthesis of scalable Mo-rich hierarchical ultrathin MoSe(2-x) nanosheets for high-performance hydrogen evolution.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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MoSe2 nanosheets have been extensively pursued due to the outstanding properties of this typical layered transition metal dichalcogenide (LTMD). In this work, we report a facile, fast strategy to synthesize scalable hierarchical ultrathin MoSe2-x (x ? 0.47) nanosheets. The nanosheets possess 2-5 Se-Mo-Se atomic layers and were synthesised through a bottom-up colloidal route within 20 mins under mild conditions from the reaction of MoO2(acac)2 with dibenzyl diselenide. The as-obtained hierarchical ultrathin MoSe2-x nanosheets are Mo-rich with a Se vacancy and show excellent HER performance with a small overpotential of ?170 mV, large cathodic currents, and a Tafel slope of 98 mV per decade. Such high performance has been attributed to the unique structure of the Se vacancy defect, large surface area, as well as the enhanced conductivity. Meanwhile, the pathway can be extended as a general strategy to prepare other metal selenides, such as ultrathin WSe2 and SnSe nanosheets, and PbSe nanocrystals. It will also pave a new way to synthesize scalable nanostructured materials for intriguing nanodevices and large-scale applications.
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[Recombinant trichinella spiralis-53000 protein alleviates liver damage due to lipopolysaccharides via M2 macrophage activation].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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To evaluate if recombinant trichinella wpiralis-53 000 protein (rTsP53) could alleviate liver damage caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) via M2 macrophage activation.
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F-box protein FBXO31 is down-regulated in gastric cancer and negatively regulated by miR-17 and miR-20a.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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FBXO31, a subunit of the SCF ubiquitin ligase, played a crucial role in neuronal development, DNA damage response and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the expression and prognosis value of FBXO31 in human primary gastric cancer (GC) samples. Meanwhile, the biological role and the regulation mechanism of FBXO31 were evaluated. We found that FBXO31 mRNA and protein was decreased dramatically in the GC tissue compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues. FBXO31 expression was significantly associated with tumor size, tumor infiltration, clinical grade and patients' prognosis. FBXO31 overexpression significantly decreased colony formation and induced a G1-phase arrest and inhibited the expression of CyclinD1 protein in GC cells. Further evidence was obtained from knockdown of FBXO31. Ectopic expression of FBXO31 dramatically inhibited xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. miR-20a and miR-17 mimics inhibited, whereas the inhibitor of miR-20a and miR-17 increased, the expression of FBXO31, respectively. miR-20a and miR-17 directly bind to the 3'-UTR of FBXO31. The level of miR-20a and miR-17 in GC tissue was significantly higher than that in surrounding normal mucosa. Moreover, a highly significant negative correlation between miR-20a (miR-17) and FBXO31 was observed in these GC samples. Therefore, effective therapy targeting the miR-20a (miR-17)-FBXO31-CyclinD1 pathway may help control GC progression.
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Embelin inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by directly inducing cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly restricting IL-6 associated inflammatory and immune suppressive cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and unresponsive to conventional chemotherapies. Here, the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer were investigated. Embelin significantly attenuated cells invasion, proliferation and induced apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 and activation of p53 signaling pathways. Embelin substantially reduced the tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo, which was associated with reduced inflammatory cells and immune suppressive cells, IL-17A(+) Th17, GM-CSF(+) Th, MDSCs and Treg, through inhibition of IL-6 secretion. Moreover, embelin decrease IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In summary, embelin represents a novel therapeutic drug candidate for the clinical treatment of pancreatic cancer.
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Persistent pain after spinal cord injury is maintained by primary afferent activity.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Chronic pain caused by insults to the CNS (central neuropathic pain) is widely assumed to be maintained exclusively by central mechanisms. However, chronic hyperexcitablility occurs in primary nociceptors after spinal cord injury (SCI), suggesting that SCI pain also depends upon continuing activity of peripheral sensory neurons. The present study in rats (Rattus norvegicus) found persistent upregulation after SCI of protein, but not mRNA, for a voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Nav1.8, that is expressed almost exclusively in primary afferent neurons. Selectively knocking down Nav1.8 after SCI suppressed spontaneous activity in dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons, reversed hypersensitivity of hindlimb withdrawal reflexes, and reduced ongoing pain assessed by a conditioned place preference test. These results show that activity in primary afferent neurons contributes to ongoing SCI pain.
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[Research on bioactive ingredients in rat liver after oral administration of different combinations of Wuji pill].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design table to be used to get nine combinations of extraction of three herbs of Wuji pill: Coptis chinensis, Tetradium ruticarpum and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and nine extraction of single herbs correspondingly, altogether eighteen combinations. Quantification of five representative bioactive ingredients: berberine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, paeoniflorin in rat liver by ultra high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration at 2 h time point of eighteen combinations. The result shows the bioactive ingredients have different concentrations betweem different combinations and the single herb with the same dosage significantly as well as the same dose combinations. C. chinensis with evodiamine concentration of low and high dose T. ruticarpum was positively correlated. T. ruticarpum with berberine concentration of low dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and of meddle dose C. chinensis was correlated positively. T. ruticarpum with paeoniflorin concentration of middle dose P. lactiflora was correlated positively. P. lactiflora with palmatine concentration of middle dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and with evodiamine and rutaecarpine concentration of middle dose T. ruticarpum was negatively correlated. These shows the three single herbs interactions resulted in the differences of each ingredients concentration in rat liver. The orthogonal analysis indicates the combination 12: 6: 6 make the maximum concentration in rat liver.
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Crosstalk between nuclear MET and SOX9/?-catenin correlates with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) (CRPC) is relapse after various forms of androgen ablation therapy and causes a major mortality in PCa patients, yet the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the nuclear form of mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (nMET) is essential for CRPC. Specifically, nMET is remarkably increased in human CRPC samples compared with naïve samples. Androgen deprivation induces endogenous nMET and promotes cell proliferation and stem-like cell self-renewal in androgen-nonresponsive PCa cells. Mechanistically, nMET activates SRY (sex determining region Y)-box9, ?-catenin, and Nanog homeobox and promotes sphere formation in the absence of androgen stimulus. Combined treatment of MET and ?-catenin enhances the inhibition of PCa cell growth. Importantly, MET accumulation is detected in nucleus of recurrent prostate tumors of castrated Pten/Trp53 null mice, whereas MET elevation is predominantly found in membrane of naïve tumors. Our findings reveal for the first time an essential role of nMET association with SOX9/?-catenin in CRPC in vitro and in vivo, highlighting that nuclear RTK activate cell reprogramming to drive recurrence, and targeting nMET would be a new avenue to treat recurrent cancers.
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Effect of temperature on anoxic metabolism of nitrites to nitrous oxide by polyphosphate accumulating organisms.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Temperature is an important physical factor, which strongly influences biomass and metabolic activity. In this study, the effects of temperature on the anoxic metabolism of nitrite (NO2(-)) to nitrous oxide (N2O) by polyphosphate accumulating organisms, and the process of the accumulation of N2O (during nitrite reduction), which acts as an electron acceptor, were investigated using 91% +/- 4% Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis sludge. The results showed that N2O is accumulated when Accumulibacter first utilize nitrite instead of oxygen as the sole electron acceptor during the denitrifying phosphorus removal process. Properties such as nitrite reduction rate, phosphorus uptake rate, N2O reduction rate, and polyhydroxyalkanoate degradation rate were all influenced by temperature variation (over the range from 10 to 30 degrees C reaching maximum values at 25 degrees C). The reduction rate of N2O by N2O reductase was more sensitive to temperature when N2O was utilized as the sole electron acceptor instead of N2O, and the N2O reduction rates, ranging from 0.48 to 3.53 N20-N/(hr x g VSS), increased to 1.45 to 8.60 mg N2O-N/(hr x g VSS). The kinetics processes for temperature variation of 10 to 30 degrees C were (theta1 = 1.140-1.216 and theta2 = 1.139-1.167). In the range of 10 degrees C to 30 degrees C, almost all of the anoxic stoichiometry was sensitive to temperature changes. In addition, a rise in N2O reduction activity leading to a decrease in N2O accumulation in long term operations at the optimal temperature (27 degrees C calculated by the Arrhenius model).
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East-West Differences in Perception of Brain Death : Review of History, Current Understandings, and Directions for Future Research.
J Bioeth Inq
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The concept of brain death as equivalent to cardiopulmonary death was initially conceived following developments in neuroscience, critical care, and transplant technology. It is now a routine part of medicine in Western countries, including the United States. In contrast, Eastern countries have been reluctant to incorporate brain death into legislation and medical practice. Several countries, most notably China, still lack laws recognizing brain death and national medical standards for making the diagnosis. The perception is that Asians are less likely to approve of brain death or organ transplant from brain dead donors. Cultural and religious traditions have been referenced to explain this apparent difference. In the West, the status of the brain as home to the soul in Enlightenment philosophy, combined with pragmatism and utilitarianism, supports the concept of brain death. In the East, the integration of body with spirit and nature in Buddhist and folk beliefs, along with the Confucian social structure that builds upon interpersonal relationships, argues against brain death. However, it is unclear whether these reasoning strategies are explicitly used when families and medical providers are faced with acknowledging brain death. Their decisions are more likely to involve a prioritization of values and a rationalization of intuitive responses. Why and whether there might be differences between East and West in the acceptance of the brain death concept requires further empirical testing, which would help inform policy-making and facilitate communication between providers and patients from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
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Differential expression and regulation of Ido2 in the mouse uterus during peri-implantation period.
In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Ido2 is involved in tryptophan catabolism and immunity, but its physiological functions remain poorly understood. This study was undertaken to examine the expression and regulation of Ido2 gene in mouse uterus during the peri-implantation period. The results showed that Ido2 mRNA was highly expressed on day 4 of pregnancy and in the delayed implantation uterus. On days 5-8 of pregnancy, a low level of Ido2 expression was observed in the uteri. Simultaneously, Ido2 mRNA was also lowly expressed in the decidualized uterus. In the uterine stromal cells, 8-Br-cAMP could inhibit the expression of Ido2 mRNA. Moreover, Ido2 mRNA expression was gradually decreased after the stromal cells were treated with estrogen and progesterone and reached a nadir at 96 h. Further study found that overexpression of Ido2 could downregulate the expression of decidualization marker genes PRL, IGFBP1, and Dtprp under in vitro decidualization, while inhibition of Ido2 with devo-1-methyl-tryptophan (D-1-MT) could upregulate the expression of these marker genes. Under in vitro decidualization, overexpression of Ido2 could suppress the proliferation of uterine stromal cells and elevate the expression of Bax and MMP2 genes. On the contrary, Ido2 inhibitor D-1-MT could enhance the proliferation of stromal cells and expression of Bcl2 gene but decline the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. In the uterine stromal cells, estrogen and progesterone could induce the expression of Ido2 mRNA. These data indicate that Ido2 may be important for mouse embryo implantation and decidualization.
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iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics analysis of Brassica napus leaves reveals pathways associated with chlorophyll deficiency.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Photosynthesis, the primary source of plant biomass, is important for plant growth and crop yield. Chlorophyll is highly abundant in plant leaves and plays essential roles in photosynthesis. We recently isolated a chlorophyll-deficient mutant (cde1) from ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized Brassica napus. Herein, quantitative proteomics analysis using the iTRAQ approach was conducted to investigate cde1-induced changes in the proteome. We identified 5069 proteins from Brassica napus leaves, of which 443 showed differential accumulations between the cde1 mutant and its corresponding wild-type. The differentially accumulated proteins were found to be involved in photosynthesis, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, carbon fixation, spliceosome, mRNA surveillance and RNA degradation. Our results suggest that decreased abundance of chlorophyll biosynthetic enzymes and photosynthetic proteins, impaired carbon fixation efficiency and disturbed redox homeostasis might account for the reduced chlorophyll contents, impaired photosynthetic capacity and increased lipid peroxidation in this mutant. Epigenetics was implicated in the regulation of gene expression in cde1, as proteins involved in DNA/RNA/histone methylation and methylation-dependent chromatin silencing were up-accumulated in the mutant. Biological significance Photosynthesis produces more than 90% of plant biomass and is an important factor influencing potential crop yield. The pigment chlorophyll plays essential roles in light harvesting and energy transfer during photosynthesis. Mutants deficient in chlorophyll synthesis have been used extensively to investigate the chlorophyll metabolism, development and photosynthesis. However, limited information is available with regard to the changes of protein profiles upon chlorophyll deficiency. Here, a combined physiological, histological, proteomics and molecular analysis revealed several important pathways associated with chlorophyll deficiency. This work provides new insights into the regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis in higher plants and these findings may be applied to genetic engineering for high photosynthetic efficiency in crops.
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Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Macrophage death in advanced atherosclerosis promotes plaque necrosis and destabilization. Involvement of autophagy in bulk degradation of cellular components has been recognized recently as an important mechanism for cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We previously found that the engagement of class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) triggered JNK-dependent apoptosis in ER-stressed macrophages. However, pro-apoptotic mechanisms mediated by SR-A are not fully understood. Therefore, we sought to see if SR-A mediated apoptosis was associated with autophagy in macrophages. Here, we showed that fucoidan inhibited microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-phospholipid conjugates (LC3-II) formation as well as the number of autophagosomes under ER stress. The inhibition of LC3-II formation was paralleled by the activation of the mTOR pathway, and the inhibition of mTOR allowed LC3-II induction in macrophages treated with thapsigargin plus fucoidan. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by fucoidan was prevented under ER stress by the mTOR inhibitor. We propose that fucoidan, a SR-A agonist, may contribute to macrophage apoptosis during ER stress by inhibiting autophagy.
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A novel crosstalk between BRCA1 and sirtuin 1 in ovarian cancer.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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BRCA mutations are the main known hereditary factors for ovarian cancer. Notably, emerging evidence has led to considerable interest in the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in ovarian cancer development. However, dynamic crosstalk between BRCA1 and SIRT1 is poorly understood. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation, promoter methylation, or knockdown) were accompanied by decreased SIRT1 levels and increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) levels and a subsequent increase in SIRT1 activity; (ii) overexpression of BRCA1 resulted in increased SIRT1 levels, an impairment in NAD synthesis, and a subsequent inhibition of SIRT1 activity; and (iii) intracellular NAD levels were largely responsible for regulating SIRT1 activity, and BRCA1 expression patterns correlated with SIRT1 levels and NAD levels correlated with SIRT1 activity in human ovarian cancer specimens. Interestingly, although BRCA1 inactivation events inhibited SIRT1 expression, they led to a substantial increase in NAD levels that enhanced NAD-related SIRT1 activity. This is a special BRCA1-mediated compensatory mechanism for the maintenance of SIRT1 function. Therefore, these results highlight a novel interaction between BRCA1 and SIRT1, which may be beneficial for the dynamic balance between BRCA1-related biologic processes and SIRT1-related energy metabolism and stress response.
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Uterine Cytokine Profile in a Rat Model of Endometritis.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Endometritis is a common reproductive disorder in female domestic animals. Roles of cytokines and chemokines have been implicated in this disease. To date, no comprehensive panel of the cytokine profile in inflammatory sites of endometritis has been reported.
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Temporal expression of hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid receptors in a porcine small intestinal submucosa-augmented rat bladder regeneration model.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Hyaluronic acid (HA), a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan, is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Since HA is involved in many phases of wound healing and may play a key role in tissue repair and regeneration, this study was intended to understand temporal and spatial expression of HA and HA receptors (HARs) during the course of bladder regeneration in rats.
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Role of placenta-specific protein 1 in trophoblast invasion and migration.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1), a placenta-specific gene, is known to be involved in the development of placenta in both humans and mice. However, the precise role of PLAC1 in placental trophoblast function remains unclear. In this study, the localization of PLAC1 in human placental tissues and its physiological significance in trophoblast invasion and migration are investigated by technical studies including real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and functional studies by utilizing cell invasion and migration assays in the trophoblast cell line HTR8/SVneo as well as the primary inducing extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). The results show that PLAC1 is mainly detected in the trophoblast columns and syncytiotrophoblast of the first-trimester human placental villi, as well as in the EVTs that invade into the maternal decidua. Knockdown of PLAC1 by RNA interference significantly suppresses the invasion and migration of HTR8/SVneo cells and shortens the distance of the outgrowth of the induced EVTs from the cytotrophoblast column of the explants. All the above data suggests that PLAC1 plays an important role in human placental trophoblast invasion and migration.
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Organometallic synthesis, structure determination, shape evolution, and formation mechanism of hexapod-like ternary PbSe(x)S(1-x) nanostructures with tunable compositions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The fabrication of hexapod-like ternary PbSexS1-x nanostructures has been reported via an alternative organometallic route from reaction of Pb(II) salt with triphenylphosphine selenide (Ph3PSe) and dibenzyl disulfide (DBDS) in dibenzylamine (DBA) with addition of oleic acid (OA) at 260 °C. The shape, structure, and composition of the nanostructured hexapods are investigated and determined by techniques of XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman, HRTEM, SAED, XPS, EDX, and HAADF-STEM, and the obtained ternary nanostructured hexapods are of typical rock salt phase with Pb-rich features without phase separation, and their compositions could be systematically regulated by facile variations of reaction parameters. Investigations reveal that the successful fabrication of the ternary hexapods with tunable compositions is resulted from the effective selection of Se and S sources of Ph3PSe and DBDS that have similar reactivity in the current reaction system along with small lattice mismatch between the two end members of PbSe and PbS. Generally, the relations between the composition and lattice parameters for the ternary nanostructures obtained in DBA with varied addition of OA exhibit linear slops that are consistent well with Vegard's law. Interestingly, intensive investigations show that the nanostructures are mainly gradiently alloyed nanostructures with somewhat chalcogen-element segregations or disorders rather than homogeneously alloyed solid-state solutions due to kinetic limitation for short reaction time even though thermodynamics is feasible in the system, and also, high concentration of S element in the feedstocks tends to relative high density of disorders in the ternary nanostructures. Based on the revealing of the formation mechanism for the nanostructures with varied microstructures, the ternary PbSexS1-x hexapods can be tuned from gradient alloys with segregations to approximately homogeneous via enlongating reaction time. In addition, the photolysis of the nanostructures to lead oxysulfate and oxyselenate species is evidenced at ambient condition via Raman detection although they are stable at -190 °C.
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist is more efficacious than insulin glargine for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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The aim of the present study was to compare the reported efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-l receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) and insulin glargine (IGlar) for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.
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Evolutionary study of the isoflavonoid pathway based on multiple copies analysis in soybean.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Previous studies suggest that the metabolic pathway structure influences the selection and evolution rates of involved genes. However, most of these studies have exclusively considered a single gene copy encoding each enzyme in the metabolic pathway. Considering multiple-copy encoding enzymes could provide direct evidence of gene evolution and duplication patterns in metabolic pathways. We conducted a detailed analysis of the phylogeny, synteny, evolutionary rate and selection pressure of the genes in the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway of soybeans.
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Pharmacokinetics of two alkaloids after oral administration of rhizoma coptidis extract in normal rats and irritable bowel syndrome rats.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96?mg/kg, containing berberine 22?mg/kg and palmatine 5?mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as C max?, AUC(0-t), V d /F, and CL/F, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status.
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Effects of dietary fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of fucoidan on the blood constituents, anti-oxidation and innate immunity of juvenile yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Totally 420 individuals of juvenile yellow catfish were randomly allocated to 7 groups with 3 replicates per group and 20 fishes per replicate. The same experimental fish were randomly subjected to one of the following 7 treatments for 12 weeks: The basal diet was applied as control group, the experimental groups were fed on fucoidan extracted from Sargassum horneri (SF) and commodity fucoidan purchased from the market (MF), and the effective dosages were 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% per kilogram feed (the groups were respectively marked as SF1, SF2, SF3, MF1, MF2 and MF3). The capabilities of anti-oxidation and innate immunity were detected by the blood characters, serum enzyme activities, serum MDA content, respiratory burst activity and phagocytic index of head-kidney macrophages. Challenge test was conducted also. The results indicated that the triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) values of the yellow catfish were significantly decreased when dietary with SF and MF, while there was no significant difference between the MF1 and the control group. Fish fed on SF and MF diets had a lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level than those fed on basal diet except SF2 group. The low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose (GUL) levels of the fish were significantly decreased at the 0.2% dietary fucoidan level, and there were no significant differences between the other groups. The activities of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) significantly increased and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly decreased when the fish fed dietary SF and MF. The CAT activities of SF groups were higher than that of control groups, while these values were not significantly changed in MF1 and MF3 groups. The maximum of catalase (CAT) activities of the fish fed on two kind fucoidan were obtained in the SF2 and MF2 groups (fucoidan = 0.1%) respectively. The serum lysozyme (LZM) activities of the yellow catfish fed on SF and MF were significantly higher than the control ones except SF3, MF2 and MF3 group. Phagocytosis index (PI) and the respiratory burst (RB) activity of head-kidney were significantly influenced by dietary fucoidan, PI values of the fish fed on SF2, MF1 and MF2 were higher than those fed on basal diet. RB activity of the yellow catfishes were significantly increased when they were fed on fucoidan except the SF3 and MF3 groups. The challenge experiment with Aeromonas hydrophilalala revealed that the fish fed on fucoidan had no significant effect on mortality rate of the yellow catfish. These results suggested that fucoidan significantly influences the blood characters, antioxidant status, non-specific immune responses in juvenile yellow catfish.
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Theoretical Study of Piezo-phototronic Nano-LEDs.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Two-dimensional finite-element simulation of the piezo-phototronic effect in p-n-junction-based devices is carried out for the first time. A charge channel can be induced at the p-n junction interface when strain is applied, given the n-side is a piezoelectric semiconductor and the p-type side is non-piezoelectric semiconductor. This provides the first simulated evidence supporting the previously suggested mechanism responsible for the experimentally observed gigantic change of light-emission efficiency in piezo-phototronic light-emitting devices.
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Enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of spiro-epoxyoxindoles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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An asymmetric synthesis of epoxyoxindoles from isatins has been developed by employing chiral sulfur ylides generated in situ from camphor-derived sulfonium salts. This reaction allows an efficient access to enantioenriched spiro-epoxyoxindoles under mild reaction conditions, featuring high yields and excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities.
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RCCRT1 is correlated with prognosis and promotes cell migration and invasion in renal cell carcinoma.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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To investigate the expression pattern of a novel long noncoding ribonucleic acid (RNA), RCCRT1, in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues among the patients with various clinicopathologic features and to detect the role of RCCRT1 in migration and invasion of RCC in vitro.
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Effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices relates to working memory impairment in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD) share many overlapping clinical features, confounding the current diagnostic systems. Recent studies suggest the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) cortices that are involved in SZ and BD pathophysiology. However, the roles of PCC and MPFC in providing specific distinctive and shared neural substrates between these two disorders remain largely unknown. Examining the neurophysiologic mechanism of these diseases may help explain the clinical observations and differentiate the two disorders.
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Enantioselective cascade Michael addition/cyclization reactions of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes with 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles: efficient synthesis of functionalized polycyclic spirooxindoles.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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An unprecedented Zn(OTf)2-catalyzed asymmetric Michael addition/cyclization cascade of 3-nitro-2H-chromenes with 3-isothiocyanato oxindoles has been disclosed. This transformation provides an efficient access to various synthetically important polycyclic spirooxindoles in a highly stereoselective manner under mild conditions (72–99% yields, up to >95:5 d.r. and >99% ee). The reaction leads to the formation of three consecutive stereocenters, including 1,3-nonadjacent tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenters, in a single operation. A bifunctional activation model of the chiral Zn(OTf)2/bis(oxazoline) complex was proposed based on control experiments, wherein the ZnII moiety serves as a Lewis acid and the N atom of the free NH group acts as a Lewis base by a hydrogen-bonding interaction.
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Decreased plasma nesfatin-1 level is related to the thyroid dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Thyroid dysfunction is frequently observed in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate whether nesfatin-1 played a role in the thyroid dysfunction in patients with T2DM.
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Comprehensive transcriptome study to develop molecular resources of the copepod Calanus sinicus for their potential ecological applications.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8?bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m )-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics.
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Torrefaction of agriculture straws and its application on biomass pyrolysis poly-generation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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This study investigated the properties of corn stalk and cotton stalk after torrefaction, and the effects of torrefaction on product properties obtained under the optimal condition of biomass pyrolysis polygeneration. The color of the torrefied biomass chars darkened, and the grindability was upgraded, with finer particles formed and grinding energy consumption reduced. The moisture and oxygen content significantly decreased whereas the carbon content increased considerably. It was found that torrefaction had different effects on the char, liquid oil and biogas from biomass pyrolysis polygeneration. Compared to raw straws, the output of chars from pyrolysis of torrefied straws increased and the quality of chars as a solid fuel had no significant change, while the output of liquid oil and biogas decreased. The liquid oil contained more concentrated phenols with less water content below 40wt.%, and the biogas contained more concentrated H2 and CH4 with higher LHV up to 15MJ/nm(3).
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Protective immunity conferred by porcine circovirus 2 ORF2-based DNA vaccine in mice.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused the swine industry significant health challenges and economic damage. Although inactivated and subunit vaccines against PMWS have been used widely, so far no DNA vaccine is available. In this study, with the aim of exploring a new route for developing a vaccine against PCV2, the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine was evaluated in mice. The pEGFP-N1 vector was used to construct a PCV2 Cap gene recombinant vaccine. To assess the immunogenicity of pEGFP-Cap, 80 BALB/c mice were immunized three times at 2 weekly intervals with pEGFP-Cap, LG-strain vaccine, pEGFP-N1 vector or PBS and then challenged with PCV2. IgG and cytokines were assessed by indirect ELISA and ELISA, respectively. Specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques were examined histopathologically. It was found that vaccination of the mice with the pEGFP-Cap induced solid protection against PCV2 infection through induction of highly specific serum IgG antibodies and cytokines (IFN-? and IL-10), and a small PCV2 viral load. The mice treated with the pEGFP-Cap and LG-strain developed no histopathologically detectable lesions (HE stain) and IHC techniques revealed only a few positive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that recombinant pEGFP-Cap substantially alleviates PCV2 infection in mice and provides evidence that a DNA vaccine could be an alternative to PCV2 vaccines against PMWS.
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Fosfomycin resistance among vancomycin-resistant enterococci owing to transfer of a plasmid harbouring the fosB gene.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The presence and characterisation of plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance determinants were investigated among 45 clinical vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) isolated in Zhejiang Province, China. In total, 19 VRE were resistant to fosfomycin, of which 18 isolates had conjugative fosfomycin resistance and were positive for fosB. No reported fos genes were detected in the remaining isolate. Among the 18 fosB-carrying isolates, the fosB gene was always flanked by tnpA, suggesting the same novel fosB transposon. In 10 of the 18 fosB-carrying isolates, the fosB and tnpA genes were found reversely inserted in the vanA transposon Tn1546. In the remaining eight isolates the fosB and vanA genes were located on different plasmids. These findings indicate that acquisition of the conjugative plasmid harbouring the novel fosB transposon (ISL3-like transposon) and the Tn1546-like transposon (containing vanA and fosB) may explain, at least in part, the recent increase in fosfomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in China.
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Rhesus monkey is a new model of secondary lymphedema in the upper limb.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study is to establish the rhesus monkey model of lymphedema in the upper limbs, and assess the suitability of this model.
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GRP78 inhibits macrophage adhesion via SR-A.
J Biomed Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) plays an important role in macrophage adhesion. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We previously found that 78?kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) inhibited SR-A-mediated ligand internalization into macrophage by binding to SR-A. The aim of the study was to investigate whether GRP78 could regulate SR-A-mediated cell adhesion. We demonstrated that GRP78 bound directly to SR-A by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Overexpression of GRP78 inhibited macrophage adhesion via SR-A. These results suggest that GRP78 may act as an inhibitor of macrophage adhesion via SR-A.
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Androgen deprivation therapy induces androgen receptor-dependent upregulation of Egr1 in prostate cancers.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Early growth response gene-1 (Egr1) has a crucial function in the development and progression of prostate cancer. However, whether Egr1 contributes to the transition of advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC) from androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) remains largely unknown. To the best of our knowledge, through immunohistochemical staining methods, we were the first to identify that Egr1 is more highly expressed in AIPC clinical specimens than in androgen-dependent prostate cancer (ADPC). An in vitro study with quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that Egr1 also has a higher expression in androgen-independent PC3 cells than in the androgen-dependent LNCaP cells. Egr1 expression in LNCaP cells was significantly upregulated during the androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and was re-downregulated through the addition of dihydrotestosterone. Although no variation in PC3 cells was identified, Egr1 responded to dihydrotestosterone and flutamide in the androgen receptor (AR)-transfected PC3 cells. Further investigation with Egr1 agonist and specific siRNA-targeting Egr1 revealed that Egr1 upregulation or downregulation was accompanied by a change in inhibitors of differentiation and DNA binding-1 (Id1) in the same direction in both LNCaP and PC3 cells. The variation is shown to be negatively regulated by androgen through AR during ADT. Our data suggested that upregulated Egr1 might partially contribute to the emergence of AIPC after prolonged ADT. This study also elucidated the potential mechanism underlying Id1 participation in the progression of prostate cancer. Understanding the key molecular events in the transition from ADPC to AIPC may provide new therapeutic intervention strategies for patients with AIPC.
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Effect of glycemic variability on short term prognosis in acute myocardial infarction subjects undergoing primary percutaneous coronary interventions.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glycemic variability (GV) still remains unclear whether acute glycemic excursion has the important prognostic significance in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing p-PCI. So our aim is to assess the prognostic value of GV in STEMI patients undergoing p-PCI.
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Microarray expression analysis of the main inflorescence in Brassica napus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effect of the number of pods on the main inflorescence (NPMI) on seed yield in Brassica napus plants grown at high density is a topic of great economic and scientific interest. Here, we sought to identify patterns of gene expression that determine the NPMI during inflorescence differentiation. We monitored gene expression profiles in the main inflorescence of two B. napus F6 RIL pools, each composed of nine lines with a low or high NPMI, and their parental lines, Zhongshuang 11 (ZS11) and 73290, using a Brassica 90K elements oligonucleotide array. We identified 4,805 genes that were differentially expressed (?1.5 fold-change) between the low- and high-NPMI samples. Of these, 82.8% had been annotated and 17.2% shared no significant homology with any known genes. About 31 enriched GO clusters were identified amongst the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including those involved in hormone responses, development regulation, carbohydrate metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription regulation. Furthermore, 92.8% of the DEGs mapped to chromosomes that originated from B. rapa and B. oleracea, and 1.6% of the DEGs co-localized with two QTL intervals (PMI10 and PMI11) known to be associated with the NPMI. Overexpression of BnTPI, which co-localized with PMI10, in Arabidopsis suggested that this gene increases the NPMI. This study provides insight into the molecular factors underlying inflorescence architecture, NPMI determination and, consequently, seed yield in B. napus.
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Differential effects of selective frankincense (Ru Xiang) essential oil versus non-selective sandalwood (Tan Xiang) essential oil on cultured bladder cancer cells: a microarray and bioinformatics study.
Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Frankincense (Boswellia carterii, known as Ru Xiang in Chinese) and sandalwood (Santalum album, known as Tan Xiang in Chinese) are cancer preventive and therapeutic agents in Chinese medicine. Their biologically active ingredients are usually extracted from frankincense by hydrodistillation and sandalwood by distillation. This study aims to investigate the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of frankincense and sandalwood essential oils in cultured human bladder cancer cells.
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Long non-coding RNAs as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in head and neck cancers.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are generally defined as RNA molecules greater than 200 nt in length and without protein-coding property that different from housekeeping RNAs such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and snRNAs, and independent from small RNAs with specific molecular processing machinery such as micro- or piwi-RNAs. LncRNAs are a novel class of mRNA-like transcripts which contribute to cancer development and progression and accelerate cancer cells proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and apoptosis. These research results indicate the potential of lncRNAs as prospective novel biomarkers for diagnosis, therapeutic targets and prognosis for cancers. In this review, we synthesize present study results to highlight aberration of lncRNAs in various types of head and neck cancers, and try to clarify the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs affecting the oncogenesis and progression of head and neck cancer, as well as pay particular attention to provide a new avenue to the diagnosis and treatment strategy.
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Silencing SATB1 influences cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and drug resistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Special AT rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) play an important role in many cancers, but the role of SATB1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is still not full understand. Immunofluorescence staining showed that SATB1 was mainly localized in the nuclei in CNE-2 cell. After successful down-regulation of SABT1 in NPC cell line CNE-2 by shRNA, compared to parental CNE-2 and control shRNA group, the capacity of the proliferation, migration, invasion and drug resistance of CNE-2 cell was reduced, which indicated that SATB1 may be involved in NPC development and progression. SATB1 may be a promising therapeutic target for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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Molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary hospital of China.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is caused by toxin-producing strains. It accounts for 20 to 30% of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and particularly accounts for 90% of pseudomembranous colitis. The epidemiological study of C. difficile is thus important. In this study, we report the molecular epidemiology and ward distribution of Clostridium difficile in a tertiary hospital of China. A total of 161 toxigenic strains were isolated from 1,845 patients originating from different wards and the strains were characterized based on toxin profile and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Variable isolation rates were observed in different wards and the occurrence was higher in ICU and geriatric wards. Toxin gene profiling revealed that out of the 161 isolates 134 (83.2)% were positive for both toxin A (tcdA) and toxin B (tcdB) (A+B+) followed by toxin A-negative and B-positive (A-B+) (16.8%). However, only three of the toxigenic strains (1.9%) were positive for both the cdtA and cdtB genes. Based on the molecular epidemiology study, a total of 30 different sequence types (STs), including one new ST (ST-220), were distinguishable. ST-54 was the most prevalent (23.0%) followed by ST-35 (19.3%) and ST-37 (10.0%). None of the isolates belonged to ST-1 (ribotype 027) or ST-11 (ribotype 078). Taken together, the toxin profile and the molecular epidemiological data showed that all the ST-37 clades were of toxin type A-B+, which accounted for 59.3% of all type A-B+ isolates. Meanwhile the clade 1 genotype, ST-54 was widely distributed among the geriatric, infection and haematology wards. There was no outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection during our study; however the possibility of prolonged outbreaks cannot be completely ignored.
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Modulation of Intestinal Folate Absorption by Erythropoietin in Vitro.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Besides the direct stimulation of erythropoiesis, erythropoietin (EPO) therapy in renal anemia may also play a regulatory role in maintaining the homeostasis of hematopoietic nutrients. It has been reported that EPO can stimulate intestinal iron absorption. However, the involvement of EPO in intestinal folate absorption remains elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of EPO on intestinal transport of folate in vitro and to elucidate the possible mechanism(s) involved in this regulation. Transport assays of folic acid were performed in Caco-2 monolayers treated with EPO. The effect of EPO on the expression of transporters involved in the folate absorption was investigated. The possible involvement of three main EPO signaling pathways, the janus protein tyrosine kinase 2 (JAK-2) pathway, extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK) pathway, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, in the transporter regulation was explored. The absorptive flux (apical to basolateral) of folic acid was enhanced by EPO treatment in a dose-dependent manner, which was companied with the significant up-regulation of reduced folate carrier (RFC) and apical proton coupled folate transporter (PCFT). The efflux (basolaterial to apical) of folic acid was enhanced only by the high dose of EPO treatment, which was associated with the significant up-regulation of apical multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2). The expression levels of all of these transporters were up-regulated by EPO treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Transporter expression in response to blocking EPO induced activation of JAK-2, ERK, and PI3K/Akt was changed to a different extent. As a conclusion, intestinal folate absorption was enhanced by EPO treatment in vitro. Our findings provided direct evidence to establish the correlation between EPO and folate homeostasis.
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Apolipoprotein A-IV Reduces Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through the Nuclear Receptor NR1D1.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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We recently showed that apoA-IV improves glucose homeostasis by enhancing pancreatic insulin secretion in the presence of elevated level of glucose. We therefore examined whether apoA-IV also regulates glucose metabolism through the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The ability of apoA-IV to lower gluconeogenic gene expression and glucose production was measured in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type mice, and primary mouse hepatocytes. The transcriptional regulation of G6Pase and PEPCK by apoA-IV was determined by the luciferase activity assay. Using bacterial two-hybrid library screening, NR1D1 was identified as a putative apoA-IV-binding protein. The co-localization and interaction between apoA-IV and NR1D1 were confirmed by immunofluorescence, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay and co-immunopricipitation. Enhanced recruitment of NR1D1 and activity by apoA-IV to G6Pase promoter was verified with ChIP and luciferase assay. Down-regulation of apoA-IV on gluconeogenic genes is mediated through NR1D1 as illustrated in cells with NR1D1 knockdown by siRNA. We find that apoA-IV: 1) suppresses the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase in hepatocytes; 2) decreases hepatic glucose production; 3) binds and activates nuclear receptor NR1D1 and stimulates NR1D1 expression; and 4) in cells lacking NR1D1, fails to inhibit PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression; 5) higher hepatic glucose production and higher gluconeogenic gene expression in apoA-IV-/- mice. We conclude that apoA-IV inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by decreasing G6Pase and PEPCK gene expression through NR1D1. This novel regulatory pathway connects an influx of energy as fat from the gut (and subsequent apoA-IV secretion) with inhibition of hepatic glucose production.
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[Clinical analysis of hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 infection in a child].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To study the clinical characteristics of Streptococcus pneumonia-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (SP-HUS) in children.
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CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ?-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203 972 modification events on 189 919 modified lysines in 45 748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs.
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EKPD: a hierarchical database of eukaryotic protein kinases and protein phosphatases.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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We present here EKPD (http://ekpd.biocuckoo.org), a hierarchical database of eukaryotic protein kinases (PKs) and protein phosphatases (PPs), the key molecules responsible for the reversible phosphorylation of proteins that are involved in almost all aspects of biological processes. As extensive experimental and computational efforts have been carried out to identify PKs and PPs, an integrative resource with detailed classification and annotation information would be of great value for both experimentalists and computational biologists. In this work, we first collected 1855 PKs and 347 PPs from the scientific literature and various public databases. Based on previously established rationales, we classified all of the known PKs and PPs into a hierarchical structure with three levels, i.e. group, family and individual PK/PP. There are 10 groups with 149 families for the PKs and 10 groups with 33 families for the PPs. We constructed 139 and 27 Hidden Markov Model profiles for PK and PP families, respectively. Then we systematically characterized ?50 000 PKs and >10 000 PPs in eukaryotes. In addition, >500 PKs and >400 PPs were computationally identified by ortholog search. Finally, the online service of the EKPD database was implemented in PHP + MySQL + JavaScript.
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Differential expression and regulation of Tdo2 during mouse decidualization.
J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (Tdo2) is a rate-limiting enzyme which directs the conversion of tryptophan to kynurenine. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and regulation of Tdo2 in mouse uterus during decidualization. Tdo2 mRNA was mainly expressed in the decidua on days 6-8 of pregnancy. By real-time PCR, a high level of Tdo2 expression was observed in the uteri from days 6 to 8 of pregnancy, although Tdo2 expression was observed on days 1-8. Simultaneously, Tdo2 mRNA was also detected under in vivo and in vitro artificial decidualization. Estrogen, progesterone, and 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP could induce the expression of Tdo2 in the ovariectomized mouse uterus and uterine stromal cells. Tdo2 could regulate cell proliferation and stimulate the expression of decidual marker Dtprp in the uterine stromal cells and decidual cells. Overexpression of Tdo2 could upregulate the expression of Ahr, Cox2, and Vegf genes in uterine stromal cells, while Tdo2 inhibitor 680C91 could downregulate the expression of Cox2 and Vegf genes in uterine decidual cells. These data indicate that Tdo2 may play an important role during mouse decidualization and be regulated by estrogen, progesterone, and cAMP.
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Deletion of Class A Scavenger Receptor Deteriorates Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Chronic low-grade inflammation, particularly in the adipose tissue, orchestrates obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this process polarized activation of macrophage plays a crucial role. However, how macrophage contributes to insulin resistance remains obscure. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is a pattern recognition receptor primarily expressed in macrophages. Through a combination of in vivo and in vitro studies, we report here that deletion of SR-A resulted in reduced insulin sensitivity in obese mice. The anti-inflammatory virtue of SR-A was accomplished by favoring M2 macrophage polarization in adipose tissue. Moreover, we demonstrate that lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) served as an obesity-related endogenous ligand for SR-A promoting M2 macrophage polarization by activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-6 (STAT6) signaling. These data have unraveled a clear mechanistic link between insulin resistance and inflammation mediated by the LPC/SR-A pathway in macrophages.
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[Study on high-temperature phase change of tobermorite].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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In the present paper, the high-temperature phase change of pure tobermorite was investigated by TGA/DSC, X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy (IR) respectively. The DSC results showed that four interlayer water molecules were lost when they were heated at 300 degrees C. As the temperature increased to 724 degrees C, Si-O-H bonds were cleaved and dehydroxylation occurred. The XRD results showed that many diffraction peaks o f tobermorite disappeared and the crystal structure was broken and collapsed. Then tobermorite tends to be disordered and amorphous. When the calcination temperature increased to 861 degrees C, the disordered structure recombined to wollastonite, and the crystal structure became ordered and stable. Finally, the structure completely transformed to 2M-wollastonite at 1 000 degrees C. It should include the process of high-temperature phase change of tobermorite: tobermorite --> dehydration tobermorite --> dehydroxylation tobermorite --> wollastonite.
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Regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression in ovarian cancer: a potential role for BRCA1.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Both BRCA1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) play a critical role in ovarian cancer progression. However, the crosstalk between BRCA1 and AGTR1 signaling pathways remains largely unknown.
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Real-time implementation of a self-recovery EMG pattern recognition interface for artificial arms.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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EMG pattern classification has been widely studied for decoding user intent for intuitive prosthesis control. However, EMG signals can be easily contaminated by noise and disturbances, which may degrade the classification performance. This study aims to design a real-time self-recovery EMG pattern classification interface to provide reliable user intent recognition for multifunctional prosthetic arm control. A novel self-recovery module consisting of multiple sensor fault detectors and a fast LDA classifier retraining strategy has been developed to immediately recover the classification performance from signal disturbances. The self-recovery EMG pattern recognition (PR) system has been implemented on an embedded system as a working prototype. Experimental evaluation has been performed on an able-bodied subject in real-time to classify three arm movements while signal disturbances were manually introduced. The results of this study may propel the clinical use of EMG PR for multifunctional prosthetic arm control.
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Gene-gene interaction network analysis of ovarian cancer using TCGA data.
J Ovarian Res
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data portal provides a platform for researchers to search, download, and analysis data generated by TCGA. The objective of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer pathogenesis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.