JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
In vitro dissolution and physicochemical characterizations of novel PVP-based solid dispersions containing valsartan prepared by a freeze-drying method.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Valsartan (VAL) shows poor oral bioavailability mainly as a result of its low water solubility at low pH. This study is designed to investigate the dissolution properties and physicochemical characteristics of novel PVP-based solid dispersions (SDs) containing VAL. The SDs were prepared with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K30) as a hydrophilic polymer, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 (F68) as a surfactant, without using any organic solvents by a freeze-drying method. The dissolution study was carried out and the physicochemical properties of SDs were also characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The dissolution rates of SDs were significantly improved at pH1.2 and pH6.8 compared to that of pure drug. The results of physicochemical properties suggested that some interactions between VAL and carriers had occurred in the molecular level and the drug presented in the SDs was amorphous. It was concluded that the novel PVP-based SDs has been successfully prepared by a freeze-drying method, resulting in significant dissolution improvement of VAL.
Related JoVE Video
[Using Breteau Index to analyze the nature of sporadic and outbreak cases of Dengue fever].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the threshold of Breteau Index (BI) on Dengue fever outbreak in Guangzhou.
Related JoVE Video
Toward high-performance digital logic technology with carbon nanotubes.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The slow-down in traditional silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) scaling (Moore's law) has created an opportunity for a disruptive innovation to bring the semiconductor industry into a postsilicon era. Due to their ultrathin body and ballistic transport, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have the intrinsic transport and scaling properties to usher in this new era. The remaining challenges are largely materials-related and include obtaining purity levels suitable for logic technology, placement of CNTs at very tight (?5 nm) pitch to allow for density scaling and source/drain contact scaling. This review examines the potential performance advantages of a CNT-based computing technology, outlines the remaining challenges, and describes the recent progress on these fronts. Although overcoming these issues will be challenging and will require a large, sustained effort from both industry and academia, the recent progress in the field is a cause for optimism that these materials can have an impact on future technologies.
Related JoVE Video
[Exploration of surgical procedures in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in China].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The median body mass index(BMI) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM) in China is only 24 kg/m(2) and diabetic diet in China is different from that in the Western countries. Currently there are no sufficient weight loss surgery data and guidance in China. Therefore, aside from the internationally recognized surgical procedures, Chinese surgeons have been trying to find other suitable procedures for T2DM. In 2011, operations for treatment of T2DM recommended by the International Diabetes Federation(IDF) are as follow: gastric bypass surgery(GBP), sleeve gastrectomy(SG), bile pancreatic surgery(BPD), duodenal inversion technique(DS) and the adjustable gastric band surgery(AGB). At present, the main exploratory surgery procedures in China include: sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal-jejual bypass, duodenal-jejual bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and jejual-ileal bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and ileal interposition, ileal interposition, jejunal-ileal bypass, gastric folding technique, gastric folding and banding, and other weight loss surgery under endoscopy. Each operation has different characteristics, but the optimal surgery for patients with T2DM still needs long term follow-up and large sample of multi-center clinical research. We believe that under the scientific standardization, surgeons in China will develop the most suitable procedures for patients with T2DM.
Related JoVE Video
MDM2 oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase T309G polymorphism and risk of oesophageal or gastric cancer: meta-analysis of 15 studies.
J. Int. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association between potentially functional MDM2 oncogene, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2) T309G polymorphism and susceptibility to oesophageal or gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Preparation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of a polyvinyl alcohol/sodium alginate based orodispersible film containing sildenafil citrate.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this work, we developed a sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sodium alginate (ALG-Na) based orodispersible film (ODF) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as the type and amount of plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODF, including the disintegration time, elastic modulus (EM) and percentage of elongation (E%). SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 25 mg in an area of 6 cm2 was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The surface morphology of ODF was visualized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties of ODF were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of PVA, polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) and ALG-Na (20:5:2, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20 s. However, the loading of drug extended the disintegration time (100 s) of ODF, while it still maintained satisfactory mechanical properties. SC was homogenously dispersed throughout the films and the crystalline form of drug changed, with strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The PVA/ALG-Na based ODF containing SC prepared by the simple solvent casting method might be an alternative to conventional SC tablets for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Nonmigraine-associated TRESK K+ channel variant C110R does not increase the excitability of trigeminal ganglion neurons.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent genetic studies suggest that dysfunction of ion channels and transporters may contribute to migraine pathophysiology. A migraine-associated frameshift mutation in the TWIK-related spinal cord K+ (TRESK) channel results in nonfunctional channels. Moreover, mutant TRESK subunits exert a dominant-negative effect on whole cell TRESK currents and result in hyperexcitability of small-diameter trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons, suggesting that mutant TRESK may increase the gain of the neuronal circuit underlying migraine headache. However, the nonmigraine-associated TRESK C110R variant exhibits the same effect on TRESK currents as the mutant subunits in Xenopus oocytes, suggesting that dysfunction of TRESK is not sufficient to cause migraine. Here, we confirmed that the C110R variant formed nonfunctional channels and exerted a dominant-negative effect on TRESK currents in HEK293T cells, similar to the migraine-associated mutant TRESK. To compare the functional consequences of TRESK mutations/variants in a more physiological setting, we expressed the mutant TRESK and the C110R variant in cultured mouse TG neurons and investigated their effects on background K+ currents and neuronal excitability. Both mutant TRESK and the C110R variant reduced the endogenous TRESK currents in TG neurons, but the effect of the C110R variant was significantly smaller. Importantly, only TG neurons expressing mutant TRESK subunits, but not those expressing the C110R variant, exhibited a significant increase in excitability. Thus only the migraine-associated TRESK mutation, but not the C110R variant, reduces the endogenous TRESK currents to a degree that affects TG excitability. Our results support a potential causal relationship between the frameshift TRESK mutation and migraine susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Detection of human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory tract infections in lanzhou and nanjing, china.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the prevalent characteristics of HBoV1 and its co-infection.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of valsartan solid dispersions prepared by a freeze-drying technique using hydrophilic polymers.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract This study aimed to improve the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of valsartan (VAL), a poorly soluble drug using solid dispersions (SDs). The SDs were prepared by a freeze-drying technique with polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC 100KV) as hydrophilic polymers, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as an alkalizer, and poloxamer 188 as a surfactant without using any organic solvents. In vitro dissolution rate and physicochemical properties of the SDs were characterized using the USP paddle method, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability of SDs in rats was evaluated by using VAL (pure drug) as a reference. The dissolution rates of the SDs were significantly improved at pH 1.2 and pH 6.8 compared to those of the pure drug. The results from DSC, XRD showed that VAL was molecularly dispersed in the SDs as an amorphous form. The FT-IR results suggested that intermolecular hydrogen bonding had formed between VAL and its carriers. The SDs exhibited significantly higher values of AUC0-24?h and Cmax in comparison with the pure drug. In conclusion, hydrophilic polymer-based SDs prepared by a freeze-drying technique can be a promising method to enhance dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of VAL.
Related JoVE Video
Fringing-field dielectrophoretic assembly of ultrahigh-density semiconducting nanotube arrays with a self-limited pitch.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One key challenge of realizing practical high-performance electronic devices based on single-walled carbon nanotubes is to produce electronically pure nanotube arrays with both a minuscule and uniform inter-tube pitch for sufficient device-packing density and homogeneity. Here we develop a method in which the alternating voltage-fringing electric field formed between surface microelectrodes and the substrate is utilized to assemble semiconducting nanotubes into well-aligned, ultrahigh-density and submonolayered arrays, with a consistent pitch as small as 21±6?nm determined by a self-limiting mechanism, based on the unique field focusing and screening effects of the fringing field. Field-effect transistors based on such nanotube arrays exhibit record high device transconductance (>50??S??m(-1)) and decent on current per nanotube (~1??A per tube) together with high on/off ratios at a drain bias of -1?V.
Related JoVE Video
Creation of a 50,000? long needle-like field with 0.36? width.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is a great challenge to create a needle-like field with properties of long beam length, narrow lateral width, uniformity, and high optical efficiency. Here we show a method that can realize these properties all at once. The key element is a 90° apex-angle concave conical mirror. By using this condenser along with a radially polarized incident beam of a specific field distribution, we numerically created a super slim, uniform, pure needle-like axially polarized field. This axially polarized field has a length of 50,000? along the optical axis, and its lateral width still maintains a minimum 0.36? size.
Related JoVE Video
Correlations between depression behaviors and sleep parameters after repeated corticosterone injections in rats.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Tapered dual elliptical plasmon waveguides as highly efficient terahertz connectors between approximate plate waveguides and two-wire waveguides.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a tapered dual elliptical plasmon waveguide for terahertz waves. This element is composed of a pair of tapered elliptical metal structures and is especially suitable for the coupling of terahertz waves from an approximate plate waveguide to a two-wire waveguide. The long axes of the two ellipses gradually reduce to the same sizes as the short axes, and thus the two-ellipse structure is now a two-wire waveguide. The slowly tapered structure eliminates the reflection and scattering during the coupling process according to WKB approximation. The numerical result shows that the coupling efficiency of this connector can reach as high as 94%.
Related JoVE Video
Formulation and in vitro characterization of novel sildenafil citrate-loaded polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer-based orally dissolving films.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This work was aimed to develop novel sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer (Kollicoat(®) IR)-based orally dissolving films (ODFs) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODFs. The SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 6.25mg in an area of 6 cm(2) was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The physicochemical properties of drug-loaded ODF were also investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of Kollicoat(®) IR, sodium alginate (ALG-Na) and glycerol (10:2:1.5, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20s. The SC-loaded ODF showed a delayed disintegration time (about 25s), but exhibited improved mechanical properties when compared to the blank ODF. SC was homogeneously dispersed throughout the ODF and the crystalline form of drug had been partly changed, existing strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The Kollicoat(®) IR/ALG-Na based ODFs containing SC might be an alternative to conventional tablet for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.
Related JoVE Video
Wide-band six-region phase mask coronagraph.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An achromatic six-region phase mask coronagraph, used for the detection of exoplanets, is proposed. The mask has six regions in angular direction and could work in wideband. Furthermore, a six-level phase mask, as an example of the six-region phase mask, is theoretically investigated. According to numerical simulations, this specific mask has a deep elimination of starlight, good performance of achromatism and small inner working angle. As a single phase mask, the ratio of the remaining starlight of the six-level phase mask to the total incident starlight is less than 0.001 when the wavelength is between 500 nm and 600 nm.
Related JoVE Video
New compounds from acid hydrolyzed products of the fruits of Momordica charantia L. and their inhibitory activity against protein tyrosine phosphatas 1B.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four new cucurbitane-type triterpene sapogenins, compounds 1-4, together with other eight known compounds were isolated from the acid-hydrolyzed fruits extract of Momordica charantia L. Their chemical structures were established by NMR, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 were evaluated for their inhibitory activities toward protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a tyrosine phosphatase that has been implicated as a key target for therapy against type II diabetes. Compounds 1, 2, 4, 7 and 9 were shown inhibitory activities of 77%, 62%, 62% 60% and 68% against PTP1B, respectively. All of these tested compounds were exhibited higher PTP1B inhibition activities than that of the Na3VO4, a known PTP1B inhibitor used as positive control in present study. Structure activity relationship (SAR) analysis indicated that the inhibition activity of PTP1B was associated with the presence and number of -OH groups.
Related JoVE Video
Hematopoietic cell transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma: predictive value of pretransplant positron emission tomography/computed tomography and bone marrow evaluations for outcomes.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The prognostic roles of 18F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging and marrow involvement evaluation on outcomes following autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are uncertain and require more data.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression or silencing of FOXO3a affects proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells and expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been considered to be of great significance in therapeutic angiogenesis. Furthermore, the Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factors are known to be important regulators of cell cycle. Therefore, we investigated the effects of changes in FOXO3a activity on cell proliferation and cell cycle regulatory proteins in EPCs. The constructed recombinant adenovirus vectors Ad-TM (triple mutant)-FOXO3a, Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a and the control Ad-GFP were transfected into EPCs derived from human umbilical cord blood. Assessment of transfection efficiency using an inverted fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry indicated a successful transfection. Additionally, the expression of FOXO3a was markedly increased in the Ad-TM-FOXO3a group but was inhibited in the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group as seen by western blotting. Overexpression of FOXO3a suppressed EPC proliferation and modulated expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins including upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1) and downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In the Ad-shRNA-FOXO3a group, the results were counter-productive. Furthermore, flow cytometry for cell cycle analysis suggested that the active mutant of FOXO3a caused a noticeable increase in G1- and S-phase frequencies, while a decrease was observed after FOXO3a silencing. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that FOXO3a could possibly inhibit EPC proliferation via cell cycle arrest involving upregulation of p27(kip1) and downregulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and PCNA.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological and prognostic implications of the miR-200 family in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of the expression of members in the miR-200 family with clinicopathological characteristics and their impacts on overall survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Expression levels of members in the miR-200 family, including miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-141, and miR-429, were detected by using miRNA qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Associations of their expression with clinicopathological factors and overall survival were statistically evaluated. Among five members in the miR-200 family, the expression levels of miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c were significantly higher in EOC tissues than those in normal surface ovarian epithelium tissues, in line with the findings ofin situ hybridization analysis. In addition, tumors with high miR-200a and miR-200 bexpressionwere both more likely to have advanced stage (both P=0.006) and higher grade (P=0.01 and 0.02), whilehighmiR-200 cexpression was onlysignificantly associated with advanced stage disease (P=0.01). Moreover, univariate analysis showed that the patients with high miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c expression all correlated with shorter overall survival in EOC patients (all P<0.001). Multivariate statistical analysis further identified miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c asindependent prognostic factorsfor EOC (all P=0.01). In conclusion, these findings suggest that miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-200c overexpression may promote the aggressive tumor progression and be recognized as reliable markers to predict the survival in patients with EOCs. The three miRNAs could be attractive therapeutic targets in patients with advanced-stage EOCs.
Related JoVE Video
Over-expression of TRESK K(+) channels reduces the excitability of trigeminal ganglion nociceptors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) channel is abundantly expressed in trigeminal ganglion (TG) and dorsal root ganglion neurons and is one of the major background K(+) channels in primary afferent neurons. Mutations in TRESK channels are associated with familial and sporadic migraine. In rats, both chronic nerve injury and inflammation alter the expression level of TRESK mRNA. Functional studies indicate that reduction of endogenous TRESK channel activity results in hyper-excitation of primary afferent neurons, suggesting that TRESK is a potential target for the development of new analgesics. However, whether and how enhancing TRESK channel activity would decrease the excitability of primary afferent neurons has not been directly tested. Here, we over-expressed TRESK subunits in cultured mouse TG neurons by lipofectamine-mediated transfection and investigated how this altered the membrane properties and the excitability of the small-diameter TG population. To account for the heterogeneity of neurons, we further divided small TG neurons into two groups, based on their ability to bind to fluorescently-labeled isolectin B (IB4). The transfected TG neurons showed a 2-fold increase in the level of TRESK proteins. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the fraction of lamotrigine-sensitive persistent K(+) currents as well as the size of total background K(+) currents. Consequently, both IB4-positive and IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits exhibited a lower input resistance and a 2-fold increase in the current threshold for action potential initiation. IB4-negative TG neurons over-expressing TRESK subunits also showed a significant reduction of the spike frequency in response to supra-threshold stimuli. Importantly, an increase in TRESK channel activity effectively inhibited capsaicin-evoked spikes in TG neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that potent and specific TRESK channel openers likely would reduce the excitability of primary afferent neurons and therefore are potential therapeutics for the treatment of migraine and other chronic pain symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Are Geriatric Medicine Fellows Prepared for the Important Skills of Hospice and Palliative Care?
Am J Hosp Palliat Care
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many geriatricians care for terminally ill and dying patients, but it is unclear whether the current geriatric medicine fellows receive sufficient training in hospice and palliative care (H&PC). A national cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2011 to determine fellows experience and perceived competency with H&PC. Fellows (143 of 298, 48%) and program directors (PDs; 69 of 150, 46%) answered the surveys on paper or online. Three-fourths of the fellows planned to practice H&PC; however, only 35% fellows versus 42% PDs believed that fellows were well prepared in this area. Factors associated with fellows self-reported better preparation included completion of an H&PC rotation, experiences with an inpatient hospice facility, inpatient palliative care consulting service, and the presence of a formal H&PC curriculum.
Related JoVE Video
[Safety and feasibility of early oral feeding after gastrectomy: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To systematically evaluate the safety and feasibility of early oral feeding after gastric cancer surgery.
Related JoVE Video
[Preparation and evaluation of valerian oil-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to improve the stability and cover the unpleasant odor of valerian oil by preparation of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex. The preparation method was established based on the yield of inclusion complex and entrapment efficiency of valerian volatile oil. After that, the formulation and processing parameters were optimized by uniform design table. The formations of inclusion complex were validated by DSC and X-RD method. The stability of valerian oil beta-cyclodextrin inclusion was studied under stressed conditions. In conclusion, relatively high yield of inclusion complex and entrapment efficiency were obtained by saturated solution-ultrasonication method. Inclusion complex yield and entrapment efficiency of the valerian oil were (84.78 +/- 3.23)% and (86.23 +/- 2.48)%, which were prepared under the optimized conditions, respectively. The results of DSC and X-RD were indicated the formation of inclusion complex. The stability of test showed that the valerian oil-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was improved significantly.
Related JoVE Video
Interplay between microRNAs and the STAT3 signaling pathway in human cancers.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs, also miR) are a class of noncoding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression through binding to protein-coding messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, predominantly within the 3-untranslated region (3-UTR). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of genes involved in regulating a variety of biological processes. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that miRNAs are closely associated with the STAT3 signaling pathway. In this review, we focus on interactions between miRNAs and the STAT3 signaling pathway, focusing on their reciprocal regulation and roles in cancer. For instance, several papers independently support the existence of regulatory feedback loops between miRNAs and the STAT3 pathway in different cancer contexts including IL-6-STAT3-miR-24/miR-629-HNF4?-miR-124 and IL-6R-STAT3-NF-?B-Lin-28-let-7a. Furthermore, several miRNA components are reported to be involved in STAT3-mediated tumorigenesis, for example miR-21, miR-155, and miR-181b. Through binding to STAT3-binding sites within the promoters of these oncomiRs, STAT3 activates their transcription and mediates tumorigenesis. Some miRNAs directly modulate STAT3 activity through targeting the STAT3 3-UTR; other miRNAs target SOCS, PIAS3, and EGFR genes, which encode proteins that regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Given that miRNAs represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules, investigating their biological functions and contribution to pathologies caused by STAT3 dysregulation is essential to improve our understanding of tumorigenesis and to develop novel anticancer therapeutics. The more we can learn about miRNAs-STAT3 interactions, the better able we will be to manipulate them for developing cancer therapeutics.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of low temperature exposure on dermal microvascular endothelial cells function].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the damage effects and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exposed with different low-temperatures on rat dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVECs).
Related JoVE Video
[Efficacy of standard antiviral therapy retreatment following interferon treatment failure in chronic hepatitis C patients].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the therapeutic efficacy of standard antiviral therapy applied after interferon (IFN) treatment failure in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC).
Related JoVE Video
[Preparation, in vitro evaluation of excipient-free dry powder inhalation of extraction of Trollius chinensis].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prepare and evaluate dry powder inhalation (DPI) of extraction of Trollius chinensis Bunge (TCB). Orthodox design was employed to optimize the parameters of spray drying to prepare micronized TCB powder, the DPI was prepared by mixing micronized TCB powder and lactose. The results showed that the fine particle fraction (FPF) and emitted dose (ED) of micronized TCB powder was (21.07 +/- 1.74)%, (75.31 +/- 21.05)%, respectively, and for DPI was (56.4 +/- 2.2)%, (95.9 +/- 3.0)%, respectively. Therefore, the prepared DPI meeted requirements in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, indicating a good application prospect.
Related JoVE Video
Single-incision laparoscopic versus conventional laparoscopic endorectal pull-through for Hirschsprungs disease: a comparison of short-term surgical results.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single-incision laparoscopy has recently become a popular procedure in pediatric surgery. The current series is the largest study to evaluate the operative complications and results of single-incision laparoscopic endorectal pull-through (SILEP) for the treatment of HD through a retrospective comparison with conventional laparoscopic endorectal pull-through (CLEP).
Related JoVE Video
Elevated Th17 cells accompanied by decreased regulatory T cells and cytokine environment in infants with biliary atresia.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Th17 and Treg cells in biliary atresia (BA) and to assess the liver cytokine environment in BA patients.
Related JoVE Video
Making rabies prophylaxis more economical: Immunogenicity and safety results from a preliminary study using a 2-1 intramuscular regimen in healthy volunteers.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background Rabies is fatal in nearly 100% of cases, making post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) a required measure for preventing mortality. Currently, the rabies vaccination regimen requires at least three to five clinic visits, with vaccination and transportation costs being very high. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of the 2-1 intramuscular (IM) regimen for rabies immunization with the goal of making rabies prophylaxis more economical. Methods One hundred and eighty-one subjects were divided into two groups: 79 subjects in test group A and 102 subjects in control group B. 2-1 IM regimen was chosen for group A and the Essen regimen was adopted for group B. Serum samples were also collected at D0, D7, D14, D45, D180, and D360 to determine the rabies serum neutralizing antibody by rapid luorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Results There was no significant difference between groups A and B with respect to the rate of adverse events following each vaccination. Nine hundred and nineteen blood samples were obtained. At D0 (prior to immunization), all study subjects exhibited a geometric mean titer (GMT)<0.05 IU/ml. On D14, all study subjects exhibited NAb titers>0.5 IU/ml; titers above 0.5 IU/ml were maintained in both groups through D45 and D180 before gradually declining. The percentage of subjects positive for NAbs in group A and group B on D7 were 88.6% and 87.3%, respectively, which was not statistically different (P = 0.545). On D360, the percentage of subjects positive for NAbs in group A and group B were 93.9% and 100% (P<0.01), respectively. During the study, the GMT was highest for both groups on D14 (21.90 IU/ml, group A; 19.93 IU/ml, group B) (P = 0.045). On D45, the GMTs were 8.28 IU/ml (group A) and 7.89 IU/ml (group B) (P = 0.037). On D7, D180, and D360, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the GMT. Conclusions The 2-1 IM regimen demonstrates the same safety and efficacy as the Essen regimen. The use of the 2-1 IM regimen could not only reduce the personal economic burdens of rabies immunization but also improve rabies immunization rates through fewer office visits and compliance with immunization procedures. However, further evaluation is needed before a major recommendation can be made.
Related JoVE Video
[The damage effects of hypothermia combined with hypoxia on rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells].
Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the synergistic effects of hypothermia and hypoxia on the damage of pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVEC) in rat.
Related JoVE Video
Single-walled carbon nanotubes for high-performance electronics.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) could replace silicon in high-performance electronics with their exceptional electrical properties and intrinsic ultra-thin body. During the past five years, the major focus of this field is gradually shifting from proof-of-concept prototyping in academia to technology development in industry with emphasis on manufacturability and integration issues. This article reviews recent advances, starting with experimental and modeling works that evaluate the potential of adopting SWNTs in ultimately scaled transistors. Techniques to separate nanotubes according to their electronic types and assemble them into aligned arrays are then discussed, followed by a description of the engineering aspects in their implementation in integrated circuits and systems. A concluding discussion provides some perspectives on future challenges and research opportunities.
Related JoVE Video
Functional analysis of a migraine-associated TRESK K+ channel mutation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent genetic and functional studies suggest that migraine may result from abnormal activities of ion channels and transporters. A frameshift mutation in the human TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) channel has been identified in migraine with aura patients in a large pedigree. In Xenopus oocytes, mutant TRESK subunits exert a dominant-negative effect on whole-cell TRESK currents. However, questions remain as to whether and how mutant TRESK subunits affect the membrane properties and the excitability of neurons in the migraine circuit. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of the mutant TRESK subunits in HEK293T cells and mouse trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. First, we found that mutant TRESK subunits exhibited dominant-negative effects not only on the size of the whole-cell TRESK currents, but also on the level of TRESK channels on the plasma membrane in HEK293T cells. This likely resulted from the heterodimerization of wild-type and mutant TRESK subunits. Next, we expressed mutant TRESK subunits in cultured TG neurons and observed a significant decrease in the lamotrigine-sensitive K(+) current, suggesting that the mutant TRESK subunits have a dominant-negative effect on currents through the endogenous TRESK channels. Current-clamp recordings showed that neurons expressing mutant TRESK subunits had a higher input resistance, a lower current threshold for action potential initiation, and a higher spike frequency in response to suprathreshold stimuli, indicating that the mutation resulted in hyperexcitability of TG neurons. Our results suggest a possible mechanism through which the TRESK mutation increases the susceptibility of migraine headache.
Related JoVE Video
[Synthesis and spectral characteristics of selenium-chelated methionine with hexagon].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using methionine and anhydrous ethanol as raw material, p-toluene sulfonic acid as catalyst, and benzene as a carrying water agent, methionine ester was first synthesized. Then, selenium-chelated methionine was prepared through the reaction of methionine ester with sodium selenite by a certain proportion, settling and crystallizing at lower temperature. The xi potential of the resultant was determined by micro-electrophoresis, through which the isoelectric point was calculated. Based on the principle of isoelectric point, it was separated and purified. The spectral properties of the resultant were analyzed by infrared spectrum, utraviolet spectrum, X ray diffraction analysis and 1H-NMR, from which we got the information of the resultant structure that has a hexagon composing of sulfur atom of methionine, nitrogen of amine and central selenium ion of four-valence.
Related JoVE Video
miR-124 functions as a tumor suppressor in the endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1B partly by suppressing STAT3.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma (EC). Recently, several studies have shown that microRNA-124 (miR-124) is downregulated in various cancers, which can affect tumor initiation and maintenance. However, the effects of miR-124 on EC are largely unknown. In this study, we identified the under-expression of miR-124 in 35 paired EC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Further, functional experiments found that ectopic expression of miR-124 markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of EC cells. It also induced cell apoptosis and G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Moreover, we identified signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) as a direct target of miR-124, and over expression of miR-124 not only induced changes in STAT3 expression but also altered expression of its target genes, cyclin D2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2, in the human endometrial carcinoma cell line HEC-1B. In addition to targeting STAT3 directly, we found that miR-124 suppresses phosphorylation of STAT3 through targeting IL-6R indirectly. Restored STAT3 expression through treatment with IL-6 cytokine partly abolished miR-124-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. These results combined with the tumorigenetic role of STAT3 in HEC-1B cells suggest that the antitumor effects of miR-124 are achieved, at least partly, through down regulation of STAT3 mRNA and its downstream target genes. Therefore, inhibition of constitutively activated STAT3 by ectopic expression of miR-124 in EC may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of EC.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial and pedigree analysis in Przewalskis horse populations: implications for genetic management and reintroductions.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Background and Aims: Przewalskis horses have been imported from the western zoos to China since 1985. Yet the genetic diversity in Chinas populations has not been studied, thus lacking of such knowledge inevitably affects this populations management. The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity in Chinese population of Przewalskis horses via mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region and pedigree analysis. Materials and methods: Two captive and one reintroduced populations were examined based on mitochondrial DNA control region variation via fecal sampling from 2010 to 2012, together with pedigree analysis. Results: Amplification success rates of fecal mtDNA were as high as 96.2% (93.8%-100%), and were higher for sample in winter than in summer and autumn. Two haplotypes were identified and shared among three populations, but the proportion of individuals with each haplotype varied among the three populations (FST?=?0.10874, p?=?0.00978). Haplotype diversity in the released population (0.153) was much lower than that in the two captive populations (0.4011 and 0.4966), in accordance with the direction of increase in probability of identity at the dam lines. Conclusion: Future concerns in Przewalskis horse population management should emphasize on strict reproduction control to minimize inbreeding in captivity, followed by long-term genetic diversity guidelines and non-invasive monitoring in the reintroduction programmes.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrogen peroxide induced impairment of endothelial progenitor cell viability is mediated through a FoxO3a dependant mechanism.
Microvasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased oxidative stress has been suggested to contribute to the functional impairment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The Forkhead box O transcription factors (FoxOs) are critical regulators involved in various cellular processes including cell apoptosis. Here, we investigated whether FoxOs are required in oxidative stress induced EPC apoptosis.
Related JoVE Video
Biofeedback therapy combined with traditional chinese medicine prescription improves the symptoms, surface myoelectricity, and anal canal pressure of the patients with spleen deficiency constipation.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to observe the clinical therapeutic effects of Yiqi Kaimi Prescription and biofeedback therapy on treating constipation with deficiency of spleen qi, the 30 cases in the control group were given oral administration of Yiqi Kaimi Prescription, in combination with anus-lifting exercise; the 30 cases in the treatment group were given biofeedback therapy on the basis of the afore mentioned methods for the control group. The TCM symptom scores and anorectal pressures before and after treatment were observed and evaluated. There were significant differences in TCM symptom scores, anorectal pressure, and clinical recovery rate before and after treatment. In the treatment group, the total recovery rate was 86.66%, while in the control group it was 50%; there were significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.01). Yiqi Kaimi Prescription coupled with biofeedback therapy is clinically effective for treating constipation with deficiency of spleen qi, and thus this method is applicable for functional constipation with deficiency of spleen qi.
Related JoVE Video
[A novel modi cation of real-time AS-qPCR by using locked nucleic acid-modified oligonucleotide probe as wild type allele amplification blockers for quantitative detection of the JAK2 V617F mutation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To develop a novel real-time PCR for sensitively quantitative detection of JAK2 V617F allele burden in peripheral blood.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking using orally disintegrating tablet containing ion exchange resin-drug complex.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the taste-masking of bitter drug using ion exchange resin has been recognized, in vitro testing using an electronic tongue (e-Tongue) and in vivo bitterness test by human panel test was not fully understood. In case of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) containing bitter medicine, in vitro and in vivo disintegration is also importance for dosage performance. Donepezil hydrochloride was chosen as a model drug due to its bitterness and requires rapid disintegration for the preparation of ODT. In this study, ion exchange resin drug complex (IRDC) at three different ratios (1:2, 1:1, 2:1) was prepared using a spray-drying method and then IRDC-loaded ODT containing superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate) were prepared by the direct compression method. The physical properties and morphologies were then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and electrophoretic laser scattering (ELS), respectively. The in vitro taste-masking efficiency was measured with an electronic tongue (e-Tongue). In vivo bitterness scale was also evaluated by human volunteers and then we defined new term, "bitterness index (BI)" to link in vitro e-Tongue. There was a good correlation of IRDC between in vitro e-Tongue values and in vivo BI. Furthermore, IRDC-loaded ODT showed good in vitro/in vivo correlation in the disintegration time. The optimal IRDC-loaded ODTs displayed similar drug release profiles to the reference tablet (Aricept(®) ODT) in release media of pH 1.2, pH 4.0, pH 6.8 and distilled water but had significantly better palatability in vivo taste-masking evaluation. The current IRDC-loaded ODT according to the in vitro and in vivo correlation of disintegration and bitter taste masking could provide platforms in ODT dosage formulations of donepezil hydrochloride for improved patient compliances.
Related JoVE Video
Salvianolate inhibits reactive oxygen species production in H(2)O(2)-treated mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro via the TGF? pathway.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effects of salvianolate, a water-soluble active compound from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Design, in vitro release characterization and pharmacokinetics of novel controlled release pellets containing levodropropizine.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract This study was performed to investigate the in vitro release characteristics of levodropropizine (LDP) from novel dual-coated sustained release (SR) pellets, and evaluate the pharmacokinetics of a novel controlled release (CR) preparation composed of the dual-coated SR pellets and immediate release (IR) LDP pellets. The dual-coated SR pellets composed of a drug-loaded nonpareil core, a sub-coating layer (HPMC 6cps) and an SR-coating layer (Aquacoat® ECD, Eudragit® RS 30D or Kollicoat® SR 30D) were prepared by a bottom-spray fluidized bed-coating method. The drug release from the dual-coated SR pellets coated with Aquacoat® ECD followed a zero-order profile in water, and the drug release was not affected by the coating level of the sub-coating layer and stable under the accelerated storage condition (40?°C, 75% RH) for 6 months. The CR preparation showed significantly decreased values of maximum drug concentration (Cmax) and elimination rate (K) than the reference product (LEVOTUS® SYR) but the similar bioavailability (F?=?95.43%). The novel CR preparation presents promising delivery of LDP with an immediate and sustained release manner, with similar clinical effect as the commercial IR product.
Related JoVE Video
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first remission abrogates poor outcomes associated with high-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite remission rates of approximately 85% for children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), greater than 40% will die from relapsed disease. Patients with poor-risk molecular/cytogenetics and/or inadequate response to up-front therapy are typically considered high-risk (HR) and historically have poor outcomes with chemotherapy alone. We investigated whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with best available donor in first remission (CR1) would abrogate the poor outcomes associated with HR AML in children and young adults treated with chemotherapy. We reviewed the outcomes of 50 consecutive children and young adults (ages 0 to 30 years) with AML who received a myeloablative allo-HCT between 2001 and 2010. Thirty-six patients (72%) were HR, defined as having FLT3-ITD mutations, 11q23 MLL rearrangements, chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities, induction failure, and/or having persistent disease. The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine based. Transplantation outcomes for HR patients were compared to standard-risk patients, with no significant differences observed in overall survival (72% versus 78%, P = .72), leukemia-free survival (69% versus 79%, P = .62), relapse (11% versus 7%, P = .71), or treatment-related mortality (17% versus 14%, P = .89). Children and young adults with HR-AML have comparable outcomes to standard-risk patients following allo-HCT in CR1.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene mutation and prenatal diagnosis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the characteristics of DNA mutations underlying Duchenne muscular dystrophy and provide prenatal diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Safety of post-exposure rabies prophylaxis during pregnancy: a follow-up study from Guangzhou, China.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to assess the safety profile of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for rabies in pregnant women. All of the subjects received the Essen vaccination regimen. Systemic and local reactions were monitored within 72 hours following the immunization, and the subjects were followed until six months after delivery. No moderate or severe adverse effects occurred in any subject following the vaccination. Among the 72 subjects in this follow-up study, four had voluntary abortions, one subject had an accidental miscarriage, and the remaining 67 subjects delivered babies vaginally or by caesarean section. All of the infants exhibited normal development.The purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and the purified chick embryo cell vaccine were both safe for the PEP of pregnant women and did not interfere with the development of the fetuses or infants. Education is needed in China to stop pregnancy terminations due to concerns about rabies vaccination risk. :
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics of puerarin in pregnant rats at different stages of gestation after oral administration.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to observe the effects of gestational stage on the pharmacokinetics of puerarin after oral administration in rats. The pharmacokinetics of puerarin was studied in pregnant rats using a sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography/ultraviolet method. The concentration-time curves in both normal and pregnant rats were fit into a two-compartment model. The results indicated that gestation influences the pharmacokinetics of puerarin at different levels, especially during the early stages of pregnancy. Furthermore, puerarin penetrates the placental barrier and maintains high concentrations in fetal rat plasma. Therefore, puerarin administration should be carefully considered in pregnant women.
Related JoVE Video
25-Methoxylprotopanaxadiol derivatives and their anti-proliferative activities.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
(20R)-25-Methoxyl-dammarane-3?,12?,20-triol (25-OCH?-PPD) is a dammarane-type sapogenin showing anti-proliferative potential. In our study, two series of analogs substituted at the C-3 or C-3 and C-12 positions with fatty acids were prepared conveniently. The cytotoxic activity of these compounds was evaluated using four different human tumor cell lines (A549, Hela, HT-29 and MCF-7) and a normal cell line (IOSE144). As compared with 25-OCH?-PPD, compounds 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b showed better anti-proliferative activities against all tumor cell lines and all the derivatives, with low toxicities in the normal cell line. Compound 1a (C-3 monoformiate) exhibited the strongest activity with the IC?? value of 5.2 ?M towards HT29 cells. The results indicated that the difference in the substituents may affect the anti-proliferative activity of the compounds. The longer the side chain of 25-OCH?-PPD is, the lower the anti-proliferative activity would be. This information may be useful for evaluating the structure-activity relationship of other dammarane-type sapogenins and for development of novel antineoplastic agents.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of human Fab antibody fragments specific to LMP1 (HLEAFab) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma for potential molecular diagnosis and therapeutic applications.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In view of the previously demonstrated clinical role of the anti-latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) immunoconjugate HLEAFab-MMC in the treatment of advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), reliable detection of LMP1 expression is of key importance. The aim of this study was to investigate LMP1 status in NPC. Tissue samples from 36 cases were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization for LMP1 and BNLF1 (LMP1 gene) expression, respectively. The results showed LMP1 expression in 20/36 (55.6%) cases in the HLEAFab group compared with 22/36 (61.1%) cases in the S12 group (purified mouse anti-human latent membrane protein 1 monoclonal antibody). The positive staining for LMP1 in the tumor cell membranes exhibited uniformity between HLEAFab and S12. BNLF1 was observed to be amplified in 19/36 NPC patients (52.8%). The sensitivities of HLEAFab-IHC-positivity and S12-IHC-positivity for amplification were 84.2 and 89.5%, respectively. Positive expression of LMP1 was present in a significant proportion of the NPC samples. The present findings provide an important strategy for molecular therapy targeting LMP1 in NPC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Generation and characterization of a novel recombinant antibody against LMP1-TES1 of Epstein-Barr virus isolated by phage display.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1) is a primary target for controlling tumorigenesis in Epstein-Barr virus related malignancies; in this study, we aimed to develop a specific antibody against the TES1 domain of the oncogenic LMP1. We screened a full human naïve Fab phage library against TES1 peptide, which consisted of C terminal-activating regions proximal 44 amino acids. After three rounds of panning, enrichment and testing by phage ELISA and further analyzed by DNA sequencing, we selected a phage clone with the highest affinity to LMP1-TES1 and designated it as htesFab. The positive clone was expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified htesFab was characterized for its binding specificity and affinity to LMP1. ELISA, immunofluorescence and FACS analysis confirmed that htesFab could recognize LMP1 TES1 both in vitro and in LMP1 expressing HNE2-LMP1 cells. Furthermore, MTT assay showed that htesFab inhibited the proliferation of HNE2-LMP1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, this study reported the isolation and characterization of human Fab, which specifically targets the C terminal region/TES1 of LMP1, and has potential to be developed as novel tool for the diagnosis and therapy of Epstein-Barr virus related carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes with full surface coverage for high-performance electronics.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single-walled carbon nanotubes have exceptional electronic properties and have been proposed as a replacement for silicon in applications such as low-cost thin-film transistors and high-performance logic devices. However, practical devices will require dense, aligned arrays of electronically pure nanotubes to optimize performance, maximize device packing density and provide sufficient drive current (or power output) for each transistor. Here, we show that aligned arrays of semiconducting carbon nanotubes can be assembled using the Langmuir-Schaefer method. The arrays have a semiconducting nanotube purity of 99% and can fully cover a surface with a nanotube density of more than 500 tubes/µm. The nanotube pitch is self-limited by the diameter of the nanotube plus the van der Waals separation, and the intrinsic mobility of the nanotubes is preserved after array assembly. Transistors fabricated using this approach exhibit significant device performance characteristics with a drive current density of more than 120 µA µm(-1), transconductance greater than 40 µS µm(-1) and on/off ratios of ?1 × 10(3).
Related JoVE Video
Redefining the structure-activity relationships of 2,6-methano-3-benzazocines. Part 9: Synthesis, characterization and molecular modeling of pyridinyl isosteres of N-BPE-8-CAC (1), a high affinity ligand for opioid receptors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Derivatives of the lead compound N-BPE-8-CAC (1) where each CH of the biphenyl group was individually replaced by N were prepared in hopes of identifying high affinity ligands with improved aqueous solubility. Compared to 1, binding affinities of the five possible pyridinyl derivatives for the ? opioid receptor were between threefold lower to fivefold higher with the Ki of the most potent compound being 0.064 nM. Docking of 8-CAC (2) into the unliganded binding site of the mouse ? opioid receptor (pdb: 4DKL) revealed that 8-CAC and ?-FNA (from 4DKL) make nearly identical interactions with the receptor. However, for 1 and the new pyridinyl derivatives 4-8, binding is not tolerated in the 8-CAC binding mode due to the steric constraints of the large N-substituents. Either an alternative binding mode or rearrangement of the protein to accommodate these modifications may account for their high binding affinity.
Related JoVE Video
FAT10 protects cardiac myocytes against apoptosis.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
FAT10 is a new member of the ubiquitin-like protein family with yet-to-be defined biological functions in the heart. Our objective was to determine the role of FAT10 in the heart. FAT10 is expressed in the normal human and murine hearts, as detected by qPCR and Western blotting. Expression of FAT10 is increased in the heart at the border zone of myocardial infarction and in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCM) subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) stress. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of FAT10 in NRCM reduced p53 (TP53) and its target miR-34a levels, while BCL2 level, a target of miR-34a, was increased and BAX level, a pro-apoptotic protein, was reduced. These changes were associated with reduced apoptosis, detected by FACS analysis of annexin-V expression and TUNEL assay, in response to H/R injury. Knock down of FAT10 by shRNA targeting had the opposite effects. Likewise, lentiviral mediated expression of miR-34a was associated with reduced BCL2 and increased BAX levels in NRCM and also reversed changes in BCL-2 and BAX levels observed upon over-expression of FAT10. Treatment of NRCM with proteasome inhibitor MG132 increased p53 and miR-34a levels and reduced BLC2/BAX ratio. These changes were not reversed upon over-expression of FAT10. Thus, FAT10 is upregulated in the heart and NRCM in response to H/R stress, which protects cardiac myocytes against apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic effects of FAT10 are associated with suppression of p53, probably through fatylation and proteasomal degradation, reduced miR-34a expression, and a shift in the BCL2/BAX proteins against apoptosis. Thus, FAT10 is a cardioprotective protein.
Related JoVE Video
Promotion of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes production by restraining the intracellular ?-glucosidase in Penicillium decumbens.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, the functions of ?-glucosidases in regulation of the lignocellulolytic enzymes production in Penicillium decumbens 114-2 were investigated. The major extracellular ?-glucosidase gene bgl1 and the major intracellular ?-glucosidase gene bgl2 were deleted in P. decumbens 114-2 respectively. In ?bgl2, the production of extracellular lignocellulolytic enzymes (including endoglucanases, cellobiohydrolases and xylanases) on insoluble cellulose was significantly promoted, while in ?bgl1 there was no any difference compared with that of 114-2. The enhancement of the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes in ?bgl2 was likely attributed to the accumulation of intracellular cellobiose. Induction experiment in ?bgl1?bgl2 showed that cellobiose was an inducer of lignocellulolytic enzymes expression in P. decumbens 114-2, and the induction was unrelated to the formation, if any, of gentiobiose or sophorose from cellobiose.
Related JoVE Video
Herpes zoster knowledge, prevalence, and vaccination rate by race.
J Am Board Fam Med
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the prevalence of self-reported herpes zoster (HZ) disease and vaccination in a geriatric population and to characterize the deciding factors to receive the HZ vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Beclin 1 deficiency correlated with lymph node metastasis, predicts a distinct outcome in intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy can be tumor suppressive as well as promotive in regulation of tumorigenesis and disease progression. Accordingly, the prognostic significance of autophagy key regulator Beclin 1 was varied among different tumors. Here, we detected the clinicopathological and prognostic effect of Beclin 1 in the subtypes of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC). Beclin 1 expression level was detected by immunohistochemistry staining in 106 ICC and 74 ECC patients. We found that Beclin 1 was lowly expressed in 126 (70%) cholangiocarcinoma patients, consist of 72 ICC and 54 ECC. Moreover, the cholangiocarcinoma patients with lymph node metastasis (N1) had a lower Beclin 1 level than that of N0 subgroup (P=0.012). However, we did not detect any correlations between Beclin 1 and other clinicopathological features, including tumor subtypes, vascular invasion, HBV infection, liver cirrhosis, cholecystolithiasis and TNM stage. Survival analysis showed that, compared with the high expression subset, Beclin 1 low expression was correlated with a poorer 3-year progression-free survival (PFS, 69.1% VS 46.8%, P=041) for cholangiocarcinoma. Importantly, our stratified univariate and multivariate analysis confirmed that Beclin 1 lowly expressed ICC had an inferior PFS as well as overall survival than ECC, particularly than that of Beclin 1 highly expressed ECC patients. Thus, our study demonstrated that Beclin 1low expression, correlated with lymph node metastasis, and might be a negative prognostic biomarker for cholangiocarcinoma. Combined Beclin 1 level with the anatomical location might lead to refined prognosis for the subtypes of ICC and ECC.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of ALK rearrangement in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer using FISH, immunohistochemistry, and real-time quantitative RT- PCR on paraffin-embedded tissues.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with ALK gene rearrangements often manifest dramatic responses to crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor. Accurate identification of patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for the clinical application of ALK-targeted therapy. However, assessing EML4-ALK rearrangement in NSCLC remains challenging in routine pathology practice. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of FISH, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (QPCR) methodologies for detection of EML4-ALK rearrangement in NSCLC and to appraise immunohistochemistry as a pre-screening tool. In this study, a total of 473 paraffin-embedded NSCLC samples from surgical resections and biopsies were analyzed by IHC with ALK antibody. ALK rearrangement was further confirmed by FISH and QPCR. ALK protein expression was detected in twenty patients (20/473, 4.2%). Of the 20 ALK-positive cases by IHC, 15 cases were further confirmed as ALK rearrangement by FISH, and 5 cases were not interpretable. Also, we evaluated 13 out of the 20 IHC-positive tissues by QPCR in additional to FISH, and found that 9 cases were positive and 2 cases were equivocal, whereas 2 cases were negative although they were positive by both IHC and FISH. The ALK status was concordant in 5 out of 8 cases that were interpretable by three methods. Additionally, none of the 110 IHC-negative cases with adenocarcinoma histology showed ALK rearrangements by FISH. Histologically, almost all the ALK-rearranged cases were adenocarcinoma, except that one case was sarcomatoid carcinoma. A solid signet-ring cell pattern or mucinous cribriform pattern was presented at least focally in all ALK-positive tumors. In conclusion, our findings suggested that ALK rearrangement was associated with ALK protein expression. The conventional IHC assay is a valuable tool for the pre-screening of patients with ALK rearrangement in clinical practice and a combination of FISH and QPCR is required for further confirmation.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutation T666M on voltage-gated calcium channel activities in trigeminal ganglion neurons.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM-1), a rare hereditary form of migraine with aura and hemiparesis, serves as a good model for exploring migraine pathophysiology. The FHM-1 gene encodes the pore-forming Ca(V)2.1 subunit of human P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs). Some FHM-1 mutations result in a decrease of whole cell P/Q-type current density in transfected cells/neurons. Questions remain as to whether and how these mutations may increase the gain of the trigeminal nociceptive pathway underlying migraine headache. Here, we investigated the effects of T666M, the most frequently occurring FHM-1 mutation, on VGCC currents and neuronal excitability in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. We expressed human wild-type and T666M Ca(V)2.1 subunits in cultured TG neurons from Ca(V)2.1 knockout mice and recorded whole cell VGCC currents in transfected neurons. Currents mediated by individual VGCC subtypes were dissected according to their pharmacological and biophysical properties. TG neurons were sorted into three subpopulations based on their soma size and their affinity to isolectin B4 (IB4). We found that the T666M mutation did not affect total or surface expression of Ca(V)2.1 proteins but caused a profound reduction of P/Q-type current in all subtypes of TG neurons. Interestingly, a compensatory increase in Ca(V)3.2-mediated low-voltage-activated T-type currents only occurred in small IB4-negative (IB4(-)) TG neurons expressing T666M subunits. Current-clamp recordings showed that the T666M mutation resulted in hyperexcitability of the small IB4(-) TG population. Taken together, our results suggest a possible scenario through which FHM-1 mutations might increase the gain of the trigeminal nociceptive pathway.
Related JoVE Video
A human Fab-based immunoconjugate specific for the LMP1 extracellular domain inhibits nasopharyngeal carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a major cause of cancer-related death in Southeast Asia and China. Metastasis and relapse are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in NPC. Recent evidence suggests that the Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is exclusively expressed in most NPC and is a potential target for biotherapy. In this study, we successfully prepared a novel human antibody Fab (HLEAFab) against LMP1 extracellular domain, which was subsequently conjugated with mitomycin C (MMC), thus forming an immunoconjugate (HLEAFab-MMC). The effects of HLEAFab-MMC on proliferation and apoptosis in NPC cell lines HNE2/LMP1 and the inhibition rate of growth of NPC xenografts in nude mice were examined. The inhibition rate of HNE2/LMP1 cell proliferation was the highest for HLEAFab-MMC (76%) compared with MMC (31%) and HLEAFab (22%) at a concentration of 200 nmol/L and showed dose-dependent fashion. The apoptosis rate of HNE2/LMP1 cell lines was 13.88% in HLEAFab-MMC group, 3.04% in MMC group, 2.78% in HLEAFab group, and 2.10% in negative control group at the same concentration, respectively. In vivo, the inhibition rate of growth of NPC xenografts in nude mice was 55.1% in HLEAFab-MMC group, 26.5% in MMC group, and 5.64% in HLEAFab group. In summary, our findings show that HLEAFab-MMC is a unique immunoconjugate with the potential as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of LMP1-expressing NPC.
Related JoVE Video
[Cyclooxygenase inhibitors in some dietary vegetables inhibit platelet aggregation function induced by arachidonic acid].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study was purposed to investigate whether the cyclooxygenase inhibitors from some dietary vegetables can inhibit platelet aggregation function by the arachidonic acid (AA). The vegetable juice was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), and asprin was used as positive control. The maximum ratio of platelet aggregation induced by AA was measured on the aggregometer; heme and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX(1)) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX(2)) were added to test tubes containing COX reaction buffer, the mixture was vortex-mixed and exposed to aspirin or vegetable juice, followed by addition of AA and then hydrochloric acid (1 mol/L) was added to stop the COX reaction, followed by chemical reduction with stannous chloride solution. The concentration of COX inhibitors was detected by the enzyme immunoassay kit; vegetable juice (aspirin as positive control) was mixed with whole blood, which was followed by the addition of AA, and then the reaction was stopped by adding indomethacin, centrifuged, then the supernatant was collected, and the plasma thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) was measured by radioimmunoassay. The results showed that spinach juice, garlic bolt juice, blanched garlic leave juice and Chinese leek juice could inhibit by 80% human platelet aggregation induced by AA. 4 kinds of vegetables were all found a certain amount of cyclooxygenase inhibitors, which COX(1) and COX(2) inhibitor concentrations of spinach were higher than that of aspirin; 4 vegetable juice could significantly reduce the human plasma concentrations of TXB(2) induced by AA (p < 0.05). It is concluded that 4 kinds of raw vegetables containing cyclooxygenase inhibitors inhibit the production of TXA(2) and thus hinder platelet aggregation. Raw spinach, garlic bolt, blanched garlic and chinese leek inhibit significantly AA-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro. 4 kinds of vegetables may have a good potential perspective of anti-platelet aggregation therapy or prevention of thrombosis.
Related JoVE Video
A new triterpenoid saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from the aerial parts of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Its structural elucidation was accomplished mainly on the basis of the interpretation of spectroscopic data, such as IR, HR-TOF-MS and NMR. Its cytotoxic activity was evaluated against one human cancer cell line HL-60 using MTT assay.
Related JoVE Video
HLA-DR expression on regulatory T cells is closely associated with the global immune activation in HIV-1 infected subjects naïve to antiretroviral therapy.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The frequencies of regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased over the HIV infection but its counts actually decreased. We proposed that the decrease of Treg counts may cause the reduction of inhibitory effect and thereby account for the over-activation of Tregs during HIV infection. However, it remains unknown whether Tregs are also over-activated and thereafter the activation induced death may lead to the decrease of Tregs.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical analysis of 8 cases of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the clinical characteristics of hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia (HAAA). A retrospective analysis was conducted among 8 cases of established HAAA in light of the clinical and laboratory findings and the patient outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Nanofiber topography and sustained biochemical signaling enhance human mesenchymal stem cell neural commitment.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stem cells hold great promise in enhancing nerve regeneration. In particular, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) represent a clinically viable cell source due in part to their abundance and accessibility. Unfortunately, current methods to direct the fate of stem cells remains largely limited to biochemical-based approaches on two-dimensional substrates with restricted efficacies. Here we have evaluated a scaffold-based approach to directing stem cell differentiation. We demonstrate the combined effects of nanofiber topography and controlled drug release on enhancing MSC neural commitment. By encapsulating up to 0.3 wt.% retinoic acid (RA) within aligned poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers (average diameter ?270 nm, AF750), sustained released of RA was obtained for at least 14 days (?60% released). Compared with tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS), the nanofiber topography arising from plain PCL nanofibers significantly up-regulated the expressions of neural markers, Tuj-1, MAP2, GalC and RIP at the mRNA and protein levels. Combined with sustained drug availability, more significant changes in cell morphology and enhancement of neural marker expression were observed. In particular, scaffold-based controlled delivery of RA enhanced MAP2 and RIP expression compared with bolus delivery despite lower amounts of drug (>8 times lower). The generally higher expression of the mature neuronal marker MAP2 compared with glial markers at the mRNA and protein levels suggested an enhanced potential of MSC neuronal differentiation. In addition, positive staining for synaptophysin was detected only in cells cultured on aligned scaffolds in the presence of RA. Taken together, the results highlight the advantage of the scaffold-based approach in enhancing the potential of MSC neuronal differentiation and demonstrated the importance of the drug delivery approach in directing cell fate. Such biomimicking drug-encapsulating scaffolds may permit subsequent direct cell transplantation and provide guidance cues to control the fate of endogenously recruited stem cells.
Related JoVE Video
[The research of saffold virus in children with lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate prevalence of Saffold virus (SAFV) in Changsha area of hospitalized children with respiratory tract infection, and to discuss whether this virus is related to respiratory tract infection of children.
Related JoVE Video
[Detection and clinical characteristics analysis of human bocavirus 1-3 in children for acute respiratory infection in Lanzhou area].
Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the clinical and molecular epidemiology characteristics of human Bocavirus 1-3 (HBoV1-3) in children for acute respiratory infection in Lanzhou area.
Related JoVE Video
[Classification of pilon fractures by computed tomography and its guide to clinical treatment].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To introduce a method of three-column classifications for Pilon fractures and observe clinical utility on column fixation.
Related JoVE Video
Coexistence of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma and clear cell carcinoma in patients without tuberous sclerosis.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (EAML) is a rare but distinct variant of angiomyolipoma, closely simulating renal cell carcinoma or sarcoma both clinically and histopathologically. This report presents an unusual case of unilateral simultaneous renal EAML and renal clear cell carcinoma. A 52-year-old man without any sign of tuberous sclerosis had a complaint of 6-month history of pain in left renal area and had macroscopic hematuria twice within the recent 1 month. Computed tomography showed the presence of 2 masses in the upper and lower portion of the left kidney. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy. Histological examination revealed the upper mass was composed of medium to large epithelioid cells with clear or eosinophilic cytoplasm and numerous giant multinucleated cells. Adult-appearing adipose tissue and coagulative necrosis could also be observed focally in the mass. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells in the upper mass showed positive reactions to actin, HMB-45, Melan-A, and CD68 but negative reactions to pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK), epithelial membrane antigen, and CD10. However, the lower mass was composed of diffusely monomorphic clear cells with strongly immunoreactive for pan-CK, vimentin, and CD10, whereas without expression for HMB-45 and actin. The patient showed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis during 1-year postoperative following-up period. To the authors knowledge, this is the first report of coincidental renal EAML and clear cell carcinoma in the same kidney. Unlike classic triphasic angiomyolipoma, adjuvant therapy after resection should be considered for renal EAML because of its malignant potential, more aggressive behavior and poor prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of bone marrow hematogones on umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early after umbilical cord blood transplantation, patients show marked differences in bone marrow (BM) hematogone percentages. Little is known about whether these differences are clinically relevant. We hypothesized that early recovery of hematogones may be associated with improved transplantation outcomes. BM aspirates were assessed from 88 patients with acute myeloid leukemia by two independent reviewers at day 21 and 100 after umbilical cord blood transplantation. Interobserver variability for BM hematogone percentages at these time points showed correlation coefficients of 0.83 and 0.98, respectively (P ? .01 for both). A high percentage of hematogones at day 21 was associated with less acute graft-versus-host disease grade 3 to 4 (P = .01). At day 100, a high percentage of BM hematogones was associated with improved overall survival (P = .02) and lower treatment-related mortality (P ? .01). This study shows that BM hematogone percentages may be useful prognostic indicators in patients with acute myeloid leukemia after umbilical cord blood transplantation and should be routinely reported in BM differential counts.
Related JoVE Video
[Pretreatment of isolated vein with rapamycin nanoparticles inhibits vein graft stenosis in rabbits].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of pretreatment of carbopol-encapsulated rapamycin-loaded nanoparticles (RPM-NP) on vein graft stenosis in a rabbit vein graft model.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.