JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intermediate filament protein accumulation in motor neurons derived from giant axonal neuropathy iPSCs rescued by restoration of gigaxonin.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the GAN gene resulting in a loss of a ubiquitously expressed protein, gigaxonin. Gene replacement therapy is a promising strategy for treatment of the disease; however, the effectiveness and safety of gigaxonin reintroduction have not been tested in human GAN nerve cells. Here we report the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three GAN patients with different GAN mutations. Motor neurons differentiated from GAN iPSCs exhibit accumulation of neurofilament (NF-L) and peripherin (PRPH) protein and formation of PRPH aggregates, the key pathological phenotypes observed in patients. Introduction of gigaxonin either using a lentiviral vector or as a stable transgene resulted in normalization of NEFL and PRPH levels in GAN neurons and disappearance of PRPH aggregates. Importantly, overexpression of gigaxonin had no adverse effect on survival of GAN neurons, supporting the feasibility of gene replacement therapy. Our findings demonstrate that GAN iPSCs provide a novel model for studying human GAN neuropathologies and for the development and testing of new therapies in relevant cell types.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced transgene expression from single-stranded D-sequence-substituted recombinant AAV vectors in human cell lines in vitro and in murine hepatocytes in vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously reported that the removal of a 20-nucleotide sequence, termed the D-sequence, from both ends of the inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) in the adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) genome, significantly impairs rescue, replication, and encapsidation of the viral genomes (J. Mol. Biol., 250: 573-580, 1995; J. Virol., 70: 1668-1677, 1996). Here we describe that substitution of only one D-sequence in either ITR restores each of these functions, but DNA strands of only single-polarity are encapsidated in mature progeny virions. Since most commonly used recombinant AAV vectors contain a single-stranded (ss) DNA, which is transcriptionally-inactive, efficient transgene expression from AAV vectors is dependent upon viral second-strand DNA synthesis. We have also identified a transcription-suppressor sequence in one of the D-sequences, which shares homology with the binding site for the cellular NF-?B-repressing factor (NRF). The removal of this D-sequence from, and substitution with a sequence containing putative binding sites for transcription factors in, ssAAV vectors significantly augments transgene expression both in human cell lines in vitro and in murine hepatocytes in vivo. The development of these genome-modified ssAAV vectors has implications not only in the basic biology of AAV, but also in the optimal use of these vectors in human gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Insight into the Mechanism of Inhibition of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 Complex.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-Associated virus (AAV) is a dependent virus of the family parvoviridae. Gene expression and replication of AAV and derived recombinant vectors (rAAV) are severely limited (>10-fold) by the cellular DNA damage sensing complex made up of Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1 (MRN). AAV does not encode the means to circumvent this block to productive infection, but relies on co-infecting helper-virus to do so. Using adenovirus helper proteins E1B55k andE4orf6, which enhance transduction of AAV via degradation of MRN, we investigate the mechanism through which this DNA damage complex inhibits gene expression from rAAV. We test substrate specificity of inhibition and the contribution of different functions of the MRN complex. Our results demonstrate that both single- and double-stranded rAAV vectors are inhibited by MRN, which is in contrast to the predominant model that inhibition is the result of a block to second-strand synthesis. Exploring the contribution of known functions of MRN, we found inhibition of rAAV does not require downstream DNA damage response factors, including signaling kinases ATM and ATR. The nuclease domain of Mre11 appears to play only a minor role in inhibition, while the DNA-binding domain makes a greater contribution. Additionally, mutation of the inverted terminal repeat of the rAAV genome, which has been proposed to be the signal for interaction with MRN, is tolerated by the mechanism of inhibition. These results articulate a model of inhibition of gene expression in which physical interaction is more important than enzymatic activity and several key downstream damage repair factors are dispensable.
Related JoVE Video
Preclinical toxicity evaluation of AAV for pain: evidence from human AAV studies and from the pharmacology of analgesic drugs.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene therapy with adeno-associated virus (AAV) has advanced in the last few years from promising results in animal models to >100 clinical trials (reported or under way). While vector availability was a substantial hurdle a decade ago, innovative new production methods now routinely match the scale of AAV doses required for clinical testing. These advances may become relevant to translational research in the chronic pain field. AAV for pain targeting the peripheral nervous system was proven to be efficacious in rodent models several years ago, but has not yet been tested in humans. The present review addresses the steps needed for translation of AAV for pain from the bench to the bedside focusing on pre-clinical toxicology. We break the potential toxicities into three conceptual categories of risk: First, risks related to the delivery procedure used to administer the vector. Second, risks related to AAV biology, i.e., effects of the vector itself that may occur independently of the transgene. Third, risks related to the effects of the therapeutic transgene. To identify potential toxicities, we consulted the existing evidence from AAV gene therapy for other nervous system disorders (animal toxicology and human studies) and from the clinical pharmacology of conventional analgesic drugs. Thereby, we identified required preclinical studies and charted a hypothetical path towards a future phase I/II clinical trial in the oncology-palliative care setting.
Related JoVE Video
Recombinant adeno-associated virus utilizes cell-specific infectious entry mechanisms.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding the entry and trafficking mechanism(s) of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) into host cells can lead to evolution in capsid and vector design and delivery methods, resulting in enhanced transduction and therapeutic gene expression. Variability of findings regarding the early entry pathway of rAAV supports the possibility that rAAV, like other viruses, can utilize more than one infectious entry pathway. We tested whether inhibition of macropinocytosis impacted rAAV transduction of HeLa cells compared to hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We found that macropinocytosis inhibitor cytochalasin D blocked rAAV transduction of HeLa cells (>2-fold) but enhanced (10-fold) transduction in HepG2 and Huh7 lines. Similar results were obtained with another macropinocytosis inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA). The augmented transduction was due to neither viral binding nor promoter activity, affected multiple rAAV serotypes (rAAV2, rAAV2-R585E, and rAAV8), and influenced single-stranded and self-complementary virions to comparable extents. Follow-up studies using CDC42 inhibitor ML141 and p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) siRNA knockdown also resulted in enhanced HepG2 transduction. Microscopy revealed that macropinocytosis inhibition correlated with expedited nuclear entry of the rAAV virions into HepG2 cells. Enhancement of hepatocellular rAAV transduction extended to the mouse liver in vivo (4-fold enhancement) but inversely blocked heart tissue transduction (13-fold). This evidence of host cell-specific rAAV entry pathways confers a potent means for controlling and enhancing vector delivery and could help unify the divergent accounts of rAAV cellular entry mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Human neural stem cells survive long term in the midbrain of dopamine-depleted monkeys after GDNF overexpression and project neurites toward an appropriate target.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transplanted multipotent human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) significantly improved the function of parkinsonian monkeys in a prior study primarily by neuroprotection, with only 3%-5% of cells expressing a dopamine (DA) phenotype. In this paper, we sought to determine whether further manipulation of the neural microenvironment by overexpression of a developmentally critical molecule, glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in the host striatum could enhance DA differentiation of hfNSCs injected into the substantia nigra and elicit growth of their axons to the GDNF-expressing target. hfNSCs were transplanted into the midbrain of 10 green monkeys exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-pyridine. GDNF was delivered concomitantly to the striatum via an adeno-associated virus serotype 5 vector, and the fate of grafted cells was assessed after 11 months. Donor cells remained predominantly within the midbrain at the injection site and sprouted numerous neurofilament-immunoreactive fibers that appeared to course rostrally toward the striatum in parallel with tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers from the host substantia nigra but did not mature into DA neurons. This work suggests that hfNSCs can generate neurons that project long fibers in the adult primate brain. However, in the absence of region-specific signals and despite GDNF overexpression, hfNSCs did not differentiate into mature DA neurons in large numbers. It is encouraging, however, that the adult primate brain appeared to retain axonal guidance cues. We believe that transplantation of stem cells, specifically instructed ex vivo to yield DA neurons, could lead to reconstruction of some portion of the nigrostriatal pathway and prove beneficial for the parkinsonian condition.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiac I-1c Overexpression With Reengineered AAV Improves Cardiac Function in Swine Ischemic Heart Failure.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiac gene therapy has emerged as a promising option to treat advanced heart failure (HF). Advances in molecular biology and gene targeting approaches are offering further novel options for genetic manipulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to improve cardiac function in chronic HF by overexpressing constitutively active inhibitor-1 (I-1c) using a novel cardiotropic vector generated by capsid reengineering of adeno-associated virus (BNP116). One month after a large anterior myocardial infarction, 20 Yorkshire pigs randomly received intracoronary injection of either high-dose BNP116.I-1c (1.0?×?10(13) vector genomes (vg), n = 7), low-dose BNP116.I-1c (3.0?×?10(12) vg, n = 7), or saline (n = 6). Compared to baseline, mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 5.7% in the high-dose group, and by 5.2% in the low-dose group, whereas it decreased by 7% in the saline group. Additionally, preload-recruitable stroke work obtained from pressure-volume analysis demonstrated significantly higher cardiac performance in the high-dose group. Likewise, other hemodynamic parameters, including stroke volume and contractility index indicated improved cardiac function after the I-1c gene transfer. Furthermore, BNP116 showed a favorable gene expression pattern for targeting the heart. In summary, I-1c overexpression using BNP116 improves cardiac function in a clinically relevant model of ischemic HF.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.127.
Related JoVE Video
AAV-mediated gene editing via double-strand break repair.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditionally, the ability to edit the mammalian genome was inhibited by the inherent low efficiency of homologous recombination (HR; approximately <1 in a million events) and the inability to deliver DNA efficiently to dividing and non-dividing cells/tissue. Despite these limitations, creative selections designed over 20 years ago, clearly demonstrated the powerful implications of gene knock-in and knockout technology for the genetic engineering of mice (Doetschman et al. Nat 330(6148): 576-578, 1987; Thomas and Capecchi. Cell 51(3): 503-512, 1987). The development and application of recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (rAAV) have helped to overcome both of the initial limitations regarding DNA delivery and the frequency of HR. Considering DNA delivery, rAAV infects non-dividing and dividing cultured cells as well as most tissues in mouse and larger animal models (including humans). At the DNA editing level, rAAV genomes have been reported to increase the frequency of HR several orders of magnitude by serving as the repair substrate (Russell and Hirata. Nat Genet 18(4): 325-330, 1998). However, reports on the ability of rAAV genomes to stimulate HR, compared to plasmid DNA and oligonucleotides, are variable, and many labs have found it necessary to augment the frequency of rAAV-induced HR using site-specific endonucleases (Ellis et al. Gene Ther, 2012; Hirsch et al. Gene Ther 17(9): 1175-1180, 2010; Porteus et al. Mol Cell Biol 23(10): 3558-3565, 2003; Radecke et al. Mol Ther 14(6): 798-808, 2006). In this protocol, we describe a method to perform rAAV-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair for precise genetic engineering in human cells.
Related JoVE Video
Recombinant adeno-associated virus utilizes host cell nuclear import machinery to enter the nucleus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors have garnered much promise in gene therapy applications. However, widespread clinical use has been limited by transduction efficiency. Previous studies suggested that the majority of rAAV accumulates in the perinuclear region of cells, presumably unable to traffic into the nucleus. rAAV nuclear translocation remains ill-defined; therefore, we performed microscopy, genetic, and biochemical analyses in vitro in order to understand this mechanism. Lectin blockade of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) resulted in inhibition of nuclear rAAV2. Visualization of fluorescently labeled particles revealed that rAAV2 localized to importin-?-dense regions of cells in late trafficking steps. Additionally, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of importin-? partially inhibited rAAV2 nuclear translocation and inhibited transduction by 50 to 70%. Furthermore, coimmunopreciptation (co-IP) analysis revealed that capsid proteins from rAAV2 could interact with importin-? and that this interaction was sensitive to the small GTPase Ran. More importantly, mutations to key basic regions in the rAAV2 capsid severely inhibited interactions with importin-?. We tested several other serotypes and found that the extent of importin-? interaction varied, suggesting that different serotypes may utilize alternative import proteins for nuclear translocation. Co-IP and siRNA analyses were used to investigate the role of other karyopherins, and the results suggested that rAAV2 may utilize multiple import proteins for nuclear entry. Taken together, our results suggest that rAAV2 interacts with importin-? alone or in complex with other karyopherins and enters the nucleus via the NPC. These results may lend insight into the design of novel AAV vectors that have an enhanced nuclear entry capability and transduction potential.
Related JoVE Video
Adeno-associated viral vectors show serotype specific transduction of equine joint tissue explants and cultured monolayers.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) receptors range from heparan sulfate proteoglycan to sialic acid moieties present on cell surfaces. Abundance of the glycan profiles is greatly influenced by animal species, cell type, and culture conditions. The objective of this study was to determine whether AAV serotypes' transduction efficiencies specifically in the equine monolayer culture model are an accurate representation of transduction efficiencies in tissue explants, a model more closely related to in vivo transduction. It was found that AAV 2 and 2.5 transduced cells more efficiently in explants than in monolayers. Through experiments involving assessing enzyme degradation of cell surface proteoglycans, this change could not be attributed to differences in the extra cellular matrix (ECM), but a similar change in AAV 5 transduction efficiency could be readily explained by differences in cell surface sialylated glycan. Unexpectedly it was found that in a small but diverse sample of horses evidence for serum neutralizing antibodies was only found to AAV 5. This suggests a unique relationship between this capsid and the equine host or an unresolved relationship between similar bovine AAV and the AAV 5 capsid immune response.
Related JoVE Video
K137R Mutation on Adeno-Associated Viral Capsids Had Minimal Effect on Enhancing Gene Delivery In Vivo.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector has emerged as an attractive vector for gene therapy applications. Development of AAV vectors with enhanced gene transduction efficiency is important to ease the burden of AAV production and minimize potential immune responses. Rational mutations on AAV capsids have gained attention as a simple method of enhancing AAV transduction efficiency. A single-amino acid mutation, K137R, on AAV1 and AAV8 was recently reported to increase liver transgene expression by 5-10-fold. To determine whether the same mutation on other AAV serotypes would result in similar gene enhancement effects, K137R mutants were generated on AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9, and their effects were evaluated in vivo. Two reporter genes were utilized: the nuclear LacZ gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter and the luciferase gene driven by the CB promoter. Surprisingly, we found no difference in luciferase gene expression in the liver or other tissues using either the wild-type AAV8 capsid or AAV8-K137R. LacZ gene expression in the liver by AAV8-K137R was about onefold higher than that of wild-type AAV8. However, no difference was found in other tissues, such as skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle. In addition, no difference was found in transgene expression with either AAV7-K137R or AAV9-K137R mutants. Our results indicated that the K137R mutation on AAV7, AAV8, and AAV9 had minimal to no effect on transduction efficiency in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Promyelocytic leukemia protein is a cell-intrinsic factor inhibiting parvovirus DNA replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tripartite motif proteins are important viral restriction factors and affect processes ranging from uncoating to transcription to immune signaling. Specifically, the promyelocytic leukemia protein (TRIM19; also called PML) is a viral restriction factor inhibiting processes from uncoating to transcription to cell survival. Here we investigated PMLs effect on adeno-associated virus (AAV), a parvovirus used for gene delivery. Although dependovirus (AAV) and autonomous parvovirus (minute virus of mice) replication centers can colocalize with PML, PMLs functional effect on parvoviruses is unknown. Using PML knockout mice, we determined that PML knockout enhances recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2) transduction at a range of vector doses in both male and female mice. In fact, male and female PML knockout mice exhibited up to 56-fold and 28-fold increases in transduction, respectively. PML inhibited several rAAV serotypes, suggesting a conserved mechanism, and organ specificity correlated with PML expression. Mechanistically, PML inhibited rAAV second-strand DNA synthesis, precluding inhibition of self-complementary rAAV, and did not affect the prior steps in transduction. Furthermore, we confirmed the effect of human PML on rAAV transduction through small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown in HuH7 cells and determined that the highest level of inhibition was due to effects of PML isoform II (PMLII). Overexpression of PMLII resulted in inhibition of second-strand synthesis, vector production, and genome replication. Moreover, wild-type AAV2 production and infectivity were also inhibited by PMLII, demonstrating a PML interaction with wild-type AAV. These data have important implications for AAV-mediated gene therapy. Additionally, PMLII inhibition of AAV second-strand synthesis and replication, which are processes necessary for all parvoviruses, suggests implications for replication of other parvoviruses.
Related JoVE Video
An emerging adeno-associated viral vector pipeline for cardiac gene therapy.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The naturally occurring adeno-associated virus (AAV) isolates display diverse tissue tropisms in different hosts. Robust cardiac transduction in particular has been reported for certain AAV strains. Successful applications of these AAV strains in preclinical and clinical settings with a focus on treating cardiovascular disease continue to be reported. At the same time, these studies have highlighted challenges such as cross-species variability in AAV tropism, transduction efficiency, and immunity. Continued progress in our understanding of AAV capsid structure and biology has provided the rationale for designing improved vectors that can possibly address these concerns. The current report provides an overview of cardiotropic AAV, existing gaps in our knowledge, and newly engineered AAV strains that are viable candidates for the cardiac gene therapy clinic.
Related JoVE Video
Biosafety of Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Vectors.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is hoped that the use of gene transfer technology to treat both monogenetic and acquired diseases may soon become a common therapy option in medicine. For gene therapy to achieve this objective, any gene delivery method will have to meet several criteria, including ease of manufacturing, efficient gene transfer to target tissue, long-term gene expression to alleviate the disease, and most importantly safety in patients. Viral vectors are an attractive choice for use in gene therapy protocols due to their relative efficiency in gene delivery. Since there is inherent risk in using viruses, investigators in the gene therapy community have devoted extensive efforts toward reengineering viral vectors for enhance safety. Here we review the approaches and technologies that are being evaluated for the use of recombinant vectors based upon adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the treatment of variety of human diseases. AAV is currently the only known human DNA virus that is non-pathogenic and AAV-based vectors are classified as Risk Group 1 agents for all laboratory and animal studies carried out in the US. Although its apparent safety in natural infection and animals appears well documented, we examine the accumulated knowledge on the biology and vectorology of AAV, lessons learned from gene therapy clinical trials, and how this information is impacting current vector design and manufacturing with an overall emphasis on biosafety.
Related JoVE Video
Parkinsons Disease Gene Therapy: Success by Design meets Failure by Efficacy.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the past decade, nine gene therapy clinical trials for Parkinsons disease (PD) have been initiated and completed. Starting with considerable optimism at the initiation of each trial, none of the programs has yet borne sufficiently robust clinical efficacy or found a clear path towards regulatory approval. Despite the immediately disappointing nature of the efficacy outcomes in these trials, the clinical data garnered from the individual studies nonetheless represent tangible and significant progress for the gene therapy field. Collectively, the clinical trials demonstrate that we have overcome the major safety hurdles previously suppressing CNS gene therapy, for none produced any evidence of untoward risk or harm after administration of various vector-delivery systems. More importantly, these studies also demonstrated controlled, highly persistent generation of biologically active proteins targeted to structures deep in the human brain. Therefore a renewed, focused emphasis must be placed on advancing clinical efficacy by improving clinical trial design, patient selection, and outcome measures, developing more predictive animal models to support clinical testing, carefully performing retrospective analyses, and most importantly moving forward - beyond our past limits.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.281.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanistic insights into the enhancement of adeno-associated virus transduction by proteasome inhibitors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Proteasome inhibitors (e.g., bortezomib, MG132) are known to enhance adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction; however, whether this results from pleotropic proteasome inhibition or off-target serine and/or cysteine protease inhibition remains unresolved. Here, we examined recombinant AAV (rAAV) effects of a new proteasome inhibitor, carfilzomib, which specifically inhibits chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity and no other proteases. We determined that proteasome inhibitors act on rAAV through proteasome inhibition and not serine or cysteine protease inhibition, likely through positive changes late in transduction.
Related JoVE Video
Oversized AAV Transductifon Is Mediated via a DNA-PKcs-independent, Rad51C-dependent Repair Pathway.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A drawback of gene therapy using adeno-associated virus (AAV) is the DNA packaging restriction of the viral capsid (<4.7?kb). Recent observations demonstrate oversized AAV genome transduction through an unknown mechanism. Herein, AAV production using an oversized reporter (6.2?kb) resulted in chloroform and DNase-resistant particles harboring distinct "fragment" AAV (fAAV) genomes (5.0, 2.4, and 1.6?kb). Fractionation experiments determined that only the larger "fragments" mediated transduction in vitro, and relatively efficient transduction was also demonstrated in the muscle, the eye, and the liver. In contrast with concatemerization-dependent large-gene delivery by split AAV, fAAV transduction is independent of the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) in vitro and in vivo while disproportionately reliant on the DNA strand-annealing protein Rad51C. Importantly, fAAVs unique dependence on DNA repair proteins, compared with intact AAV, strongly suggests that the majority of oversized AAV transduction is mediated by fragmented genomes. Although fAAV transduction is less efficient than intact AAV, it is enhanced fourfold in muscle and sevenfold in the retina compared with split AAV transduction. Furthermore, fAAV carrying codon-optimized therapeutic dysferlin cDNA in a 7.5?kb expression cassette restored dysferlin levels in a dystrophic model. Collectively, oversized AAV genome transduction requires unique DNA repair pathways and offers an alternative, more efficient strategy for large-gene therapy.Molecular Therapy (2013); 21 12, 2205-2216. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.184.
Related JoVE Video
?-cell-specific IL-2 therapy increases islet Foxp3+Treg and suppresses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for the homeostasis and function of forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+)Tregs). Dysregulation of the IL-2-IL-2 receptor axis is associated with aberrant Foxp3(+)Tregs and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Treatment with recombinant IL-2 has been reported to enhance Foxp3(+)Tregs and suppress different models of autoimmunity. However, efficacy of IL-2 therapy is dependent on achieving sufficient levels of IL-2 to boost tissue-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs while avoiding the potential toxic effects of systemic IL-2. With this in mind, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery was used to localize IL-2 expression to the islets of NOD mice. Injection of a double-stranded AAV vector encoding IL-2 driven by a mouse insulin promoter (dsAAVmIP-IL2) increased Foxp3(+)Tregs in the islets but not the draining pancreatic lymph nodes. Islet Foxp3(+)Tregs in dsAAVmIP-IL2-treated NOD mice exhibited enhanced fitness marked by increased expression of Bcl-2, proliferation, and suppressor function. In contrast, ectopic IL-2 had no significant effect on conventional islet-infiltrating effector T cells. Notably, ?-cell-specific IL-2 expression suppressed late preclinical type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that ?-cell-specific IL-2 expands an islet-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs pool that effectively suppresses ongoing type 1 diabetes long term.
Related JoVE Video
Capsid antibodies to different adeno-associated virus serotypes bind common regions.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interactions between viruses and the host antibody immune response are critical in the development and control of disease, and antibodies are also known to interfere with the efficacy of viral vector-based gene delivery. The adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) being developed as vectors for corrective human gene delivery have shown promise in clinical trials, but preexisting antibodies are detrimental to successful outcomes. However, the antigenic epitopes on AAV capsids remain poorly characterized. Cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction were used to define the locations of epitopes to which monoclonal fragment antibodies (Fabs) against AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, and AAV6 bind. Pseudoatomic modeling showed that, in each serotype, Fabs bound to a limited number of sites near the protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes of the T=1 icosahedral capsids. For the closely related AAV1 and AAV6, a common Fab exhibited substoichiometric binding, with one Fab bound, on average, between two of the three protrusions as a consequence of steric crowding. The other AAV Fabs saturated the capsid and bound to the walls of all 60 protrusions, with the footprint for the AAV5 antibody extending toward the 5-fold axis. The angle of incidence for each bound Fab on the AAVs varied and resulted in significant differences in how much of each viral capsid surface was occluded beyond the Fab footprints. The AAV-antibody interactions showed a common set of footprints that overlapped some known receptor-binding sites and transduction determinants, thus suggesting potential mechanisms for virus neutralization by the antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
Kinetics of adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) and AAV8 capsid antigen presentation in vivo are identical.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors 2 and 8 have been used in clinical trials for patients with hemophilia, and data suggest that the capsid-specific CD8? T cell response has had a negative impact on therapeutic success. To date the pattern of capsid cross-presentation from AAV2 and AAV8 transduction in vivo has not been elucidated. Previously, we have demonstrated that an engineered AAV2 virus carrying the immune-dominant SIINFEKL peptide in the capsid backbone was indistinguishable from wild type with respect to titer, tropism, and the ability to induce capsid-specific CD8? T cell responses in vivo. In this study, we used the same strategy to engineer an AAV8 vector and demonstrated that antigen from SIINFEKL peptide-integrated AAV8 capsid was effectively presented via either plasmid transfection or AAV8 transduction in vitro. The tissue tropism and transgene expression kinetics of the engineered AAV8 vector in vivo were identical to that of wild-type AAV8. Animal studies show that capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction was dose dependent, and more importantly, the proliferation of capsid-specific CD8? T cells had similar kinetics (detectable before 30 days and undetectable after 40 days) for both AAV2 and AAV8 vectors. Elucidation of the kinetics of capsid antigen presentation from AAV transduction by various serotypes provides new insight into the potential impact CD8? T cells can have during clinical trials and may help with rational design of effective strategies to prevent capsid-specific CD8? T cell-mediated elimination of AAV-transduced target cells.
Related JoVE Video
Gene therapy for rare diseases: summary of a national institutes of health workshop, september 13, 2012.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene therapy has shown clinical efficacy for several rare diseases, using different approaches and vectors. The Gene Therapy for Rare Diseases workshop, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Biotechnology Activities and Office of Rare Diseases Research, brought together investigators from different disciplines to discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancing the field including means for enhancing data sharing for preclinical and clinical studies, development and utilization of available NIH resources, and interactions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Related JoVE Video
Structure and dynamics of adeno-associated virus serotype 1 VP1-unique N-terminal domain and its role in capsid trafficking.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The importance of the phospholipase A2 domain located within the unique N terminus of the capsid viral protein VP1 (VP1u) in parvovirus infection has been reported. This study used computational methods to characterize the VP1 sequence for adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes 1 to 12 and circular dichroism and electron microscopy to monitor conformational changes in the AAV1 capsid induced by temperature and the pHs encountered during trafficking through the endocytic pathway. Circular dichroism was also used to monitor conformational changes in AAV6 capsids assembled from VP2 and VP3 or VP1, VP2, and VP3 at pH 7.5. VP1u was predicted (computationally) and confirmed (in solution) to be structurally ordered. This VP domain was observed to undergo a reversible pH-induced unfolding/refolding process, a loss/gain of ?-helical structure, which did not disrupt the capsid integrity and is likely facilitated by its difference in isoelectric point compared to the other VP sequences assembling the capsid. This study is the first to physically document conformational changes in the VP1u region that likely facilitate its externalization from the capsid interior during infection and establishes the order of events in the escape of the AAV capsid from the endosome en route to the nucleus.
Related JoVE Video
Arsenic trioxide stabilizes accumulations of adeno-associated virus virions at the perinuclear region, increasing transduction in vitro and in vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Interactions with cellular stress pathways are central to the life cycle of many latent viruses. Here, we utilize adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a model to study these interactions, as previous studies have demonstrated that cellular stressors frequently increase transduction of recombinant AAV (rAAV) vectors and may even substitute for helper virus functions. Since several chemotherapeutic drugs are known to increase rAAV transduction, we investigated the effect of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), an FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent with known effects on several other virus life cycles, on the transduction of rAAV. In vitro, As(2)O(3) caused a dose-dependent increase in rAAV2 transduction over a broad range of cell lines from various cell types and species (e.g., HEK-293, HeLa, HFF hTERT, C-12, and Cos-1). Mechanistically, As(2)O(3) treatment acted to prevent loss of virions from the perinuclear region, which correlated with increased cellular vector genome retention, and was distinguishable from proteasome inhibition. To extend our investigation of the cellular mechanism, we inhibited reactive oxygen species formation and determined that the As(2)O(3)-mediated increase in rAAV2 transduction was dependent upon production of reactive oxygen species. To further validate our in vitro data, we tested the effect of As(2)O(3) on rAAV transduction in vivo and determined that treatment initiated transgene expression as early as 2 days posttransduction and increased reporter expression by up to 10-fold. Moreover, the transduction of several other serotypes of rAAV was also enhanced in vivo, suggesting that As(2)O(3) affects a pathway used by several AAV serotypes. In summary, our data support a model wherein As(2)O(3) increases rAAV transduction both in vitro and in vivo and maintains perinuclear accumulations of capsids, facilitating productive nuclear trafficking.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of scAAVIL-1ra In Vitro and In Vivo to Deliver High Levels of Therapeutic Protein for Treatment of Osteoarthritis.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Osteoarthritis (OA) affects over 40 million people annually. We evaluated interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene transfer in an equine model based on IL-1ra protein therapy which inhibits inflammation through blocking IL-1. Using the self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV)IL-1ra equine gene as a starting construct, we optimized the transgene cassette by analyzing promoters (cytomegalovirus (CMV) versus chicken ?-actin hybrid (CBh)), coding sequences (optimized versus unoptimized), vector capsid (serotype 2 versus chimeric capsid), and biological activity in vitro. AAV serotypes 2 and 2.5 CMV scAAVoptIL-1ra were tested in equine joints. We evaluated two doses of scAAVIL-1ra, scAAVGFP, and saline. We developed a novel endoscopy procedure and confirmed vector-derived transgene expression (GFP) in chondrocytes 6 months post-injection. AAVIL-1ra therapeutic protein levels were 200-800?ng/ml of synovial fluid over 23 and 186 days, respectively. No evidence of intra-articular toxicity was detected and no vector genomes were found in contralateral joints based on GFP fluorescence microscopy and quantitative PCR. Finally, we assayed vector-derived IL-1ra activity based on functional assays which supported anti-inflammatory activity of our protein. These studies represent the first large animal intra-articular gene transfer approach with a therapeutic gene using scAAV and demonstrate high levels of protein production over extended time supporting further clinical investigation using scAAV gene therapy for OA.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e70; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.61; published online 5 February 2013.
Related JoVE Video
Adeno-associated virus capsid antigen presentation is dependent on endosomal escape.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are attractive for gene delivery-based therapeutics, but data from recent clinical trials have indicated that AAV capsids induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response that eliminates transduced cells. In this study, we used traditional pharmacological agents and AAV mutants to elucidate the pathway of capsid cross-presentation in AAV-permissive cells. Endosomal acidification inhibitors blocked AAV2 antigen presentation by over 90%, while proteasome inhibitors completely abrogated antigen presentation. Using mutant viruses that are defective for nuclear entry, we observed a 90% decrease in capsid antigen presentation. Different antigen presentation efficiencies were achieved by selectively mutating virion nuclear localization signals. Low antigen presentation was demonstrated with basic region 1 (BR1) mutants, despite relatively high transduction efficiency, whereas there was no difference in antigen presentation between BR2 and BR3 mutants defective for transduction, as compared with wild-type AAV2. These results suggest that effective AAV2 capsid antigen presentation is dependent on AAV virion escape from the endosome/lysosome for antigen degradation by proteasomes, but is independent of nuclear uncoating. These results should facilitate the design of effective strategies to evade capsid-specific CTL-mediated elimination of AAV-transduced target cells in future clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
In cellulo examination of a beta-alpha hybrid construct of beta-hexosaminidase A subunits, reported to interact with the GM2 activator protein and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The hydrolysis in lysosomes of GM2 ganglioside to GM3 ganglioside requires the correct synthesis, intracellular assembly and transport of three separate gene products; i.e., the alpha and beta subunits of heterodimeric beta-hexosaminidase A, E.C. # 3.2.1.52 (encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively), and the GM2-activator protein (GM2AP, encoded by the GM2A gene). Mutations in any one of these genes can result in one of three neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as GM2 gangliosidosis (HEXA, Tay-Sachs disease, MIM # 272800; HEXB, Sandhoff disease, MIM # 268800; and GM2A, AB-variant form, MIM # 272750). Elements of both of the hexosaminidase A subunits are needed to productively interact with the GM2 ganglioside-GM2AP complex in the lysosome. Some of these elements have been predicted from the crystal structures of hexosaminidase and the activator. Recently a hybrid of the two subunits has been constructed and reported to be capable of forming homodimers that can perform this reaction in vivo, which could greatly simplify vector-mediated gene transfer approaches for Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff diseases. A cDNA encoding a hybrid hexosaminidase subunit capable of dimerizing and hydrolyzing GM2 ganglioside could be incorporated into a single vector, whereas packaging both subunits of hexosaminidase A into vectors, such as adeno-associated virus, would be impractical due to size constraints. In this report we examine the previously published hybrid construct (H1) and a new more extensive hybrid (H2), with our documented in cellulo (live cell- based) assay utilizing a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative. Unfortunately when Tay-Sachs cells were transfected with either the H1 or H2 hybrid construct and then were fed the GM2 derivative, no significant increase in its turnover was detected. In vitro assays with the isolated H1 or H2 homodimers confirmed that neither was capable of human GM2AP-dependent hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside.
Related JoVE Video
Restoration of cytoskeleton homeostasis after gigaxonin gene transfer for giant axonal neuropathy.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is caused by loss of function of the gigaxonin protein. On a cellular level GAN is characterized by intermediate filament (IF) aggregation, leading to a progressive and fatal peripheral neuropathy in humans. This study sought to determine if re-introduction of the GAN gene into GAN-deficient cells and mice would restore proper cytoskeleton IF homeostasis. Treatment of primary skin fibroblast cultures from three different GAN patients with an adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2) vector containing a normal human GAN transgene significantly reduced the number of cells displaying vimentin IF aggregates. A proteomic analysis of these treated cells was also performed, wherein the abundance of 32 of 780 identified proteins significantly changed in response to gigaxonin gene transfer. While 29 of these responding proteins have not been directly described in association with gigaxonin, three were previously identified as being disregulated in GAN and were now shifted toward normal levels. To assess the potential application of this approach in vivo and eventually in humans, GAN mice received an intracisternal injection of an AAV9/GAN vector to globally deliver the GAN gene to the brainstem and spinal cord. The treated mice showed a nearly complete clearance of peripherin IF accumulations at 3 weeks post-injection. These studies demonstrate that gigaxonin gene transfer can reverse the cellular IF aggregate pathology associated with GAN.
Related JoVE Video
Global CNS gene delivery and evasion of anti-AAV-neutralizing antibodies by intrathecal AAV administration in non-human primates.
Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV) into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) offers a means to achieve widespread transgene delivery to the central nervous system, where the doses can be readily translated from small to large animals. In contrast to studies with other serotypes (AAV2, AAV4 and AAV5) in rodents, we report that a naturally occurring capsid (AAV9) and rationally engineered capsid (AAV2.5) are able to achieve broad transduction throughout the brain and spinal cord parenchyma following a single injection into the CSF (via cisterna magna or lumbar cistern) in non-human primates (NHP). Using either vector at a dose of ?2 × 10(12) vector genome (vg) per 3-6 kg animal, approximately 2% of the entire brain and spinal cord was transduced, covering all regions of the central nervous system (CNS). AAV9 in particular displayed efficient transduction of spinal cord motor neurons. The peripheral organ biodistribution was highly reduced compared with intravascular delivery, and the presence of circulating anti-AAV-neutralizing antibodies up to a 1:128 titer had no inhibitory effect on CNS gene transfer. Intra-CSF delivery effectively translates from rodents to NHPs, which provides encouragement for the use of this approach in humans to treat motor neuron and lysosomal storage diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative 3D tracing of gene-delivery viral vectors in human cells and animal tissues.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trafficking through a variety of cellular structures and organelles is essential for the interaction between gene-delivery vectors (i.e., adeno-associated virus (AAV) and liposomes) and host cells/tissues. Here, we present a method of computer-assisted quantitative 3D biodistribution microscopy that samples the whole population of fluorescently-labeled vectors and document their trafficking routes. Using AAV as a working model, we first experimentally defined numerical parameters for the singularity of Cy5-labeled particles by combining confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We then developed a robust approach that integrates single-particle fluorescence imaging with 3D deconvolution and isosurface rendering to quantitate viral distribution and trafficking in human cells as well as animal tissues at the single-particle level. Using this quantitative method, we uncovered an as yet uncharacterized rate-limiting step during viral cell entry, while delineating nuclear accumulation of virions during the first 8 hours postinfection. Further, our studies revealed for the first time that following intramuscular injection, AAV spread progressively across muscle tissues through endomysium between myofibers instead of traversing through target cells. Such 3D resolution and quantitative dissection of vector-host interactions at the subcellular level should significantly improve our ability to resolve trafficking mechanisms of gene-delivery particles and facilitate the development of enhanced viral vectors.
Related JoVE Video
Phase 1 gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy using a translational optimized AAV vector.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Efficient and widespread gene transfer is required for successful treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here, we performed the first clinical trial using a chimeric adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid variant (designated AAV2.5) derived from a rational design strategy. AAV2.5 was generated from the AAV2 capsid with five mutations from AAV1. The novel chimeric vector combines the improved muscle transduction capacity of AAV1 with reduced antigenic crossreactivity against both parental serotypes, while keeping the AAV2 receptor binding. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase I clinical study in DMD boys, AAV2.5 vector was injected into the bicep muscle in one arm, with saline control in the contralateral arm. A subset of patients received AAV empty capsid instead of saline in an effort to distinguish an immune response to vector versus minidystrophin transgene. Recombinant AAV genomes were detected in all patients with up to 2.56 vector copies per diploid genome. There was no cellular immune response to AAV2.5 capsid. This trial established that rationally designed AAV2.5 vector was safe and well tolerated, lays the foundation of customizing AAV vectors that best suit the clinical objective (e.g., limb infusion gene delivery) and should usher in the next generation of viral delivery systems for human gene transfer.
Related JoVE Video
Production of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors and use in in vitro and in vivo administration.
Curr Protoc Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus is a nonpathogenic human virus that has been developed into a gene-delivery vector due to its high efficiency of infection for many different cell types and its ability to persist and lead to long-term gene expression. This unit describes efficient methods to generate high-titer, research-grade, adenovirus-free recombinant single-stranded and self-complementary adeno-associated virus in various serotypes, along with methods to quantify the viral vectors. Two detailed methods are provided for viral vector delivery into the rodent brain and spinal cord, and for histological detection of transgene expression of GFP.
Related JoVE Video
Combination therapy utilizing shRNA knockdown and an optimized resistant transgene for rescue of diseases caused by misfolded proteins.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular knockdown of disease proteins and restoration of wild-type activity represent a promising but challenging strategy for the treatment of diseases that result from the accumulation of misfolded proteins (i.e., Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and ?-1 antitrypsin deficiency). In this study we used alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency with the piZZ mutant phenotype as a model system to evaluate the efficiency of gene-delivery approaches that both silence the piZZ transcript (e.g., shRNA) and restore circulating wild-type AAT expression from resistant codon-optimized AAT (AAT-opt) transgene cassette using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector delivery. After systemic injection of a self-complimentary AAV serotype 8 (scAAV8) vector encoding shRNA in piZZ transgenic mice, both mutant AAT mRNA in the liver and defected serum protein level were inhibited by 95%, whereas liver pathology, as monitored by dPAS and fibrosis staining, reversed. To restore blood AAT levels in AAV8/shRNA-treated mice, several strategies to restore functional AAT levels were tested, including using AAV AAT-opt transgene cassettes targeted to muscle and liver, or combination vectors carrying piZZ shRNA and AAT-opt transgenes separately, or a single bicistronic AAV vector. With these molecular approaches, we observed over 90% knockdown of mutant AAT with a 13- to 30-fold increase of circulating wild-type AAT protein from the shRNA-resistant AAT-opt cassette. The molecular approaches applied in this study can simultaneously prevent liver pathology and restore blood AAT concentration in AAT deficiencies. Based on these observations, similar gene-therapy strategies could be considered for any diseases caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of adeno-associated viral vector serotypes for spinal cord and motor neuron gene delivery.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene therapy for motor neuron diseases requires efficient gene delivery to motor neurons (MNs) throughout the spinal cord and brainstem. The present study compared adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector serotypes 1, 6, 8, and 9 for spinal cord delivery in adult mice, by the intraparenchymal or intrathecal route of administration. Whereas intraparenchymal injections resulted in local transduction of the lumbar segment of the spinal cord, intrathecal injections led to a broader distribution, transducing cells along the sacral, lumbar, and lower thoracic spinal cord. Overall, AAV6 and AAV9 performed better than the other serotypes. Dramatic differences in cell-specific expression patterns could be observed when constructs bearing the chicken ?-actin (Cba) versus cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter were compared. In summary, intrathecal delivery of AAV6 or AAV9 vectors containing the CMV promoter yielded the strongest levels of biodistribution and MN transduction in the spinal cord.
Related JoVE Video
Viral single-strand DNA induces p53-dependent apoptosis in human embryonic stem cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication.
Related JoVE Video
Viral vectors for gene delivery to the central nervous system.
Neurobiol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The potential benefits of gene therapy for neurological diseases such as Parkinsons, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Epilepsy, and Alzheimers are enormous. Even a delay in the onset of severe symptoms would be invaluable to patients suffering from these and other diseases. Significant effort has been placed in developing vectors capable of delivering therapeutic genes to the CNS in order to treat neurological disorders. At the forefront of potential vectors, viral systems have evolved to efficiently deliver their genetic material to a cell. The biology of different viruses offers unique solutions to the challenges of gene therapy, such as cell targeting, transgene expression and vector production. It is important to consider the natural biology of a vector when deciding whether it will be the most effective for a specific therapeutic function. In this review, we outline desired features of the ideal vector for gene delivery to the CNS and discuss how well available viral vectors compare to this model. Adeno-associated virus, retrovirus, adenovirus and herpesvirus vectors are covered. Focus is placed on features of the natural biology that have made these viruses effective tools for gene delivery with emphasis on their application in the CNS. Our goal is to provide insight into features of the optimal vector and which viral vectors can provide these features.
Related JoVE Video
Optimizing promoters for recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression in the peripheral and central nervous system using self-complementary vectors.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
With the increased use of small self-complementary adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors, the design of compact promoters becomes critical for packaging and expressing larger transgenes under ubiquitous or cell-specific control. In a comparative study of commonly used 800-bp cytomegalovirus (CMV) and chicken ?-actin (CBA) promoters, we report significant differences in the patterns of cell-specific gene expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The CMV promoter provides high initial neural expression that diminishes over time. The CBA promoter displayed mostly ubiquitous and high neural expression, but substantially lower expression in motor neurons (MNs). We report the creation of a novel hybrid form of the CBA promoter (CBh) that provides robust long-term expression in all cells observed with CMV or CBA, including MNs. To develop a short neuronal promoter to package larger transgenes into AAV vectors, we also found that a 229-bp fragment of the mouse methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2) promoter was able to drive neuron-specific expression within the CNS. Thus the 800-bp CBh promoter provides strong, long-term, and ubiquitous CNS expression whereas the MeCP2 promoter allows an extra 570-bp packaging capacity, with low and mostly neuronal expression within the CNS, similar to the MeCP2 transcription factor.
Related JoVE Video
Preclinical differences of intravascular AAV9 delivery to neurons and glia: a comparative study of adult mice and nonhuman primates.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Other labs have previously reported the ability of adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this report, we carefully characterized variables that might affect AAV9s efficiency for central nervous system (CNS) transduction in adult mice, including dose, vehicle composition, mannitol coadministration, and use of single-stranded versus self-complementary AAV. We report that AAV9 is able to transduce approximately twice as many neurons as astrocytes across the entire extent of the adult rodent CNS at doses of 1.25 × 10¹², 1 × 10¹³, and 8 × 10¹³ vg/kg. Vehicle composition or mannitol coadministration had only modest effects on CNS transduction, suggesting AAV9 crosses the BBB by an active transport mechanism. Self-complementary vectors were greater than tenfold more efficient than single-stranded vectors. When this approach was applied to juvenile nonhuman primates (NHPs) at the middle dose (9-9.5 × 10¹² vg/kg) tested in mice, a reduction in peripheral organ and brain transduction was observed compared to mice, along with a clear shift toward mostly glial transduction. Moreover, the presence of low levels of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) mostly occluded CNS and peripheral transduction using this delivery approach. Our results indicate that high peripheral tropism, limited neuronal transduction in NHPs, and pre-existing NAbs represent significant barriers to human translation of intravascular AAV9 delivery.
Related JoVE Video
AAV-6 mediated efficient transduction of mouse lower airways.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AAV1 and AAV6 are two closely related AAV serotypes. In the present study, we found AAV6 was more efficient in transducing mouse lower airway epithelia in vitro and in vivo than AAV1. To further explore the mechanism of this difference, we found that significantly more AAV1 bound to mouse airway epithelia than AAV6, yet transduction by AAV6 was far superior. Lectin competition assays demonstrated that both AAV1 and AAV6 similarly utilize ?-2, 3-, and to a lesser extend ?-2, 6- linked sialic acids as the receptors for transduction. Furthermore, the rates of AAV endocytosis could not account for the transduction differences of AAV1 and AAV6. Finally, it was revealed that AAV6 was less susceptible to ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated blocks than AAV1 when transducing mouse airway epithelia. Thus compared with AAV1, AAV6 has a unique ability to escape proteasome-mediated degradation, which is likely responsible for its higher transduction efficiency in mouse airway epithelium.
Related JoVE Video
AAV exploits subcellular stress associated with inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum expansion, and misfolded proteins in models of cystic fibrosis.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Barriers to infection act at multiple levels to prevent viruses, bacteria, and parasites from commandeering host cells for their own purposes. An intriguing hypothesis is that if a cell experiences stress, such as that elicited by inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) expansion, or misfolded proteins, then subcellular barriers will be less effective at preventing viral infection. Here we have used models of cystic fibrosis (CF) to test whether subcellular stress increases susceptibility to adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection. In human airway epithelium cultured at an air/liquid interface, physiological conditions of subcellular stress and ER expansion were mimicked using supernatant from mucopurulent material derived from CF lungs. Using this inflammatory stimulus to recapitulate stress found in diseased airways, we demonstrated that AAV infection was significantly enhanced. Since over 90% of CF cases are associated with a misfolded variant of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (?F508-CFTR), we then explored whether the presence of misfolded proteins could independently increase susceptibility to AAV infection. In these models, AAV was an order of magnitude more efficient at transducing cells expressing ?F508-CFTR than in cells expressing wild-type CFTR. Rescue of misfolded ?F508-CFTR under low temperature conditions restored viral transduction efficiency to that demonstrated in controls, suggesting effects related to protein misfolding were responsible for increasing susceptibility to infection. By testing other CFTR mutants, G551D, D572N, and 1410X, we have shown this phenomenon is common to other misfolded proteins and not related to loss of CFTR activity. The presence of misfolded proteins did not affect cell surface attachment of virus or influence expression levels from promoter transgene cassettes in plasmid transfection studies, indicating exploitation occurs at the level of virion trafficking or processing. Thus, we surmised that factors enlisted to process misfolded proteins such as ?F508-CFTR in the secretory pathway also act to restrict viral infection. In line with this hypothesis, we found that AAV trafficked to the microtubule organizing center and localized near Golgi/ER transport proteins. Moreover, AAV infection efficiency could be modulated with siRNA-mediated knockdown of proteins involved in processing ?F508-CFTR or sorting retrograde cargo from the Golgi and ER (calnexin, KDEL-R, ?-COP, and PSMB3). In summary, our data support a model where AAV exploits a compromised secretory system and, importantly, underscore the gravity with which a stressed subcellular environment, under internal or external insults, can impact infection efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Inducible adeno-associated virus-mediated IL-2 gene therapy prevents autoimmune diabetes.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IL-2 and TGF-?1 play key roles in the immunobiology of Foxp3-expressing CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells (Foxp3(+)Treg). Administration of these cytokines offers an appealing approach to manipulate the Foxp3(+)Treg pool and treat T cell-mediated autoimmunity such as type 1 diabetes. However, efficacy of cytokine treatment is dependent on the mode of application, and the potent pleiotropic effects of cytokines like IL-2 may lead to severe side effects. In the current study, we used a gene therapy-based approach to assess the efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors expressing inducible IL-2 or TGF-?1 transgenes to suppress ongoing ? cell autoimmunity in NOD mice. Intramuscular vaccination of recombinant adeno-associated virus to 10-wk-old NOD female mice and a subsequent 3 wk induction of IL-2 was sufficient to prevent diabetes and block the progression of insulitis. Protection correlated with an increased frequency of Foxp3(+)Treg in the periphery as well as in the draining pancreatic lymph nodes and islets. IL-2 induced a shift in the ratio favoring Foxp3(+)Treg versus IFN-?-expressing T cells infiltrating the islets. Induction of IL-2 had no systemic effect on the frequency or activational status of T cells and NK cells. Induction of TGF-?1 had no effect on the Foxp3(+)Treg pool or the progression of ? cell autoimmunity despite induced systemic levels of activated TGF-?1 that were comparable to IL-2. These results demonstrate that inducible IL-2 gene therapy is an effective and safe approach to manipulate Foxp3(+)Treg and suppress T cell-mediated autoimmunity and that under the conditions employed, IL-2 is more potent than TGF-?1.
Related JoVE Video
Self-complementary AAV2.5-BMP2-coated femoral allografts mediated superior bone healing versus live autografts in mice with equivalent biomechanics to unfractured femur.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Structural allografts used for critical bone defects have limited osteogenic properties for biointegration. Although ex vivo tissue-engineered constructs expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) have demonstrated efficacy in critical defect models, similar success has not been achieved with off-the-shelf acellular approaches, including allografts coated with freeze-dried single-stranded adeno-associated virus (ssAAV-BMP2). To see whether the self-complementary AAV serotype 2.5 vector (scAAV2.5-BMP2) could overcome this, we performed side-by-side comparisons in vitro and in the murine femoral allograft model. Although ssAAV-BMP2 was unable to induce BMP2 expression and differentiation of C3H10T1/2 cells in culture, scAAV2.5-BMP2 transduction led to dose-dependent BMP2 expression and alkaline phosphatase activity, and displayed a 25-fold increased transduction efficiency in vivo. After 6 weeks, the ssAAV-BMP2 coating failed to demonstrate any significant effects. However, all allografts coated with 10(10) scAAV2.5-BMP2 formed a new cortical shell that was indistinguishable to that formed by live autografts. Additionally, coated allografts experienced reduced resorption resulting in a threefold increase in graft bone volume versus autograft. This led to biomechanical superiority versus both allografts and autografts, and equivalent torsional rigidity to unfractured femur. Collectively, these results demonstrate that scAAV2.5-BMP2 coating overcomes the major limitations of structural allografts, which can be used to heal critical defects of any size.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic gene transfer to skeletal muscle using reengineered AAV vectors.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene therapy of musculoskeletal disorders warrants efficient gene transfer to a wide range of muscle groups. Reengineered adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors that selectively transduce muscle tissue following systemic administration are attractive candidates for such applications. Here we provide examples of several lab-derived AAV vectors that display systemic tissue tropism in mice. Methods to evaluate the efficiency of gene transfer to skeletal muscle following intravenous or isolated limb infusion of AAV -vectors in mice are discussed in detail.
Related JoVE Video
Notable reduction in illegitimate integration mediated by a PPT-deleted, nonintegrating lentiviral vector.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nonintegrating lentiviral vectors present a means of reducing the risk of insertional mutagenesis in nondividing cells and enabling short-term expression of potentially hazardous gene products. However, residual, integrase-independent integration raises a concern that may limit the usefulness of this system. Here we present a novel 3 polypurine tract (PPT)-deleted lentiviral vector that demonstrates impaired integration efficiency and, when packaged into integrase-deficient particles, significantly reduced illegitimate integration. Cells transduced with PPT-deleted vectors exhibited predominantly 1-long terminal repeat (LTR) circles and a low level of linear genomes after reverse transcription (RT). Importantly, the PPT-deleted vector exhibited titers and in vitro and in vivo expression levels matching those of conventional nonintegrating lentiviral vectors. This safer nonintegrating lentiviral vector system will support emerging technologies, such as those based on transient expression of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) for gene editing, as well as reprogramming factors for inducing pluripotency.
Related JoVE Video
Dystrophin immunity in Duchennes muscular dystrophy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report on delivery of a functional dystrophin transgene to skeletal muscle in six patients with Duchennes muscular dystrophy. Dystrophin-specific T cells were detected after treatment, providing evidence of transgene expression even when the functional protein was not visualized in skeletal muscle. Circulating dystrophin-specific T cells were unexpectedly detected in two patients before vector treatment. Revertant dystrophin fibers, which expressed functional, truncated dystrophin from the deleted endogenous gene after spontaneous in-frame splicing, contained epitopes targeted by the autoreactive T cells. The potential for T-cell immunity to self and nonself dystrophin epitopes should be considered in designing and monitoring experimental therapies for this disease. (Funded by the Muscular Dystrophy Association and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00428935.).
Related JoVE Video
Adeno-associated virus for the treatment of muscle diseases: toward clinical trials.
Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Muscle diseases include muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathies, neuromuscular and metabolic disorders. The loss of normal muscle structure and function is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lose ambulation in their teenage years, and frequently experience severe respiratory problems and heart failure in later stages of life. These unmet medical needs have encouraged the development of genetic strategies targeting the underlying muscle disease processes. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have been identified as promising gene delivery candidates because of their ability to transduce muscle tissue efficiently while transporting a genetic payload. There is currently significant momentum in the research of AAV-mediated delivery of muscle genes. Various AAV-based therapeutic strategies are undergoing preclinical and clinical testing, including the use of miniaturized and codon-optimized transgenes, exon skipping expression cassettes, novel tissue-specific promoters, AAV capsid mutants and chimeras, and localized intravascular administration procedures. These advancements in gene delivery have led to the generation of AAV vectors with targeted transgene expression, tissue-selective tropism and minimal off-target effects. This review describes advances in AAV gene therapy that are specific to the treatment of muscle diseases, and discusses the implications of their clinical application.
Related JoVE Video
Viral vectors and delivery strategies for CNS gene therapy.
Ther Deliv
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This review aims to provide a broad overview of the targets, challenges and potential for gene therapy in the CNS, citing specific examples. There are a broad range of therapeutic targets, with very different requirements for a suitable viral vector. By utilizing different vector tropisms, novel routes of administration and engineered promoter control, transgenes can be targeted to specific therapeutic applications. Viral vectors have proven efficacious in preclinical models for several disease applications, spurring several clinical trials. While the field has pushed the limits of existing adeno-associated virus-based vectors, a next generation of vectors based on rational engineering of viral capsids should expand the application of gene therapy to be more effective in specific therapeutic applications.
Related JoVE Video
Structural characterization of the dual glycan binding adeno-associated virus serotype 6.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The three-dimensional structure of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 6 (AAV6) was determined using cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction and using X-ray crystallography to 9.7- and 3.0-Å resolution, respectively. The AAV6 capsid contains a highly conserved, eight-stranded (?B to ?I) ?-barrel core and large loop regions between the strands which form the capsid surface, as observed in other AAV structures. The loops show conformational variation compared to other AAVs, consistent with previous reports that amino acids in these loop regions are involved in differentiating AAV receptor binding, transduction efficiency, and antigenicity properties. Toward structure-function annotation of AAV6 with respect to its unique dual glycan receptor (heparan sulfate and sialic acid) utilization for cellular recognition, and its enhanced lung epithelial transduction compared to other AAVs, the capsid structure was compared to that of AAV1, which binds sialic acid and differs from AAV6 in only 6 out of 736 amino acids. Five of these residues are located at or close to the icosahedral 3-fold axis of the capsid, thereby identifying this region as imparting important functions, such as receptor attachment and transduction phenotype. Two of the five observed amino acids are located in the capsid interior, suggesting that differential AAV infection properties are also controlled by postentry intracellular events. Density ordered inside the capsid, under the 3-fold axis in a previously reported, conserved AAV DNA binding pocket, was modeled as a nucleotide and a base, further implicating this capsid region in AAV genome recognition and/or stabilization.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Proteasome inhibitors enhance gene delivery by AAV virus vectors expressing large genomes in hemophilia mouse and dog models: a strategy for broad clinical application.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Delivery of genes that are larger than the wild-type adeno-associated virus (AAV) 4,681 nucleotide genome is inefficient using AAV vectors. We previously demonstrated in vitro that concurrent proteasome inhibitor (PI) treatment improves transduction by AAV vectors encoding oversized transgenes. In this study, an AAV vector with a 5.6 kilobase (kb) factor VIII expression cassette was used to test the effect of an US Food and Drug Administration-approved PI (bortezomib) treatment concurrent with vector delivery in vivo. Intrahepatic vector delivery resulted in factor VIII expression that persisted for >1 year in hemophilia mice. Single-dose bortezomib given with AAV2 or AAV8 factor VIII vector enhanced expression on average ~600 and ~300%, respectively. Moreover, coadministration of AAV8.canineFVIII (1 × 10(13) vg/kg) and bortezomib in hemophilia A dogs (n = 4) resulted in normalization of the whole blood clotting time (WBCT) and 90% reduction in hemorrhages for >32 months compared to untreated hemophilia A dogs (n = 3) or dogs administered vector alone (n = 3). Demonstration of long-term phenotypic correction of hemophilia A dogs with combination adjuvant bortezomib and AAV vector expressing the oversized transgene establishes preclinical studies that support testing in humans and provides a working paradigm to facilitate a significant expansion of therapeutic targets for human gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Mutagenesis of adeno-associated virus type 2 capsid protein VP1 uncovers new roles for basic amino acids in trafficking and cell-specific transduction.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The N termini of the capsid proteins VP1 and VP2 of adeno-associated virus (AAV) play important roles in subcellular steps of infection and contain motifs that are highly homologous to a phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) domain and nuclear localization signals (NLSs). To more clearly understand how virion components influence infection, we have generated mutations in these regions and examined their effects on subcellular trafficking, capsid stability, transduction, and sensitivity to pharmacological enhancement. All mutants tested assembled into capsids; retained the correct ratio of VP1, VP2, and VP3; packaged DNA similarly to recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2); and displayed similar stability profiles when heat denatured. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that these mutants trafficked through a perinuclear region in the vicinity of the Golgi apparatus, with a subset of mutants displaying more-diffuse localization consistent with an NLS-deficient phenotype. When tested for viral transduction, two mutant classes emerged. Class I (BR1(-), BR2(-), and BR2+K) displayed partial transduction, whereas class II (VP3 only, (75)HD/AN, BR3(-), and BR3+K) were severely defective. Surprisingly, one class II mutant (BR3+K) trafficked identically to rAAV2 and accumulated in the nucleolus, a step recently described by our laboratory that occurs with wild-type infection. The BR3+K mutant, containing an alanine-to-lysine substitution in the third basic region of VP1, was 10- to 100-fold-less infectious than rAAV2 in transformed cell lines (such as HEK-293, HeLa, and CV1-T cells), but in contrast, it was indistinguishable from rAAV2 in several nontransformed cell lines, as well as in tissues (liver, brain, and muscle) in vivo. Complementation studies with pharmacological adjuvants or adenovirus coinfection suggested that additional positive charges in NLS regions restrict mobilization in the nucleus and limit transduction in a transformed-cell-specific fashion. Remarkably, besides displaying cell-type-specific transduction, this is the first description of a capsid mutant indicating that nuclear entry is not sufficient for AAV-mediated transduction and suggests that additional steps (i.e., subnuclear mobilization or uncoating) limit successful AAV infection.
Related JoVE Video
AAVs anatomy: roadmap for optimizing vectors for translational success.
Curr Gene Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-Associated Virus based vectors (rAAV) are advantageous for human gene therapy due to low inflammatory responses, lack of toxicity, natural persistence, and ability to transencapsidate the genome allowing large variations in vector biology and tropism. Over sixty clinical trials have been conducted using rAAV serotype 2 for gene delivery with a number demonstrating success in immunoprivileged sites, including the retina and the CNS. Furthermore, an increasing number of trials have been initiated utilizing other serotypes of AAV to exploit vector tropism, trafficking, and expression efficiency. While these trials have demonstrated success in safety with emerging success in clinical outcomes, one benefit has been identification of issues associated with vector administration in humans (e.g. the role of pre-existing antibody responses, loss of transgene expression in non-immunoprivileged sites, and low transgene expression levels). For these reasons, several strategies are being used to optimize rAAV vectors, ranging from addition of exogenous agents for immune evasion to optimization of the transgene cassette for enhanced therapeutic output. By far, the vast majority of approaches have focused on genetic manipulation of the viral capsid. These methods include rational mutagenesis, engineering of targeting peptides, generation of chimeric particles, library and directed evolution approaches, as well as immune evasion modifications. Overall, these modifications have created a new repertoire of AAV vectors with improved targeting, transgene expression, and immune evasion. Continued work in these areas should synergize strategies to improve capsids and transgene cassettes that will eventually lead to optimized vectors ideally suited for translational success.
Related JoVE Video
VHL and PTEN loss coordinate to promote mouse liver vascular lesions.
Angiogenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) inactivation develops a tumor syndrome characterized by highly vascularized tumors as a result of hypoxia inducible factors (HIF) stabilization. The most common manifestation is the development of hemangioblastomas typically located in the central nervous system and other organs including the liver. PTEN (Phosphatase and tension homologue deleted on chromosome 10) inactivation also upregulates HIF-1alpha and may take part in promoting vascular lesions in tumors. The coordinate effect of loss of these tumor suppressors on HIF levels, and the subsequent effect on vascular lesion formation would elucidate the potential for mechanisms to modify HIF dosage supplementally and impact tumor phenotype. We therefore employed models of somatic conditional inactivation of Vhl, Pten, or both tumor suppressor genes in individual cells of the liver by Cre-loxP recombination to study the cooperativity of these two tumor suppressors in preventing tumor formation. Nine months after tumor suppressor inactivation, Vhl conditional deletion (Vhl (loxP/loxP)) mice showed no abnormalities, Pten conditional deletion (Pten (loxP/loxP)) mice developed liver steatosis and focal nodular expansion of hepatocytes containing lipid droplet and fat. Vhl and Pten conditional deletion (Vhl (loxP/loxP);Pten (loxP/loxP)) mice, however, developed multiple cavernous liver lesions reminiscent of hemangioblastoma. Liver hemangioblastomas in VHL disease may, therefore, require secondary mutation in addition to VHL loss of heterozygosity which is permissive for vascular lesion development or augments levels of HIF-1alpha.
Related JoVE Video
Creating a novel origin of replication through modulating DNA-protein interfaces.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While the molecular mechanisms of DNA-protein specificity at the origin of replication have been determined in many model organisms, these interactions remain unknown in the majority of higher eukaryotes and numerous vertebrate viruses. Similar to many viral origins of replication, adeno-associated virus (AAV) utilizes a cis-acting origin of replication and a virus specific Replication protein (Rep) to faithfully carry out self-priming replication. The mechanisms of AAV DNA replication are generally well understood. However, the molecular basis of specificity between the Rep protein and the viral origin of replication between different AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized.
Related JoVE Video
Directed evolution of a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector that crosses the seizure-compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB).
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA shuffling and directed evolution were employed to develop a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector capable of crossing the seizure-compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) and transducing cells in the brain. Capsid DNA from AAV serotypes 1-6, 8, and 9 were shuffled and recombined to create a library of chimeric AAVs. One day after kainic acid-induced limbic seizure activity in rats, the virus library was infused intravenously (i.v.), and 3 days later, neuron-rich cells were mechanically dissociated from seizure-sensitive brain sites, collected and viral DNA extracted. After three cycles of selection, green fluorescent protein (GFP)-packaged clones were administered directly into brain or i.v. 1 day after kainic acid-induced seizures. Several clones that were effective after intracranial administration did not transduce brain cells after the i.v. administration. However, two clones (32 and 83) transduced the cells after direct brain infusion and after i.v. administration transduced the cells that were localized to the piriform cortex and ventral hippocampus, areas exhibiting a seizure-compromised BBB. No transduction occurred in areas devoid of BBB compromise. Only one parental serotype (AAV8) exhibited a similar expression profile, but the biodistribution of 32 and 83 diverged dramatically from this parental serotype. Thus, novel AAV vectors have been created that can selectively cross the seizure-compromised BBB and transduce cells.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative transduction efficiency of AAV vector serotypes 1-6 in the substantia nigra and striatum of the primate brain.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vectors derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) are promising candidates for neural cell transduction in vivo because they are nonpathogenic and achieve long-term transduction in the central nervous system. AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) is the most widely used AAV vector in clinical trials based largely on its ability to transduce neural cells in the rodent and primate brain. Prior work in rodents suggests that other serotypes might be more efficient; however, a systematic evaluation of vector transduction efficiency has not yet been performed in the primate brain. In this study, AAV viral vectors of serotypes 1-6 with an enhanced green-fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene were generated at comparable titers, and injected in equal amounts into the brains of Chlorocebus sabaeus. Vector injections were placed in the substantia nigra (SN) and the caudate nucleus (CD). One month after injection, immunohistochemistry for GFP was performed and the total number of GFP+ cells was calculated using unbiased stereology. AAV5 was the most efficient vector, not only transducing significantly more cells than any other serotype, but also transducing both NeuN+ and glial-fibrillary-acidic protein positive (GFAP+) cells. These results suggest that AAV5 is a more effective vector than AAV2 at delivering potentially therapeutic transgenes to the nigrostriatal system of the primate brain.
Related JoVE Video
Reengineering a receptor footprint of adeno-associated virus enables selective and systemic gene transfer to muscle.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reengineering the receptor footprints of adeno-associated virus (AAV) isolates may yield variants with improved properties for clinical applications. We generated a panel of synthetic AAV2 vectors by replacing a hexapeptide sequence in a previously identified heparan sulfate receptor footprint with corresponding residues from other AAV strains. This approach yielded several chimeric capsids displaying systemic tropism after intravenous administration in mice. Of particular interest, an AAV2/AAV8 chimera designated AAV2i8 displayed an altered antigenic profile, readily traversed the blood vasculature, and selectively transduced cardiac and whole-body skeletal muscle tissues with high efficiency. Unlike other AAV serotypes, which are preferentially sequestered in the liver, AAV2i8 showed markedly reduced hepatic tropism. These features of AAV2i8 suggest that it is well suited to translational studies in gene therapy of musculoskeletal disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Generation of novel AAV variants by directed evolution for improved CFTR delivery to human ciliated airway epithelium.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors expressing the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have been used to deliver CFTR to the airway epithelium of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, no significant CFTR function has been demonstrated likely due to low transduction efficiencies of the AAV vectors. To improve AAV transduction efficiency for human airway epithelium (HAE), we generated a chimeric AAV library and performed directed evolution of AAV on an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium. Two independent and novel AAV variants were identified that contained capsid components from AAV-1, AAV-6, and/or AAV-9. The transduction efficiencies of the two novel AAV variants for human ciliated airway epithelium were three times higher than that for AAV-6. The novel variants were then used to deliver CFTR to ciliated airway epithelium from CF patients. Here we show that our novel AAV variants, but not the parental, AAV provide sufficient CFTR delivery to correct the chloride ion transport defect to ~25% levels measured in non-CF cells. These results suggest that directed evolution of AAV on relevant in vitro models will enable further improvements in CFTR gene transfer efficiency and the development of an efficacious and safe gene transfer vector for CF lung disease.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of the cause of death in a gene-therapy trial.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We present a case of disseminated histoplasmosis, complicated by retroperitoneal bleeding and leading to death, in a patient who was receiving systemic immunosuppressive therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and who was enrolled in a gene-therapy trial. This trial was designed to evaluate intraarticular delivery of a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist, through an adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 2 delivery system, for inflammatory arthritis. The patients receipt of concurrent anti-TNF-alpha therapy and other immunosuppressive therapy while she was living in an area where histoplasmosis was endemic was thought to be the most likely explanation for the infection; the evidence presented suggests that this fatal infection was unlikely to have been related to exposure to the agent administered in the gene-therapy trial. This case reinforces the importance of considering infectious complications, such as those from endemic mycoses, in patients receiving treatment with a TNF-alpha antagonist and the importance of having a well-designed monitoring plan when subjects in a research study become ill. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00126724.)
Related JoVE Video
AAV recombineering with single strand oligonucleotides.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) transduction initiates a signaling cascade that culminates in a transient DNA damage response. During this time, host DNA repair proteins convert the linear single-strand AAV genomes to double-strand circular monomers and concatemers in processes stimulated by the AAV inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). As the orientation of AAV genome concatemerization appears unbiased, the likelihood of concatemerization in a desired orientation is low (less than 1 in 6). Using a novel recombineering method, Oligo-Assisted AAV Genome Recombination (OAGR), this work demonstrates the ability to direct concatemerization specifically to a desired orientation in human cells. This was achieved by a single-strand DNA oligonucleotide (oligo) displaying homology to distinct AAV genomes capable of forming an intermolecular bridge for recombination. This DNA repair process results in concatemers with genomic junctions corresponding to the sequence of oligo homology. Furthermore, OAGR was restricted to single-strand, not duplexed, AAV genomes suggestive of replication-dependent recombination. Consistent with this process, OAGR demonstrated oligo polarity biases in all tested configurations except when a portion of the oligo targeted the ITR. This approach, in addition to being useful for the elucidation of intermolecular homologous recombination, may find eventual relevance for AAV mediated large gene therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular immune response to cryptic epitopes during therapeutic gene transfer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The immune response has been implicated as a critical factor in determining the success or failure of clinical gene therapy trials. Generally, such a response is elicited by the desired transgene product or, in some cases, the delivery system. In the current study, we report the previously uncharacterized finding that a therapeutic cassette currently being used for human investigation displays alternative reading frames (ARFs) that generate unwanted protein products to induce a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that antigenic epitopes derived from an ARF in coagulation factor IX (F9) cDNA can induce CTL reactivity, subsequently killing F9-expressing hepatocytes. One peptide (p18) of 3 candidates from an ARF of the F9 transgene induced CD8(+) T cell reactivity in mice expressing the human MHC class I molecule B0702. Subsequently, upon systemic administration of adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype 2 vectors packaged with the F9 transgene (AAV2/F9), a robust CD8(+) CTL response was elicited against peptide p18. Of particular importance is that the ARF epitope-specific CTLs eliminated AAV2/F9-transduced hepatocytes but not AAV2/F9 codon-optimized (AAV2/F9-opt)-transduced liver cells in which p18 epitope was deleted. These results demonstrate a previously undiscovered mechanism by which CTL responses can be elicited by cryptic epitopes generated from a therapeutic transgene and have significant implications for all gene therapy modalities. Such unforeseen epitope generation warrants careful analysis of transgene sequences for ARFs to reduce the potential for adverse events arising from immune responses during clinical gene therapy protocols.
Related JoVE Video
Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-mediated elimination of target cells transduced with engineered adeno-associated virus type 2 vector in vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recent clinical trial in patients with hemophilia B has suggested that adeno-associated virus (AAV) capsid-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminated AAV-transduced hepatocytes and resulted in therapeutic failure. AAV capsids elicit a CTL response in animal models; however, these capsid-specific CTLs fail to kill AAV-transduced target cells in mice. To better model the human clinical trial data in mice, we introduced an immunodominant epitope derived from ovalbumin (OVA; SIINFEKL) into the AAV capsid and tested CTL-mediated killing of AAV2-transduced target tissues in vivo. Initially, in vitro experiments demonstrated both classical class I and cross-presentation of the OVA antigen, following endogenous expression or AAV2-OVA vector transduction, respectively. Furthermore, an OVA-specific CTL response was elicited after muscular or systemic injection of the AAV2-OVA vector. Finally, CTL reactivity was enhanced in mice with established SIINFEKL-specific immunity after AAV2-OVA/alpha1 anti-trypsin (AAT) administration. Most importantly, these OVA-specific CTLs decreased AAT expression in mice treated with AAV2-OVA/AAT vector that followed a time course mimicking uncoating kinetics of AAV2 transduction in OVA-immunized mice. These results demonstrate that AAV capsid-derived antigens elicit CD8(+) CTL reactivity, and these CTLs eliminated AAV-transduced target cells in mice. Notably, this model system can be exploited to study the kinetics of capsid presentation from different serotypes of AAV and permit the design of novel strategies to block CTL-mediated killing of AAV-transduced cells.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of adeno-associated virus infection by mobilizing capsids into and out of the nucleolus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotypes are being tailored for numerous therapeutic applications, but the parameters governing the subcellular fate of even the most highly characterized serotype, AAV2, remain unclear. To understand how cellular conditions control capsid trafficking, we have tracked the subcellular fate of recombinant AAV2 (rAAV2) vectors using confocal immunofluorescence, three-dimensional infection analysis, and subcellular fractionation. Here we report that a population of rAAV2 virions enters the nucleus and accumulates in the nucleolus after infection, whereas empty capsids are excluded from nuclear entry. Remarkably, after subcellular fractionation, virions accumulating in nucleoli were found to retain infectivity in secondary infections. Proteasome inhibitors known to enhance transduction were found to potentiate nucleolar accumulation. In contrast, hydroxyurea, which also increases transduction, mobilized virions into the nucleoplasm, suggesting that two separate pathways influence vector delivery in the nucleus. Using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) approach, we then evaluated whether nucleolar proteins B23/nucleophosmin and nucleolin, previously shown to interact with AAV2 capsids, affect trafficking and transduction efficiency. Similar to effects observed with proteasome inhibition, siRNA-mediated knockdown of nucleophosmin potentiated nucleolar accumulation and increased transduction 5- to 15-fold. Parallel to effects from hydroxyurea, knockdown of nucleolin mobilized capsids to the nucleoplasm and increased transduction 10- to 30-fold. Moreover, affecting both pathways simultaneously using drug and siRNA combinations was synergistic and increased transduction over 50-fold. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that rAAV2 virions enter the nucleus intact and can be sequestered in the nucleolus in stable form. Mobilization from the nucleolus to nucleoplasmic sites likely permits uncoating and subsequent gene expression or genome degradation. In summary, with these studies we have refined our understanding of AAV2 trafficking dynamics and have identified cellular parameters that mobilize virions in the nucleus and significantly influence AAV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Reducing the risk of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector mobilization with AAV type 5 vectors.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy vectors package a transgene flanked by the terminal repeats (TRs) of AAV type 2 (AAV2). Although these vectors are replication deficient, wild-type (wt) AAV2 prevalent in the human population could lead to replication and packaging of a type 2 TR (TR2)-flanked transgene in trans during superinfection by a helper virus, leading to "mobilization" of the vector genome from treated cells. More importantly, it appears likely that the majority of currently characterized AAV serotypes as well as the majority of new novel isolates are capable of rescuing and replicating AAV2 vector templates. To investigate this possibility, we flanked a green fluorescent protein transgene with type 2 and, the most divergent AAV serotype, type 5 TRs (TR2 or TR5). Consistent with AAV clades, AAV5 specifically replicated TR5 vectors, while AAV2 and AAV6 replicated TR2-flanked vectors. To exploit this specificity, we created a TR5 vector production system for Cap1 to Cap5. Next, we showed that persisting recombinant AAV genomes flanked by TR2s or TR5s were mobilized in vitro after addition of the cognate AAV Rep (as well as Rep6 for TR2) and adenoviral helper. Finally, we showed that a cell line containing a stably integrated wt AAV2 genome resulted in mobilization of a TR2-flanked vector but not a TR5-flanked vector upon adenoviral superinfection. Based on these data and the relative prevalence of wt AAV serotypes in the population, we propose that TR5 vectors have a significantly lower risk of mobilization and should be considered for clinical use.
Related JoVE Video
AAV9.I-1c delivered via direct coronary infusion in a porcine model of heart failure improves contractility and mitigates adverse remodeling.
Circ Heart Fail
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heart failure is characterized by impaired function and disturbed Ca2+ homeostasis. Transgenic increases in inhibitor-1 activity have been shown to improve Ca2 cycling and preserve cardiac performance in the failing heart. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of activating the inhibitor (I-1c) of protein phosphatase 1 (I-1) through gene transfer on cardiac function in a porcine model of heart failure induced by myocardial infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term follow-up after gene therapy for canavan disease.
Sci Transl Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Canavan disease is a hereditary leukodystrophy caused by mutations in the aspartoacylase gene (ASPA), leading to loss of enzyme activity and increased concentrations of the substrate N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in the brain. Accumulation of NAA results in spongiform degeneration of white matter and severe impairment of psychomotor development. The goal of this prospective cohort study was to assess long-term safety and preliminary efficacy measures after gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral vector carrying the ASPA gene (AAV2-ASPA). Using noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging and standardized clinical rating scales, we observed Canavan disease in 28 patients, with a subset of 13 patients being treated with AAV2-ASPA. Each patient received 9 × 10(11) vector genomes via intraparenchymal delivery at six brain infusion sites. Safety data collected over a minimum 5-year follow-up period showed a lack of long-term adverse events related to the AAV2 vector. Posttreatment effects were analyzed using a generalized linear mixed model, which showed changes in predefined surrogate markers of disease progression and clinical assessment subscores. AAV2-ASPA gene therapy resulted in a decrease in elevated NAA in the brain and slowed progression of brain atrophy, with some improvement in seizure frequency and with stabilization of overall clinical status.
Related JoVE Video
Improved survival and reduced phenotypic severity following AAV9/MECP2 gene transfer to neonatal and juvenile male Mecp2 knockout mice.
Mol. Ther.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Typical Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pediatric disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The demonstrated reversibility of RTT-like phenotypes in mice suggests that MECP2 gene replacement is a potential therapeutic option in patients. We report improvements in survival and phenotypic severity in Mecp2-null male mice after neonatal intracranial delivery of a single-stranded (ss) AAV9/chicken ?-actin (CBA)-MECP2 vector. Median survival was 16.6 weeks for MECP2-treated versus 9.3 weeks for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-treated mice. ssAAV9/CBA-MECP2-treated mice also showed significant improvement in the phenotype severity score, in locomotor function, and in exploratory activity, as well as a normalization of neuronal nuclear volume in transduced cells. Wild-type (WT) mice receiving neonatal injections of the same ssAAV9/CBA-MECP2 vector did not show any significant deficits, suggesting a tolerance for modest MeCP2 overexpression. To test a MECP2 gene replacement approach in a manner more relevant for human translation, a self-complementary (sc) adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector designed to drive MeCP2 expression from a fragment of the Mecp2 promoter was injected intravenously (IV) into juvenile (4-5 weeks old) Mecp2-null mice. While the brain transduction efficiency in juvenile mice was low (~2-4% of neurons), modest improvements in survival were still observed. These results support the concept of MECP2 gene therapy for RTT.
Related JoVE Video
Recombinant adeno-associated virus: clinical application and development as a gene-therapy vector.
Ther Deliv
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene therapy is gaining momentum as a method of treating human disease. Initially conceived as a strategy to complement defective genes in monogenic disorders, the scope of gene therapy has expanded to encompass a variety of applications. Likewise, the molecular tools for gene delivery have evolved and diversified to meet these various therapeutic needs. Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has made significant strides toward clinical application with an excellent safety profile and successes in several clinical trials. This review covers the basic biology of rAAV as a gene therapy vector as well as its advantages compared with other methods of gene delivery. The status of clinical trials utilizing rAAV is also discussed in detail. In conclusion, methods of engineering the vector to overcome challenges identified from these trials are covered, with emphasis on modification of the viral capsid to increase the tissue/cell-specific targeting and transduction efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoplasmic trafficking, endosomal escape, and perinuclear accumulation of adeno-associated virus type 2 particles are facilitated by microtubule network.
J. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding adeno-associated virus (AAV) trafficking is critical to advance our knowledge of AAV biology and exploit novel aspects of vector development. Similar to the case for most DNA viruses, after receptor binding and entry, AAV traverses the cytoplasm and deposits the viral genome in the cell nucleus. In this study, we examined the role of the microtubule (MT) network in productive AAV infection. Using pharmacological reagents (e.g., nocodazole), live-cell imaging, and flow cytometry analysis, we demonstrated that AAV type 2 (AAV2) transduction was reduced by at least 2-fold in the absence of the MT network. Cell surface attachment and viral internalization were not dependent on an intact MT network. In treated cells at 2 h postinfection, quantitative three-dimensional (3D) microscopy determined a reproducible difference in number of intracellular particles associated with the nuclear membrane or the nucleus compared to that for controls (6 to 7% versus 26 to 30%, respectively). Confocal microscopy analysis demonstrated a direct association of virions with MTs, further supporting a critical role in AAV infection. To investigate the underling mechanisms, we employed single-particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the viral movement in real time. Surprisingly, unlike other DNA viruses (e.g., adenovirus [Ad] and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) that display bidirectional motion on MTs, AAV2 displays only unidirectional movement on MTs toward the nuclei, with peak instantaneous velocities at 1.5 to 3.5 ?m/s. This rapid and unidirectional motion on MTs lasts for about 5 to 10 s and results in AAV particles migrating more than 10 ?m in the cytoplasm reaching the nucleus very efficiently. Furthermore, electron microscopy analysis determined that, unlike Ad and HSV, AAV2 particles were transported on MTs within membranous compartments, and surprisingly, the acidification of AAV2-containing endosomes was delayed by the disruption of MTs. These findings together suggest an as-yet-undescribed model in which after internalization, AAV2 exploits MTs for rapid cytoplasmic trafficking in endosomal compartments unidirectionally toward the perinuclear region, where most acidification events for viral escape take place.
Related JoVE Video
Adeno-associated viral vectors based on serotype 3b use components of the fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling complex for efficient transduction.
Hum. Gene Ther.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adeno-associated virus type 3b (AAV3b) has been largely ignored by gene therapists because of the inability of vectors based on this serotype to transduce target tissues efficiently. Here we describe a phenomenon unique to AAV3b in that vectors based on this serotype mediate enhanced transduction in the presence of heparin. Among the many biological functions attributed to heparin, its interaction with, and ability to regulate, several growth factors (GFs) and growth factor receptors (GFRs) has been well characterized. Using GFR-overexpressing cell lines, soluble GFs and heparins, as well as specific GFR inhibitors, we have demonstrated a requirement for fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR2) and FGF1 in the heparin-mediated augmentation of AAV3b vector transduction. In contrast to AAV2, we establish that heparin can be used as an adjunct with AAV3b to further increase transduction in a variety of cells and target tissues, additionally suggesting that AAV3b may be an attractive viral vector for clinical use during procedures in which heparin is used. In summary, AAV3b exhibits FGFR2-dependent, markedly enhanced transduction efficiency in the presence of heparin and FGFs, which could make it a useful vector for gene therapy in a variety of human diseases.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.