Human platelets express two thrombin receptors, protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 and PAR4. Recently we reported 3.7-fold increased PAR4-mediated aggregation kinetics in platelets from black subjects compared to white subjects. We now show that platelets from blacks (n=70) express 14% more PAR4 protein than whites (n=84), but this difference is not associated with platelet PAR4 function. Quantitative trait locus analysis identified three common SNPs in the PAR4 gene (F2RL3) associated with PAR4-induced platelet aggregation. Among these SNPs, rs773902 determines whether residue 120 in transmembrane domain 2 is an alanine (Ala) or threonine (Thr). Compared to the Ala120 variant, Thr120 was more common in black than white subjects (63% vs. 19%), associated with higher PAR4-induced human platelet aggregation and Ca(2+) flux, and generated greater inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) in transfected cells. A second, less frequent F2RL3 variant, Phe296Val, was only observed in blacks and abolished the enhanced PAR4-induced platelet aggregation and IP3 generation associated with PAR4-Thr120. PAR4 genotype did not affect vorapaxar inhibition of platelet PAR1 function, but a strong pharmacogenetic effect was observed with the PAR4-specific inhibitor YD-3. These findings may have an important pharmacogenetic impact on development of new PAR inhibitors.
Epidemiological studies have revealed that modification of the levels of individual components of the haemostatic system may have repercussion in the development of thrombosis or haemorrhage. To maintain the necessary equilibrium, the haemostatic system is finely regulated. It is known that acquired factors and/or alterations in genes (SNPs or mutations) may be the cause of inter-individual differences or exacerbated levels of haemostatic proteins in plasma, but there are still many non-characterized factors that provoke such variations. The search for new elements, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNAs that are novel regulators of protein expression, may reveal an additional layer to investigate the causes of haemostatic diseases. In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research into the role of miRNAs in the regulation of several haemostatic factors and the potential use of miRNAs as prognostic or diagnostic tools in haemostasis and thrombosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
High levels of factor XI (FXI) increase the risk of thromboembolic disease. However, the genetic and environmental factors regulating FXI expression are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate the regulation of FXI by microRNAs (miRNAs) in the human liver. In silico prediction yielded four miRNA candidates that might regulate FXI expression. HepG2 cells were transfected with miR-181a-5p, miR-23a-3p, miR-16-5p and miR-195-5p. We used mir-494, which was not predicted to bind to F11, as a negative control. Only miR-181a-5p caused a significant decrease both in FXI protein and F11 mRNA levels. In addition, transfection with a miR-181a-5p inhibitor in PLC/PRF/5 hepatic cells increased both the levels of F11 mRNA and extracellular FXI. Luciferase assays in human colon cancer cells deficient for Dicer (HCT-DK) demonstrated a direct interaction between miR-181a-5p and 3'untranslated region of F11. Additionally, F11 mRNA levels were inversely and significantly correlated with miR-181a-5p levels in 114 healthy livers, but not with miR-494. This study demonstrates that FXI expression is directly regulated by a specific miRNA, miR-181a-5p, in the human liver. Future studies are necessary to further investigate the potential consequences of miRNA dysregulation in pathologies involving FXI.
Blood microRNA (miRNA) levels have been associated with and shown to participate in disease pathophysiology. However, the hematopoietic cell of origin of blood miRNAs and the individual blood cell miRNA profiles are poorly understood. We report the miRNA content of highly purified normal hematopoietic cells from the same individuals. Although T-cells, B-cells and granulocytes had the highest miRNA content per cell, erythrocytes contributed more cellular miRNA to the blood, followed by granulocytes and platelets. miRNA profiling revealed different patterns and different expression levels of miRNA specific for each lineage. miR-30c-5p was determined to be an appropriate reference normalizer for cross-cell qRT-PCR comparisons. miRNA profiling of 5 hematopoietic cell lines revealed differential expression of miR-125a-5p. We demonstrated endogenous levels of miR-125a-5p regulate reporter gene expression in Meg-01 and Jurkat cells by (1) constructs containing binding sites for miR-125a-5p or (2) over-expressing or inhibiting miR-125a-5p. This quantitative analysis of the miRNA profiles of peripheral blood cells identifies the circulating hematopoietic cellular miRNAs, supports the use of miRNA profiles for distinguishing different hematopoietic lineages and suggests that endogenously expressed miRNAs can be exploited to regulate transgene expression in a cell-specific manner.
Racial differences in the pathophysiology of atherothrombosis are poorly understood. We explored the function and transcriptome of platelets in healthy black (n = 70) and white (n = 84) subjects. Platelet aggregation and calcium mobilization induced by the PAR4 thrombin receptor were significantly greater in black subjects. Numerous differentially expressed RNAs were associated with both race and PAR4 reactivity, including PCTP (encoding phosphatidylcholine transfer protein), and platelets from black subjects expressed higher levels of PC-TP protein. PC-TP inhibition or depletion blocked PAR4- but not PAR1-mediated activation of platelets and megakaryocytic cell lines. miR-376c levels were differentially expressed by race and PAR4 reactivity and were inversely correlated with PCTP mRNA levels, PC-TP protein levels and PAR4 reactivity. miR-376c regulated the expression of PC-TP in human megakaryocytes. A disproportionately high number of microRNAs that were differentially expressed by race and PAR4 reactivity, including miR-376c, are encoded in the DLK1-DIO3 locus and were expressed at lower levels in platelets from black subjects. These results suggest that PC-TP contributes to the racial difference in PAR4-mediated platelet activation, indicate a genomic contribution to platelet function that differs by race and emphasize a need to consider the effects of race when developing anti-thrombotic drugs.
Regulation of key proteins by microRNAs (miRNAs) is an emergent field in biomedicine. Vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) is a relevant molecule for cardiovascular diseases, since it is the target of oral anticoagulant drugs and plays a role in soft tissue calcification. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of miRNAs on the expression of VKORC1. Potential miRNAs targeting VKORC1 mRNA were searched by using online algorithms. Validation studies were carried out in HepG2 cells by using miRNA precursors; direct miRNA interaction was investigated with reporter assays. In silico studies identified two putative conserved binding sites for miR-133a and miR-137 on VKORC1 mRNA. Ex vivo studies showed that only miR-133a was expressed in liver; transfection of miRNA precursors of miR-133a in HepG2 cells reduced VKORC1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, as assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) as well as protein expression. Reporter assays in HEK293T cells showed that miR-133a interacts with the 3UTR of VKORC1. Additionally, miR-133a levels correlated inversely with VKORC1 mRNA levels in 23 liver samples from healthy subjects. In conclusion, miR-133a appears to have a direct regulatory effect on expression of VKORC1 in humans; this regulation may have potential importance for anticoagulant therapy or aortic calcification.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that are negative regulators in a crescent number of physiological and pathological processes. However, their role in haemostasis, a complex physiological process involving multitude of effectors, is just beginning to be characterized. We evaluated the changes of expression of miRNAs in livers of neonates (day one after birth) and adult mice by microarray and qRT-PCR trying to identify miRNAs that potentially may also be involved in the control of the dramatic change of hepatic haemostatic protein levels associated with this transition. Twenty one out of 41 miRNAs overexpressed in neonate mice have hepatic haemostatic mRNA as potential targets. Six of them identified by two in silico algorithms potentially bind the 3UTR regions of F7, F9, F12, FXIIIB, PLG and SERPINC1 mRNA. Interestingly, miR-18a and miR-19b, overexpressed 5.4 and 8.2-fold respectively in neonates, have antithrombin, a key anti-coagulant with strong anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory roles, as a potential target. The levels of these two miRNAs inversely correlated with antithrombin mRNA levels during development (miR-19b: R?=?0.81; p?=?0.03; miR-18a: R?=?0.91; p<0.001). These data suggest that miRNAs could be potential modulators of the haemostatic system involved in developmental haemostasis.
Polymorphisms affecting platelet receptors and intracellular proteins have been extensively studied in relation to their potential influence in thrombosis and haemorrhages. However, few reports have addressed their impact on platelet function, with contradictory results. Limitations of these studies include, among others, small number of patients, the platelet functional parameters analyzed and their known variability in the healthy population. We studied the effect of six polymorphisms [ITGB3 1565T > C (HPA-1), GPIBA variable number tandem repeat and 524C > T (HPA-2), ITGA2 807C > T, ADRA2A 1780A > G, and TUBB1 Q43P] on platelet function in 286 healthy subjects and their potential pathogenetic role in 160 patients with hereditary mucocutaneous bleeding of unknown cause. We found no effect of any of these polymorphisms on platelet aggregation, secretion, PFA-100, and thrombin generation in platelet rich plasma. Furthermore, patients and controls showed no significant differences in the frequency of any of these polymorphisms. Thus, our study demonstrated that polymorphisms in genes affecting platelet function do not influence significantly major platelet functions and appear irrelevant in the pathogenesis of bleeding disorders.
Genetic factors involved in the interindividual variability of antithrombin have not been identified. We studied two polymorphisms of the gene coding for antithrombin (SER-PINC1) in 298 Spanish Caucasian blood donors: rs3138521, a DNA length polymorphism located on the promoter region and rs2227589, a SNP located on intron 1 that has been described as a mild thrombotic risk factor. We detected a complete linkage disequilibrium between these polymorphisms (D=0.999). The rs3138521 polymorphism has no functional consequences. However, the rs2227589 SNP significantly associated with plasma anti-FXa activity and antithrombin levels: carriers of the A allele had slightly but significantly lower anticoagulant activity and levels than GG subjects (97.0+/-7.3% vs. 94.6+/-8.4%; p=0.032; 99.5+/-5.8% vs. 94.8+/-5.6%; p=0.001; respectively). Our results identified a functional effect of the rs2227589 polymorphism not explained by its linkage with the promoter polymorphism that support the moderate thrombotic risk associated with the A allele.
Coagulopathy caused by an imbalance of hemostatic factors is associated with the pathophysiology of liver disease. We have investigated the role of antithrombin (AT), a key anticoagulant serpin, in the onset of liver disease.
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