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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proposal to rename Carnobacterium inhibens to Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens and description of Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov., a novel psychrotolerant bacterium isolated from Siberian permafrost.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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A novel, psychrotolerant, facultative anaerobe, strain WN1359, was isolated from a permafrost borehole sample collected at the right bank of the Kolyma River in Siberia, Russia. Gram-positive staining, non-motile rod-shaped cells were observed with sizes of 1-2 ?m long and 0.4-0.5 ?m wide. Growth occurred in the pH range of 5.8-9.0 with optimum growth range at pH 7.8-8.6 (pH optimum 8.2). The novel isolate grew from 0-37?C and optimal growth occurred at 25?C. The novel isolate does not require NaCl; growth was observed between 0% and 8.8% (1.5 M) NaCl with optimum growth at 0.5%. The isolate was a catalase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, chemoorganoheterotroph that used as substrates sugars but not several single amino acids or dipeptides. The major metabolic end product was lactic acid in the ratio of 86% L-lactate :14% D-lactate. Strain WN1359 was sensitive to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, fusidic acid, lincomycin, monocycline, rifampicin, rifamycin SV, spectinomycin, streptomycin, troleandomycin, and vancomycin, and resistant to nalidixic acid and aztreonam. Fatty acid composition was predominantly unsaturated (70.9%), branched-chain unsaturated (11.7%) and saturated (12.5%). G+C content was 35.3 mol% by whole genome sequence analysis. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed 98.7% sequence similarity between strain WN1359 and Carnobacterium inhibens. Genome relatedness was computed using both Genome-to-Genome Distance Analysis (GGDA) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI), which both strongly supported strain WN1359 belonging to the species C. inhibens. On the basis of these results, the permafrost isolate WN1359 represents a novel subspecies of C. inhibens, for which the name Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. gilichinskyi subsp. nov. is proposed The type strain is WN1359T (=ATCC BAA-2557T, =DSM27470T). The subspecies Carnobacterium inhibens subsp. inhibens subsp. nov. is automatically created. An emended description of C. inhibens is also provided.
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Mandible reconstruction using rhBMP-2: case report and literature review.
Quintessence Int
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-type 2 (rhBMP-2) is used in oral and maxillofacial procedures due to its endochondral bone formation capacity, and this is also the reason for its use off-label in jaw reconstruction. This study reports a case of an extensive central giant cell lesion along the mandibular body and symphysis. Treatment consisted of enucleation and curettage followed by off-label use of rhBMP-2 associated with bovine bone xenograft. The literature concerning mandibular reconstruction using rhBMP-2 was also reviewed.
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Impact of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the study of hepatic artery hypoperfusion shortly after liver transplantation: contribution to the diagnosis of artery steal syndrome.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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To assess the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the absence of hepatic artery signal on Doppler ultrasound (DUS) in the immediate postoperative period after liver transplant.
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Xenograft impregnated with bone marrow mononuclear fraction for appositional bone regeneration in rabbit calvaria: a clinical and histomorphometric study.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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This study investigated the combination of a bone marrow mononuclear fraction with a bone xenograft material in an appositional bone regeneration technique.
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Fetal thigh and upper-arm volumes by three-dimensional ultrasound to predict low postnatal body mass index.
J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Abstract Objective: To assess the usefulness of estimating fetal upper arm and thigh volumes as predictors of low postnatal body mass index (BMI) using three-dimensional ultrasonography (3DUS) with extended imaging virtual organ computer-aided analysis (XI VOCAL). Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study analyzed 300 singleton pregnancies between 33 and 41 weeks of gestation. The Hadlock 4 formula was used to estimate fetal weight. The XI VOCAL 10 planes method was used to assess fetal upper arm and thigh volumes. After delivery, the newborns' BMI was evaluated and considered low (?10th percentile) or normal (>10th percentile). We determined receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and respective areas under the curves for the percentiles of fetal weight and fetal thigh and upper arm volumes. Results: Of the 300 newborns, BMI was ?10th percentile for 21 and >10th percentile for 279 newborns. The area under the ROC curve for fetal weight, obtained using the Hadlock formula, and fetal upper arm and thigh volumes, obtained by 3DUS, were 0.801, 0.930 and 0.924, respectively. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the three parameters for predicting low postnatal BMI and found values of 85.70% and 65.60%, respectively, for fetal weight, 90.48% and 88.17%, respectively, for fetal thigh volume, and 76.19% and 92.47%, respectively, for fetal upper arm volume. Conclusion: Fetal upper arm and thigh volumes estimated using 3DUS with XI VOCAL were effective predictors of low postnatal BMI.
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Infection with Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum of 0 to 18-Month-old children living in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area in Brazil.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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The diagnosis of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum infection in children from birth may serve as a reference for the early identification of cases that would progress to classical visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. This study prospectively evaluated newborns of mothers living in the municipality of Paracatu, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The infants were followed up at 6-month intervals by clinical examination, serological tests (immunofluorescence [IIF] and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with rK39 [ELISA-rK39]) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) until they had completed 18 months of age. A total of 166 pregnant women were included to evaluate the possible transfer of antibodies or even congenital transmission. Twenty-two of the women tested positive by IIF, four by ELISA-rK39, and one by PCR. Three infants of the 25 women with some positive test results were also positive in the first test (one by IIF, one by ELISA-rK39, and the third by ELISA-rK39 and PCR). One hundred and sixty infants were included in the study; of these, 43 had at least one positive sample over time. However, agreement between tests was low. Follow-up of children with a positive result in the tests studied revealed no progression to classical disease within a period of 18 months. In contrast, two children with negative IIF, PCR, and ELISA-rK39 results developed classical VL at 9 and 12 months of age. In conclusion, a positive test result was variable and sometimes temporary and agreement between tests was low. Therefore, the early diagnosis of Leishmania infection was not associated with the early identification of cases that would progress to classical VL in the endemic area studied.
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UV-vis spectra as an alternative to the Lowry method for quantify hair damage induced by surfactants.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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It is well known that long term use of shampoo causes damage to human hair. Although the Lowry method has been widely used to quantify hair damage, it is unsuitable to determine this in the presence of some surfactants and there is no other method proposed in literature. In this work, a different method is used to investigate and compare the hair damage induced by four types of surfactants (including three commercial-grade surfactants) and water. Hair samples were immersed in aqueous solution of surfactants under conditions that resemble a shower (38°C, constant shaking). These solutions become colored with time of contact with hair and its UV-vis spectra were recorded. For comparison, the amount of extracted proteins from hair by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and by water were estimated by the Lowry method. Additionally, non-pigmented vs. pigmented hair and also sepia melanin were used to understand the washing solution color and their spectra. The results presented herein show that hair degradation is mostly caused by the extraction of proteins, cuticle fragments and melanin granules from hair fiber. It was found that the intensity of solution color varies with the charge density of the surfactants. Furthermore, the intensity of solution color can be correlated to the amount of proteins quantified by the Lowry method as well as to the degree of hair damage. UV-vis spectrum of hair washing solutions is a simple and straightforward method to quantify and compare hair damages induced by different commercial surfactants.
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Type-2 diabetes mellitus and the frequency of the G22A polymorphism of the adenosine deaminase gene in a mixed population in Brazil.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Most individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (about 90%) have type 2 disease (T2DM). T2DM is associated with a high genetic predisposition and is characterized by changes in the secretion and action of insulin. There have been reports of increased activity of the adenosine deaminase enzyme in individuals with coronary heart disease and DM.
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Eastern equine encephalitis cases among horses in Brazil between 2005 and 2009.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Eastern equine encephalitis is a viral zoonosis that exhibits complex distribution and epidemiology, and greater importance should be given to this disease by the public-health authorities. In Brazil, although eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) has been identified in vectors and antibodies are sometimes detected in horses and humans, there have been no records of equine encephalitis in horses caused by this virus during the last 24 years. This study describes eighteen cases of eastern equine encephalomyelitis that occurred in six Brazilian states between 2005 and 2009. Viral RNA was identified using semi-nested RT-PCR to detect members of the genus Alphavirus, and by genetic sequencing. The gene encoding NSP1 was partially amplified, and after genetic sequencing, eighteen sequences were generated. All eighteen strains were classified as belonging to lineage III of American EEEV. These findings could be an indication of the importance of this virus in animal and human public health.
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The hydroclimatic and ecophysiological basis of cloud forest distributions under current and projected climates.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Tropical montane cloud forests (TMCFs) are characterized by a unique set of biological and hydroclimatic features, including frequent and/or persistent fog, cool temperatures, and high biodiversity and endemism. These forests are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to climate change given their small geographic range, high endemism and dependence on a rare microclimatic envelope. The frequency of atmospheric water deficits for some TMCFs is likely to increase in the future, but the consequences for the integrity and distribution of these ecosystems are uncertain. In order to investigate plant and ecosystem responses to climate change, we need to know how TMCF species function in response to current climate, which factors shape function and ecology most and how these will change into the future.
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Effects of 60?Hz sinusoidal magnetic field on in vitro establishment, multiplication, and acclimatization phases of Coffea arabica seedlings.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on net photosynthesis, transpiration, photosynthetic pigment concentration, and gene expression of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS1), during in vitro establishment, in vitro multiplication and acclimatization phases of coffee seedlings were investigated. Untreated coffee plants were considered as control, whereas treated plants were exposed to a 60?Hz sinusoidal magnetic field of 2?mT of magnetic induction during 3?min. This magnetic field was generated by an electromagnet, connected to a wave generator. The results revealed that magnetically treated plants showed a significant increase in net photosynthesis (85.4% and 117.9%, in multiplication and acclimatization phases, respectively), and in photosynthetic pigment concentration (66.6% for establishment phase, 79.9% for multiplication phase, and 43.8% for acclimatization phase). They also showed a differential RBCS1 gene expression (approximately twofold) and a decrease of transpiration rates in regard to their control plants. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the application of 60?Hz magnetic field to in vitro coffee plants may improve the seedlings quality by modifying some photosynthetic physiological and molecular processes, increasing their vigor, and ensuring better plant development in later stages.
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Cardioprotective effects of thyroid hormones in a rat model of myocardial infarction are associated with oxidative stress reduction.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved with progression from infarction to heart failure. Studies show that thyroid hormones (TH) present cardioprotective effects. This study aims to evaluate whether TH effects after infarction are associated to redox balance modulation. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), infarcted (AMI), sham-operated+TH (SHAMT), and infarcted+TH (AMIT). During 26 days, animals received T3 (2 ?g/100g/day) and T4 (8 ?g/100g/day) by gavage. Echocardiographic parameters were assessed and heart tissue was collected to biochemical analysis. AMIT rats presented absence of lung congestion, less cardiac dilatation, and normalization in myocardial performance index, compared with AMI. AMI rats presented an increase in hydrogen peroxide levels and in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in GSH/GSSG. TH prevented these alterations in AMIT. In conclusion, TH seem to reduce the levels of ROS, preventing oxidative stress, and improving cardiac function in infarcted rats.
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Ricoseius loxocheles, a phytoseiid mite that feeds on coffee leaf rust.
Exp. Appl. Acarol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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One of the most important diseases of coffee plants is the coffee leaf rust fungus Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley and Broome (Uredinales). It can cause 30 % yield loss in some varieties of Coffea arabica (L.). Besides fungus, the coffee plants are attacked by phytophagous mites. The most common species is the coffee red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae). Predatory mites of the Phytoseiidae family are well-known for their potential to control herbivorous mites and insects, but they can also develop and reproduce on various other food sources, such as plant pathogenic fungi. In a field survey, we found Ricoseius loxocheles (De Leon) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the necrotic areas caused by the coffee leaf rust fungus during the reproductive phase of the pathogen. We therefore assessed the development, survivorship and reproduction of R. loxocheles feeding on coffee leaf rust fungus and measured predation and oviposition of this phytoseiid having coffee red mite as prey under laboratory conditions. The mite fed, survived, developed and reproduced successfully on this pathogen but it was not able to prey on O. ilicis. Survival and oviposition with only prey were the same as without food. This phytoseiid mite does not really use O. ilicis as food. It is suggested that R. loxocheles is one phytoseiid that uses fungi as a main food source.
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PM2.5-Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Impacted by Emissions of Light-Duty Vehicles Fueled by Ethanol-Blended Gasoline.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The aim of this study was to characterize the PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and their diagnostic ratios in an area impacted by light-duty vehicles fueled by neat ethanol and ethanol-blended gasoline. Samples were collected using a high-volume sampler, extracted, and analyzed for all 16 EPA-priority PAHs using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) following the EPA 3550B Method. The most abundant PAHs were benzo[g,h,i]perylene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene and indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The total mean concentration was 3.80 ± 2.88 ng m(-3), and the contribution of carcinogenic species was 58 ± 16 % of the total PAHs. The cumulative health hazard from the PAH mixture was determined, and the carcinogenic equivalents and mutagenic equivalents were 0.80 ± 0.82 and 1.17 ± 1.04 ng m(-3), respectively. Diagnostic ratios and normalized ratios were calculated for the individual samples.
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Petroleum hydrocarbons in water from a Brazilian tropical estuary facing industrial and port development.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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A fast paced industrial and port development has occurred at Suape Estuary, Northeast Brazil, but no information about hydrocarbon concentrations in water is available to this area. Considering that, the contamination level of Suape was determined by UV-Fluorescence in terms of dissolved and/or dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons (DDPHs), during wet and dry seasons. DDPHs ranged between 0.05 and 4.59 ?g L(-1) Carmópolis oil equivalents and 0.01-1.39 ?g L(-1) chrysene equivalents, indicating DDPHs close to a baseline contamination level. Some relatively high concentrations (>1 ?g L(-1)) were probably associated with shipyard operations (hull paintings and ship docking), pollutants remobilization by dredging operations, occasional industrial discharges and oil derivatives released by vessels. DDPHs concentrations were lower in the wet season suggesting that the increased dilution rates caused by rainfall dominated upon the wet deposition of atmospheric combustion-derived PAHs process. Results in this study may be used as baseline to further studies in this area.
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Control of microorganisms of oral health interest with Arctium lappa L. (burdock) extract non-cytotoxic to cell culture of macrophages (RAW 264.7).
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Arctium lappa L. extract on Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In addition, the cytotoxicity of this extract was analyzed on macrophages (RAW 264.7).
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A review on anti-inflammatory activity of phenylpropanoids found in essential oils.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The search for alternative drugs capable of disrupting the inflammatory process has become an important issue in scientific research, especially with reference to the use of natural substances and the reduction of undesirable side effects. Essential oils represent an important source of such substances, since their active constituents often exhibit an array of pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory activity. This review presents an overview of the anti-inflammatory action exerted by phenylpropanoids from essential oils and discusses possible mechanisms of action involved in the anti-inflammatory response, assessed through specific experimental models.
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Trace metals in PM10 and PM 2.5 samples collected in a highly industrialized chemical/petrochemical area and its urbanized surroundings.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the potential impact of a highly industrialized area on its urbanized surroundings. The area studied is home to a refinery, a thermoelectric plant and several petrochemical facilities industries. The concentrations of twelve elements were determined in PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected along a busy highway and near the petrochemical complex. Significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu and Al were observed in the petrochemical zone, but principal component analysis revealed similar patterns for both the highway site and a site approximately 1.5 km from the petrochemical complex, suggesting that the main pollution source in the area is vehicular flux. Higher concentrations in the industrial area may be attributed to intense diesel-powered truck and bus traffic movement, mainly due to the transport of supplies, fuel and gas. The observed concentrations of the elements Cr, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb were always lower than the detection limits of the technique used.
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Pattern recognition techniques applied to the study of leishmanial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibition.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Chemometric pattern recognition techniques were employed in order to obtain Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) models relating the structures of a series of adenosine compounds to the affinity for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH). A training set of 49 compounds was used to build the models and the best ones were obtained with one geometrical and four electronic descriptors. Classification models were externally validated by predictions for a test set of 14 compounds not used in the model building process. Results of good quality were obtained, as verified by the correct classifications achieved. Moreover, the results are in good agreement with previous SAR studies on these molecules, to such an extent that we can suggest that these findings may help in further investigations on ligands of LmGAPDH capable of improving treatment of leishmaniasis.
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Body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index, and risk for type 2 diabetes in two populations in Brazil: general and Amerindian.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The use of the anthropometric indices of adiposity, especially body mass index and waist circumference in the prediction of diabetes mellitus has been widely explored. Recently, a new body composition index, the body adiposity index was proposed. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of body mass index, waist circumference, and body adiposity index in the risk assessment for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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Does cluster-root activity benefit nutrient uptake and growth of co-existing species?
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Species that inhabit phosphorus- (P) and micronutrient-impoverished soils typically have adaptations to enhance the acquisition of these nutrients, for example cluster roots in Proteaceae. However, there are several species co-occurring in the same environment that do not produce similar specialised roots. This study aims to investigate whether one of these species (Scholtzia involucrata) can benefit from the mobilisation of P or micronutrients by the cluster roots of co-occurring Banksia attenuata, and also to examine the response of B. attenuata to the presence of S. involucrata. We conducted a greenhouse experiment, using a replacement series design, where B. attenuata and S. involucrata shared a pot at proportions of 2:0, 1:2 and 0:4. S. involucrata plants grew more in length, were heavier and had higher manganese (Mn) concentrations in their young leaves when grown next to one individual of B. attenuata and one individual of S. involucrata than when grown with three conspecifics. All S. involucrata individuals were colonised by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and possibly Rhizoctonia. Additionally, P concentration was higher in the young leaves of B. attenuata when grown with another B. attenuata than when grown with two individuals of S. involucrata, despite the smaller size of the S. involucrata individuals. Our results demonstrate that intraspecific competition was stronger than interspecific competition for S. involucrata, but not for B. attenuata. We conclude that cluster roots of B. attenuata facilitate the acquisition of nutrients by neighbouring shrubs by making P and Mn more available for their neighbours.
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Clinical and Microbiological Effects of Adjunctive Metronidazole Plus Amoxicillin in the Treatment of Generalized Chronic Periodontitis: Smokers Versus non-Smokers.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Key-findings: The adjunctive use of MTZ plus AMX with scaling and root planing led to a less favorable clinical and microbiological result in smokers when compared with non-smokers. These results suggest that other adjunctive therapies could be further explored for improving the clinical and microbiological outcomes of smokers. Aim: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological effects of the adjunctive use of metronidazole (MTZ) and amoxicillin (AMX) in the treatment of smokers and non-smokers with generalized chronic periodontitis (CP). Methods: Thirty two smokers and 32 non-smokers were selected and received scaling and root planing (SRP) combined with MTZ (400 mg/TID) and AMX (500 mg/TID) for 14 days. Clinical and microbiological examinations were performed at baseline and 3 months post-SRP. Nine subgingival plaque samples per patient were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Results: Both groups presented a significant improvement in all clinical parameters at 3 months post-therapy (p<0.05). Non-smokers showed lower mean number of sites with probing depth (PD) ?5 mm after therapy. Fewer non-smokers exhibited ?9 of these sites at 3 months post-treatment. Non-smokers also presented the greatest reductions in mean probing depth (PD) and gain in clinical attachment between baseline and 3 months post-therapy at initially deep (PD?7 mm) sites (p<0.01). The most beneficial changes in the microbial profile were also observed in the non-smoker group, which showed the lowest proportions of the orange complex at 3 months, as well as a significant increase in the proportions of Actinomyces species after treatment. Conclusion: Smokers with chronic periodontitis benefit less than non-smokers from treatment by the combination of SRP, MTZ and AMX.
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Proximal opening-wedge osteotomy of the first metatarsal for moderate and severe hallux valgus using low profile plates.
Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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To present the results of the treatment of hallux valgus with the proximal metatarsal opening wedge (PMOW) osteotomy using two different screw and plate systems.
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Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.
ISA Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights.
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From Palmistry to Anthropometry: Can 2nd to 4th Digit Length (2D:4D) Predict the Risk of Prostate Cancer?
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Objective: The 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is inversely related to androgen exposure during the fetal period, which may represent a risk factor for several steroid-related diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between 2D:4D ratio and the risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa). Subjects and Methods: We assessed the 2D:4D ratio of 474 men >40 years old, stratified into three groups: group 1 (n = 222) patients with PCa, group 2 (n = 82) subjects with high risk of PCa, and group 3 (n = 170) men with low risk of PCa. Subjects were submitted to a digital picture of the ventral surface of the right hand and 2nd and 4th fingers measurements were determined by the distance from the proximal crease to the tip using computer-assisted analysis. Results: The mean serum prostate-specific antigen level was 7.5 ng/ml in the high-risk group and 0.92 ng/ml in the low-risk group (p < 0.05). The mean 2D:4D ratios were 0.96 ± 0.04, 0.97 ± 0.04 and 0.96 ± 0.04 for the PCa, high-risk and low-risk groups, respectively, and no difference was found among the three groups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: Anthropometry of the hand using the 2D:4D ratio is not a predictor of PCa. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina.
Case Rep Obstet Gynecol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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The primary small cell carcinoma of the vagina is rare, and it is a highly aggressive malignancy with no consensus regarding the treatment of this tumor. The survival rate for patients treated in the early stages is around two years. We related the case report of a patient of 41 years with a vegetative and necrotic lesion in left vaginal wall, in middle and upper third, and involvement of parametrium in its proximal third and medium third. A biopsy showed a small cell undifferentiated carcinoma composed of epithelial cells with round nuclei, oval or elongated, hyperchromatic nuclei, with little distinct nucleoli, and scarce cytoplasm. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for AE1/AE3, CD57, and chromogranin A. The patient received 6 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide and radiotherapy, achieving complete response, with complete regression of the lesion. The patient had no sign of tumor recurrence and locoregional or distant metastases after 5 months of followup.
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Effect of early membrane removal on the treatment of mandibular class II furcation defects--a controlled clinical trial with re-entry after 12 months.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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In a previous study in dogs, the early removal of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane (2 weeks after placement) showed histomorphometric results (of new bone, cementum and periodontal ligament) similar to that obtained with membrane removal at 4 weeks after placement. This study evaluated the influence of early removal of an ePTFE membrane on the treatment of Class II furcation defects. Twelve patients who provided 12 pairs of mandibular furcation defects were recruited for the study. Baseline clinical measurements were recorded: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), gingival margin position (GMP) and relative clinical attachment level (RCAL). Full flaps were elevated and hard tissue measurements were performed during the surgery: relative vertical (RVBL) and horizontal (RHBL) bone level. The ePTFE membranes were adapted and sutured to their correspondent tooth and removed at 2 weeks in the test group (TGr) and at 4 weeks in the control group (CGr). After 1 year all sites were re-entered, and soft and hard tissue measurements were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences between TGr and CGr for any baseline measurement. After 12 months, there were no statistically significant differences between TGr and CGr in the PD (p=0.74), GMP (p=0.76) and RCAL (p=0.44) values. However, the RHBL resolution was significant for both groups (CGr p=0.01 and TGr p=0.02), without difference between groups (p=0.39). Early removal of membranes did not affect the outcome on the treatment of Class II furcation defects.
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Identification of electronic and structural descriptors of adenosine analogues related to inhibition of leishmanial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
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Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed in order to identify molecular features responsible for the antileishmanial activity of 61 adenosine analogues acting as inhibitors of the enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Leishmania mexicana (LmGAPDH). Density functional theory (DFT) was employed to calculate quantum-chemical descriptors, while several structural descriptors were generated with Dragon 5.4. Variable selection was undertaken with the ordered predictor selection (OPS) algorithm, which provided a set with the most relevant descriptors to perform PLS, PCR and MLR regressions. Reliable and predictive models were obtained, as attested by their high correlation coefficients, as well as the agreement between predicted and experimental values for an external test set. Additional validation procedures were carried out, demonstrating that robust models were developed, providing helpful tools for the optimization of the antileishmanial activity of adenosine compounds.
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Identification of the soybean HyPRP family and specific gene response to Asian soybean rust disease.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril], one of the most important crop species in the world, is very susceptible to abiotic and biotic stress. Soybean plants have developed a variety of molecular mechanisms that help them survive stressful conditions. Hybrid proline-rich proteins (HyPRPs) constitute a family of cell-wall proteins with a variable N-terminal domain and conserved C-terminal domain that is phylogenetically related to non-specific lipid transfer proteins. Members of the HyPRP family are involved in basic cellular processes and their expression and activity are modulated by environmental factors. In this study, microarray analysis and real time RT-qPCR were used to identify putative HyPRP genes in the soybean genome and to assess their expression in different plant tissues. Some of the genes were also analyzed by time-course real time RT-qPCR in response to infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of Asian soybean rust disease. Our findings indicate that the time of induction of a defense pathway is crucial in triggering the soybean resistance response to P. pachyrhizi. This is the first study to identify the soybean HyPRP group B family and to analyze disease-responsive GmHyPRP during infection by P. pachyrhizi.
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Phylogeographic dispersion and diversification of rabies virus lineages associated with dogs and crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) in Brazil.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Genetic lineages of dog-associated RABV still circulate in some areas of the North and Northeast of Brazil. In parallel, another RABV lineage circulates among wild canids in the Northeast, particularly the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous). Although previous studies and phylogenetic analyses have been carried out, the way in which these lineages are dispersed temporally and spatially remained to be elucidated. In this study, RABV N gene sequences isolated from canids in North and Northeast Brazil were analyzed by the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method, and the results were then used in a phylogeographic study. It was inferred from the findings that the most recent common ancestor became established at the end of the nineteenth century on the border of the Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco and diversified into the lineages associated with dogs and C. thous. Around 1910, the original C. thous lineage diversified into two main sublineages in the same area, one of which migrated to the south and the other to the north. The dog-associated lineage diversified around 1945 and moved toward the north and south. From the phylogeographic analysis it was possible to infer not only the movement of the virus lineages but also the probable location where dispersion and diversification occurred. The methodology used here enabled the phylogeographic history of RABV in the region to be reconstructed, and the dispersion pattern of the virus can be used to predict its movements, making it easier to stop the advance of a rabies epidemic.
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Perception of local inhabitants regarding the socioeconomic impact of tourism focused on provisioning wild dolphins in Novo Airão, Central Amazon, Brazil.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Botos (Inia geoffrensis) are currently provisioned for use in tourist attractions in five sites in the Brazilian Amazon. Despite the known negative effects associated with human-wild dolphin interactions, this activity has been regulated and licensed in the Anavilhanas National Park in Novo Airão, Amazonas State, Brazil. We present an updated evaluation of the perception of the local community concerning the possible socioeconomic impacts of this tourism in Novo Airão. In April 2011, 45 interviews were conducted with inhabitants. A small segment of Novo Airão perceives currently itself as being economically dependent on the botos feeding tourism. Despite that, the economic benefits of this controversial activity apparently are not shared among most inhabitants, and botos feeding tourism is perceived as generating diverse negative effects. We conclude that if the activity was banned or modified into a less impacting tourist activity, this action would probably not majorly affect the lives of the general population.
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Ascorbyl palmitate interaction with phospholipid monolayers: electrostatic and rheological preponderancy.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Ascorbyl palmitate (ASC16) is an anionic amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest due to its antioxidant properties. We found that ASC16 strongly interacted with model membranes. ASC16 penetrated phospholipid monolayers, with a cutoff near the theoretical surface pressure limit. The presence of a lipid film at the interface favored ASC16 insertion compared with a bare air/water surface. The adsorption and penetration time curves showed a biphasic behavior: the first rapid peak evidenced a fast adsorption of charged ASC16 molecules to the interface that promoted a lowering of surface pH, thus partially neutralizing and compacting the film. The second rise represented an approach to the equilibrium between the ASC16 molecules in the subphase and the surface monolayer, whose kinetics depended on the ionization state of the film. Based on the Langmuir dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine+ASC16 monolayer data, we estimated an ASC16 partition coefficient to dimiristoylphosphatidylcholine monolayers of 1.5×10(5) and a ?Gp=-6.7kcal·mol(-1). The rheological properties of the host membrane were determinant for ASC16 penetration kinetics: a fluid membrane, as provided by cholesterol, disrupted the liquid-condensed ASC16-enriched domains and favored ASC16 penetration. Subphase pH conditions affected ASC16 aggregation in bulk: the smaller structures at acidic pHs showed a faster equilibrium with the surface film than large lamellar ones. Our results revealed that the ASC16 interaction with model membranes has a highly complex regulation. The polymorphism in the ASC16 bulk aggregation added complexity to the equilibrium between the surface and subphase form of ASC16, whose understanding may shed light on the pharmacological function of this drug.
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Effect of bixin and norbixin on the expression of cytochrome P450 in HepG2 cell line.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Bixin and norbixin are the main components of annatto, which is extracted from Bixa orellana and largely used as natural colorant in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Annatto can enhance CYP1A and CYP2B activity in rats; however, the inducer effect has not been investigated in human cell lines. In this study, the ability of bixin and norbixin to induce the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes was assessed in HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. HepG2 cells were treated with bixin and norbixin, and the expression of the CYP genes quantified by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 was significantly increased by bixin treatment, while CYP2B6, 2C9, 2E1 and 3A4 were unaffected. Cells were treated with norbixin showed no inducer effect. The results suggest that the inducer potential of annatto is attributed to bixin, but not to norbixin, despite their similarities in molecular structure.
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Impact of diabetes mellitus on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Independent of other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, increased arterial stiffness has been established as a predictor of morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of diabetes on arterial stiffness in a representative sample of an urban Brazilian population plus Amerindians.
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The LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) AlsR indirectly regulates expression of the Bacillus subtilis bdhA gene encoding 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Bacillus subtilis ferments pyruvate to 2,3-butanediol via ?-acetolactate synthase, ?-acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH), encoded by the alsSD operon and the unlinked monocistronic bdhA gene, respectively. Upstream and divergent from alsSD is the alsR gene that encodes AlsR, a member of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator family. AlsR directly stimulates alsSD transcription by binding to characteristic sites preceding the alsS promoter, but its effect on bdhA expression was unknown. The effect of AlsR on bdhA expression was assessed in a wild-type strain and a congenic strain carrying an alsR::spc knockout mutation by measuring: (a) expression of a transcriptional bdhA-lacZ fusion; (b) bdhA mRNA steady-state levels by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR; and (c) expression of BDH enzymatic activity. Activation of bdhA expression occurred in early stationary phase, and expression was lowered, but not abolished, in the alsR::spc mutant. Mapping the transcriptional start site of bdhA by primer extension revealed a 268-nucleotide 5-untranslated region preceding the bdhA initiation methionine codon. Transcription initiation was not reduced in the alsR::spc mutant, and by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, purified AlsR protein did not bind to the bdhA promoter region, suggesting that bdhA expression is indirectly under AlsR transcriptional control.
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis: role of imaging in diagnosis and follow-up.
Radiographics
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) encompasses a range of diseases characterized by proliferation of aberrant fibroinflammatory tissue, which usually surrounds the infrarenal portion of the abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, and iliac vessels. This process may extend to neighboring structures, frequently entrapping and obstructing the ureters and eventually leading to renal failure. The idiopathic form of RPF accounts for more than two-thirds of cases; the rest are secondary to factors such as drug use, malignancies, or infections. If promptly diagnosed and treated, idiopathic and most other benign forms of RPF have a good prognosis. In contrast, malignant RPF, which accounts for up to 10% of cases, has a poor prognosis. Therefore, the most important diagnostic challenge is differentiation of benign from malignant RPF. Imaging plays a key role in diagnosis of RPF. Cross-sectional imaging studies, particularly multidetector computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, are considered the imaging modalities of choice. Imaging features may help distinguish between benign and malignant RPF, but in some cases histopathologic examination of the retroperitoneal tissue is needed for definitive diagnosis. CT and MR imaging, along with positron emission tomography with fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose, also play an important role in management and follow-up of idiopathic RPF.
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Repair of critical-size bone defects using bone marrow stromal cells: a histomorphometric study in rabbit calvaria. Part I: Use of fresh bone marrow or bone marrow mononuclear fraction.
Clin Oral Implants Res
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the bone healing observed after the use of (1) a scaffold enriched with fresh bone marrow, (2) a scaffold enriched with bone marrow mononuclear fraction, and (3) a scaffold alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty one rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of six animals and 1 group of 3 animals. Bilateral 12-mm diameter defects were created in the animals parietal bones. In Control Group, the defects were filled with a xenograft alone (n = 6); in Group 1, with a xenograft enriched with fresh bone marrow (n = 6); in Group 2, with a xenograft enriched with bone marrow mononuclear fraction (n = 6) and in Unfilled Group, nothing was grafted (n = 3). In Groups 1, 2, and Control, one of the calvarial defects was randomly covered with a barrier membrane. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after surgery, and their parietal bones were harvested and analyzed histomorphometrically. RESULTS: The histomorphometric analysis showed no difference between Group 1 and the Control Group regarding non-vital mineralized tissue area, but Group 2 showed a statistically significant higher percentage than the Control Group (P < 0.05) for both situations, with membrane (21.24 ± 3.78% and 13.52 ± 3.00%, respectively) and without membrane (20.91 ± 2.01% and 13.08 ± 1.72%, respectively). Group 2 showed the highest percentage of vital mineralized tissue area, followed by Group 1 and the Control Group (P < 0.05) for both situations, with membrane (28.17 ± 3.19%; 21.14 ± 7.38% and 13.06 ± 5.24%, respectively) and without membrane (21.13 ± 0.55%; 12.45 ± 6.34% and 6.56 ± 1.20%, respectively). Group 2 showed the lowest percentage of non-mineralized tissue area, followed by Group 1 and Control Group (P < 0.05) for both situations, with membrane (50.59 ± 6.64%; 58.75 ± 7.14% and 73.41 ± 6.87%, respectively) and without membrane (57.97 ± 1.91%; 71.74 ± 6.63% and 80.37 ± 2.67%, respectively). The sides in which the defects were covered with the barrier membrane showed better bone healing compared with the uncovered sides, in all groups (intragroup comparison, P < 0.05). The Unfilled Group specimens showed no bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: Both methods using bone marrow stromal cells contributed to enhancing bone healing, especially that using the bone marrow mononuclear fraction. The use of a barrier membrane seemed to have a synergistic effect.
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Temperature response of an all-solid photonic bandgap fiber for sensing applications.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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The spectral shift due to temperature in the photonic bandgap (PBG) of an all-solid PBG fiber is investigated, aiming at discrete and distributed temperature sensing. A temperature rise induces a red shift in the bandgap spectra, which can be easily and precisely monitored by measuring the fiber transmission near one of the band edges. Two different situations that are potentially compatible with distributed and quasi-distributed sensing were investigated: heating a 2 m section of a longer (~10 m) fiber, and heating the whole extension of a fiber that is tens of centimeters in length and was spliced to conventional fibers on both sides. The latter setup yielded bandgap spectral shifts up to ~35 pm/°C. Aiming at discrete sensing, a short (~50 mm) fiber section was subjected to a tight bend so as to exhibit increased temperature sensitivity. Choosing the position of the bend allows for reconfiguration, on demand, of the sensor. A semi-analytical method to identify the spectral position of bandgaps was used to model the fiber transmission, as well as the bandgap shift with temperature, with consistent results.
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Viminaria juncea does not vary its shoot phosphorus concentration and only marginally decreases its mycorrhizal colonization and cluster-root dry weight under a wide range of phosphorus supplies.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The Australian legume species Viminaria juncea forms both cluster roots and mycorrhizal associations. The aim of this study was to identify if these root specializations are expressed at differential supplies of phosphorus (P) and at different shoot P concentrations [P].
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Foliar uptake of fog water and transport belowground alleviates drought effects in the cloud forest tree species, Drimys brasiliensis (Winteraceae).
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Foliar water uptake (FWU) is a common water acquisition mechanism for plants inhabiting temperate fog-affected ecosystems, but the prevalence and consequences of this process for the water and carbon balance of tropical cloud forest species are unknown. We performed a series of experiments under field and glasshouse conditions using a combination of methods (sap flow, fluorescent apoplastic tracers and stable isotopes) to trace fog water movement from foliage to belowground components of Drimys brasiliensis. In addition, we measured leaf water potential, leaf gas exchange, leaf water repellency and growth of plants under contrasting soil water availabilities and fog exposure in glasshouse experiments to evaluate FWU effects on the water and carbon balance of D. brasiliensis saplings. Fog water diffused directly through leaf cuticles and contributed up to 42% of total foliar water content. FWU caused reversals in sap flow in stems and roots of up to 26% of daily maximum transpiration. Fog water transported through the xylem reached belowground pools and enhanced leaf water potential, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and growth relative to plants sheltered from fog. Foliar uptake of fog water is an important water acquisition mechanism that can mitigate the deleterious effects of soil water deficits for D. brasiliensis.
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Hydrophobic effect of amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan on the antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Low molecular weight amphiphilic derivatives of chitosan were synthesized, characterized and their antifungal activities against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus were tested. The derivatives were synthesized using as starting material a deacetylated chitosan sample in a two step process: the reaction with propyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (Pr), followed by reductive amination with dodecyl aldehyde. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the hydrophobic modification of the derivatives on the antifungal activity against the pathogens, the degree of substitution (DS?) by Pr groups was kept constant and the proportion of dodecyl (Dod) groups was varied from 7 to 29% (DS?). The derivatives were characterized by ¹H-NMR and FTIR and their antifungal activities against the pathogens were tested by the radial growth of the colony and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. The derivatives substituted with only Pr groups exhibited modest inhibition against A. flavus and A. parasiticus, like that obtained with deacetylated chitosan. Results revealed that the amphiphilic derivatives grafted with Dod groups exhibited increasing inhibition indexes, depending on polymer concentration and hydrophobic content. At 0.6 g/L, all amphiphilic derivatives having from 7.0 to 29% of Dod groups completely inhibited fungal growth and the MIC values were found to decrease from 4.0 g/L for deacetylated chitosan to 0.25-0.50 g/L for the derivatives. These new derivatives open up the possibility of new applications and avenues to develop effective biofungicides based on chitosan.
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Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7).
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Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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After 25 years without any reported cases of rabies in Uruguay, the northern region of the country experienced an epizootic of bovine paralytic rabies in October 2007. The outbreak affected bovines and equines, and the main source of infection was the bat Desmodus rotundus, the only hematophagous species in the country. From October 2007 to July 2008, 42 bovine, 3 equine and 120 chiropteran samples were submitted to the National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for rabies testing. A total of 12 samples (7 bovine, 2 equine and 3 from D. rotundus) were positive by the fluorescent antibody test, and viruses were isolated by the mouse inoculation test. The objective of this study was to compare the antigenic and genetic characteristics of these isolates and three isolates from insectivorous bats from other regions. Antigenic typing using a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies identified all 12 viruses as variant 3 (AgV3), a variant associated with D. rotundus. Two isolates from insectivorous bats (Tadarida brasiliensis and Molossus sp.) were characterized as antigenic variant 4 (AgV4) while the third, from Myotis sp., could not be characterized using this panel as its reactivity pattern did not match that of any of the known antigenic variants. Partial N-gene sequences (nt 149-1420) of these isolates were aligned with homologous sequences derived from GenBank by the CLUSTAL/W method and used to build a neighbor-joining distance tree with the Kimura 2-parameter model. All 12 isolates were genetically grouped into the D. rotundus cluster as they shared 100% identity. In the phylogenetic analysis, the three isolates from insectivorous bats segregated into three clusters: one related to T. brasiliensis, one to Myotis sp. and the other to Lasiurus sp., although the isolate associated with the latter came from a Molossus sp. specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies virus having been detected in non-hematophagous bats in this country.
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Downregulation of net phosphorus-uptake capacity is inversely related to leaf phosphorus-resorption proficiency in four species from a phosphorus-impoverished environment.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Previous research has suggested a trade-off between the capacity of plants to downregulate their phosphorus (P) uptake capacity and their efficiency of P resorption from senescent leaves in species from P-impoverished environments.
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Association between the lymphotoxin-alpha gene polymorphism and chagasic cardiopathy.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha or LTA) is an inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the organization and maintenance of the inflammatory process and in the arrangement of cells at the site of inflammation. These features suggest an important role in the development of chronic Chagas disease, especially the cardiac form. The objective of this study was to evaluate LT-alpha genetics and its biological role in chronic Chagas disease. A total of 284 subjects were studied. The LT-alpha single-nucleotide polymorphism (+252) was analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and expression by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in culture supernatants and in individual T lymphocytes by flow cytometry. The risk of developing the cardiac form was 2.8 times higher among carriers of genotype GG and 2.4 times among carriers of genotype GA when compared to subjects carrying genotype AA. Seropositive subjects carrying the G allele produced significantly higher levels of LT-alpha. The cytokine was mainly expressed by CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the absence of any stimulus and after stimulation with the Trypanosoma cruzi antigen. This study provides genetic and biological evidence for an important role of LT-alpha in the development of the cardiac form of Chagas disease.
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2-Bromopalmitate reduces protein deacylation by inhibition of acyl-protein thioesterase enzymatic activities.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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S-acylation, the covalent attachment of palmitate and other fatty acids on cysteine residues, is a reversible post-translational modification that exerts diverse effects on protein functions. S-acylation is catalyzed by protein acyltransferases (PAT), while deacylation requires acyl-protein thioesterases (APT), with numerous inhibitors for these enzymes having already been developed and characterized. Among these inhibitors, the palmitate analog 2-brompalmitate (2-BP) is the most commonly used to inhibit palmitoylation in cells. Nevertheless, previous results from our laboratory have suggested that 2-BP could affect protein deacylation. Here, we further investigated in vivo and in vitro the effect of 2-BP on the acylation/deacylation protein machinery, with it being observed that 2-BP, in addition to inhibiting PAT activity in vivo, also perturbed the acylation cycle of GAP-43 at the level of depalmitoylation and consequently affected its kinetics of membrane association. Furthermore, 2-BP was able to inhibit in vitro the enzymatic activities of human APT1 and APT2, the only two thioesterases shown to mediate protein deacylation, through an uncompetitive mechanism of action. In fact, APT1 and APT2 hydrolyzed both the monomeric form as well as the micellar state of the substrate palmitoyl-CoA. On the basis of the obtained results, as APTs can mediate deacylation on membrane bound and unbound substrates, this suggests that the access of APTs to the membrane interface is not a necessary requisite for deacylation. Moreover, as the enzymatic activity of APTs was inhibited by 2-BP treatment, then the kinetics analysis of protein acylation using 2-BP should be carefully interpreted, as this drug also inhibits protein deacylation.
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T Cell Activation and Proinflammatory Cytokine Production in Clinically Cured Tuberculosis Are Time-Dependent and Accompanied by Upregulation of IL-10.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Th1 cytokines are essential for the control of M. tuberculosis infection. The role of IL-10 in tuberculosis is controversial and there is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the relationship between Th1 cytokines and IL-10 is not as antagonistic as it was first believed, and that these cytokines may complement each other in infectious diseases.
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Vitreous pharmacokinetics and retinal safety of intravitreal preserved versus non-preserved triamcinolone acetonide in rabbit eyes.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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To compare the intravitreal pharmacokinetic profile of a triamcinolone acetonide formulation containing the preservative benzyl alcohol (TA-BA) versus a preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide formulation (TA-PF), and evaluate potential signs of toxicity to the retina.
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Outbreaks of Eastern equine encephalitis in northeastern Brazil.
J. Vet. Diagn. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Outbreaks of eastern equine encephalitis observed from May 2008 to August 2009 in the Brazilian states of Pernambuco, Ceará, and Paraíba are reported. The disease occurred in 93 farms affecting 229 equids with a case fatality rate of 72.92%. Main clinical signs were circling, depression or hyperexcitability, ataxia, and progressive paralysis with a clinical manifestation period of 3-15 days. Main histologic lesions were a diffuse lymphocytic encephalomyelitis with neuronal death, satellitosis, neuronophagia, and hemorrhages being more severe in the cerebral gray matter of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon. Some animals also had areas of malacia in the telencephalon, thalamus, and basal nuclei. From 1 case, the virus was isolated by mice inoculation, and in other 13 cases was identified as Eastern equine encephalitis virus by semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After DNA sequencing, all samples were identified as eastern equine encephalitis through the BLASTn analysis, but samples from the Ceará and Paraíba states corresponded to the same cluster, while the sample from the state of Pernambuco corresponded to a different cluster.
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Assessment of by-products of chlorination and photoelectrocatalytic chlorination of an azo dye.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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The present work describes a more efficient methodology for the chlorination of water containing disperse dyes, where the chlorinated byproducts identified by mass spectra are compared. For this investigation, we tested the degradation of CI Disperse Blue 291 dye, 2-[(2-Bromo-4,6-dinitrophenyl)azo]-5-(diethylamino)-4-methoxyacetanilide) a commercial azo dye with mutagenic properties. The present work evaluates the photoelectrocatalytic efficiency of removing the CI Disperse Blue 291 dye from a wastewater of the textile industry. We employed NaCl as a supporting electrolyte. It should be noted that photoelectrocatalytic techniques are non-conventional method of generating chlorine radicals. The by-products formed in this process were analyzed using spectrophotometry, liquid chromatography, dissolved organic carbon, mass spectral analysis and mutagenicity assays. The process efficiency was compared with the conventional chlorination process adopted during sewage and effluents treatment processes. This conventional chlorination process is less efficient in removing color, total organic carbon than the photoelectrochemistry technique. Furthermore, we shall demonstrate that the mutagenicity of the generated by-products obtained using photoelectrocatalysis is completely different from that obtained by the conventional oxidation of chloride ions in the drinking water treatment process.
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An experimental model of meningoencephalomyelitis by Rocio flavivirus in BALB/c mice: inflammatory response, cytokine production, and histopathology.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Rocio virus (ROCV) is a flavivirus, probably transmitted by Culex mosquitoes and maintained in nature as a zoonosis of wild birds. Rocio virus caused a human epidemic of severe encephalitis that lasted from 1973 to 1980 in the Ribeira valley, in the southeastern coast of Brazil. After this outbreak, serologic evidence of ROCV circulation has been reported and public health authorities are concerned about a return of ROCV outbreaks in Brazil. We show here a study on the pathogenesis and the physiopathology of ROCV disease in the central nervous system of a Balb/C young adult mice experimental model. The animals were intraperitoneally infected by ROCV and followed from 0 to 9 days after infection, when all of them died. Nervous tissue samples were collected from infected animals for immunohistochemistry and molecular biology analysis. We observed the virus in the central nervous system, the inflammatory changes induced by Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and the final irreversible damage of nervous tissues by neuronal degeneration and apoptosis. These findings can help to better understand the pathogenesis and physiopathology of the human meningoencephalomyelitis by ROCV and other flaviviruses.
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Nomogram of fetal upper arm volume by three-dimensional ultrasound using extended imaging virtual organ computer-aided analysis (XI VOCAL).
J Perinat Med
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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To define the reference range of the fetal upper arm volume by three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound using the eXtended Imaging Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (XI VOCAL) method.
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Characterisation of the heat shock factor of the human thermodimorphic pathogen Paracoccidioides lutzii.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Thermodimorphic fungi include most causative agents of systemic mycoses, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie their defining trait, i.e. the ability to shift between mould and yeast on temperature change alone, remain poorly understood. We hypothesised that the heat shock factor (Hsf), a protein that evolved to sense thermal stimuli quickly, might play a role in this process in addition to the known regulator Drk1 and the Ryp proteins. To test this hypothesis, we characterised the Hsf from the thermodimorph Paracoccidioides lutzii (formerly Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolate 01). We show in the present work that PlHsf possesses regulatory domains that are exclusive of the Eurotiomycetidae family, suggesting evolutionary specialisation; that it can successfully rescue the otherwise lethal loss of the native protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae; and that its DNA-binding domain is able to recognise regulatory elements from the promoters of both Drk1 and Ryp1. An in silico screening of all 1 kb sequences upstream of P. lutzii ORFs revealed that 7% of them possess a heat shock element. This is the first description of a heat shock factor in a thermodimorphic fungus.
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Cytokines in neovascular age-related macular degeneration: fundamentals of targeted combination therapy.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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The neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), called wet-AMD or choroidal neovascularisation, begins with damage to the outer retinal cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which elicits a cascade of inflammatory and angiogenic responses leading to neovascularisation under the macula. Studies showed that oxidative damage, chronic inflammation of the RPE and complement misregulation work at different steps of this disease. After established neovascularisation, several pro- and antiangiogenic agents start to play an important role. Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are the most specific and potent regulators of angiogenesis, which are inhibited by intravitreal injections of ranibizumab, bevacizumab, VEGF Trap, pegaptanib sodium and other agents under investigation. Pigment epithelium-derived factor, on the other hand, shows neuroprotective and antiangiogenic activities. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has a mitogenic effect on a wide range of epithelial and endothelial cells, and it is inhibited by an anti-HGF monoclonal antibody. Platelet-derived growth factor is a potent chemoattractant and mitogen for both fibroblasts and retinal RPE cells, which has been inhibited experimentally by VEGF Trap and human anti-platelet-derived growth factor-D monoclonal antibody. Fibroblast growth factor-2 has pleiotropic effects in different cell and organ systems, and it is blocked by anti-FGF antibodies, with a greater benefit regarding antiangiogenesis when combined treatment with anti-VEGF is performed. Tumour necrosis factor alpha is expressed in the retina and the choroid, and its blockade in choroidal neovascularisation includes the use of monoclonals such as infliximab. This paper reviews the most important cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of wet-AMD, with emphasis on potential combined therapies for disease control.
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Aging correlates with reduction in regulatory-type cytokines and T cells in the gut mucosa.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Aging is reported to be associated with decline in oral tolerance induction, which is initiated at the intestinal mucosal surface. Herein, we examined the effect of aging in T cells and cytokines at the intestinal mucosa that might be involved in oral tolerance induction. Frequencies of regulatory-type IEL subsets such as TCR??(+) and TCR??(+)CD8??(+) were lower in aged mice. Mucosal CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) and CD4(+)LAP(+) T cells increased with aging but activated CD44(+)CD4(+) mucosal T cells also augmented. Production of TGF-? and IL-10 in the small intestine of old mice was reduced. Moreover, the ability of mucosal dendritic cells of aged mice to stimulate TGF-? secretion and differentiation of CD4(+)LAP(+) T cells in co-culture studies also declined with aging. Reduction in these regulatory-type cytokines and T cells may help to explain the decline in susceptibility to oral induction during aging. However, not all mucosal regulatory elements were altered by aging and CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells were especially resistant to changes. Persistence of some mechanisms of regulation may play a critical role in maintaining mucosal homeostasis during aging.
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Fetal thigh volume by 3D sonography using XI VOCAL: reproducibility and reference range for Brazilian healthy fetuses between 20 and 40? weeks.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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To provide reference values for fetal thigh volume using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and the eXtended Imaging Virtual Organ Computer-aided AnaLysis (XI VOCAL) method.
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On the stabilization of gold nanoparticles over silica-based magnetic supports modified with organosilanes.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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The immobilization of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) on silica is made possible by the functionalization of the silica surfaces with organosilanes. Au NPs could only be stabilized and firmly attached to silica-support surfaces that were previously modified with amino groups. Au NPs could not be stabilized on bare silica surfaces and most of the NPs were then found in the solution. The metal-support interactions before and after the Au NP formation, observed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS), indicate a stronger interaction of gold(III) ions with amino-modified silica surfaces than with the silanol groups in bare silica. An amino-modified, silica-based, magnetic support was used to prepare an active Au NP catalyst for the chemoselective oxidation of alcohols, a reaction of great interest for the fine chemical industry.
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Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis: microbiological profile.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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The aim of this trial was to investigate changes occurring in the subgingival microbiological composition of subjects with aggressive periodontitis, treated with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT), in a single episode, or scaling and root planing (SRP), in a split-mouth design on -7, 0, and +90 days. Ten patients were randomly assigned to either aPDT using a laser source in conjunction with a photosensitizer or SRP with hand instruments. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the counts of 40 subgingival species were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. The data were analyzed using the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) to test the associations between treatments, evaluated parameters, and experimental times (? = .05). The results indicated that aPDT and SRP affects different bacterial species, with aPDT being effective in reducing numbers of A. actinomycetemcomitans than SRP. On the other hand, SRP was more efficient than aPDT in reducing the presence of periodontal pathogens of the Red Complex. Additionally, a recolonization in the sites treated by aPDT was observed, especially for T. forsythia and P. gingivalis. Under our experimental conditions, this trial demonstrates that aPDT and SRP affected different groups of bacteria, suggesting that their association may be beneficial for the non-surgical treatment of aggressive periodontitis.
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Lipid accumulation and utilization by oocytes and eggs of Rhodnius prolixus.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Insect eggs must contain the necessary nutrients for embryonic growth. In this article, we investigated the accumulation of triacylglycerol (TAG) in growing oocytes and its utilization during embryonic development. TAG makes up about 60% of the neutral lipids in oocytes and accumulates as oocytes grow, from 2.2 ± 0.1?µg in follicles containing 1.0?mm length oocytes to 10.2 ± 0.8?µg in 2.0?mm length oocytes. Lipophorin (Lp), the hemolymphatic lipoprotein, radioactively labeled in free fatty acid (FFA) or diacylglycerol (DAG), was used to follow the transport of these lipids to the ovary. Radioactivity from both lipid classes accumulated in the oocytes, which was abolished at 4°C. The capacity of the ovary to receive FFA or DAG from Lp varied according to time after a blood meal and reached a maximum around the second day. (3) H-DAG supplied by Lp to the ovaries was used in the synthesis of TAG as, 48?hr after injection, most of the radioactivity was found in TAG (85.7% of labeling in neutral lipids). During embryogenesis, lipid stores were mobilized, and the TAG content decreased from 16.4 ± 2.1?µg/egg on the first day to 10.0 ± 1.3?µg on day 15, just before hatching. Of these, 7.4 ± 0.9?µg were found in the newly emerged nymphs. In unfertilized eggs, the TAG content did not change. Although the TAG content decreased during embryogenesis, the relative lipid composition of the egg did not change. The amount of TAG in the nymph slowly decreased during the days after hatching.
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Genetic and functional role of TNF-alpha in the development Trypanosoma cruzi infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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TNF-alpha plays an important role in trypanocidal mechanisms and is related to tissue injury. This cytokine has been detected in the heart of human chagasic patients where it is associated with tissue damage. This study investigated whether TNF-alpha levels and the presence of genetic polymorphisms are associated with the presence of T. cruzi infection and/or with the development of the cardiac form in chronic chagasic patients. Genomic DNA of 300 subjects from an endemic area was extracted and analyzed by PCR using specific primers. TNF-alpha was assayed in culture supernatants by ELISA. An association was observed between the absence of the TNF-238A allele and negative serology. Furthermore, seropositive individuals carrying the TNF-238A allele produced significantly higher TNF-alpha levels without stimulation (p=0.04) and after stimulation with LPS (p=0.007) and T. cruzi antigens (p=0.004). The present results suggest that the polymorphism at position -238 influences susceptibility to infection and that this allele is associated with higher TNF-alpha production in seropositive individuals.
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Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from dogs in Brazil between 1985 and 2006.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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To establish the phylogeographic relationships in rabies viruses in Brazil, we studied a dataset retrieved from GenBank consisting of 71 genetic sequences from the coding region of the N gene of rabies viruses isolated in dogs over a period of 22 years. The Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method available in the BEAST package was used with the GTR+G+?4 evolutionary model in conjunction with the relaxed uncorrelated lognormal molecular clock model and an exponential growth tree prior. A discrete phylogeographic diffusion model was also analyzed using a standard continuous-time Markov chain viewed with Google Earth to provide a spatial projection of the diffusion of genetic lineages based on their phylogeographic relationships. The topology of the time and substitution phylogenetic trees agreed with the spatial dispersal of the lineages. It was possible to infer that the lineages in the southeastern region of Brazil in the 1970s are the closest to the most common recent ancestor and that all the lineages in the midwestern, northern and northeastern regions are more distant. The importance of this study lies in the fact that it can help with the planning of rabies control measures, as dogs continue to be the main reservoir of rabies virus throughout the world.
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In vitro antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic Moringa leaf extracts.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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To evaluate the antibacterial effect of aqueous and ethanolic moringa leaf extracts (Moringa oleifera) on the growth of gram-positive and negative bacteria.
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Bijvoet in solution reveals unexpected stereoselectivity in a Michael addition.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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The absolute configuration of small crystallizable molecules can be determined with anomalous X-ray diffraction as shown by Bijvoet in 1951. For the majority of compounds that can neither be crystallized nor easily be converted into crystallizable derivatives, stereocontrolled organic synthesis is still required to establish their absolute configuration. In this contribution, a new fundamental methodology for resolving the absolute configuration will be presented that does not require crystallization. With residual dipolar coupling enhanced NMR spectroscopy, ensembles of a limited number of structures are created reflecting the correct conformations and relative configuration. Subsequently, from these ensembles, optical rotation dispersion (ORD) spectra are predicted by DFT calculations and compared to experimental results. The combination of these two steps reveals the absolute configuration of a flexible molecule in solution, which is a big challenge to chiroptical methods and DFT in the absence of NMR spectroscopy. Here the absolute stereochemistry of the product of a new Michael addition, synthesized via a niobium(V) chiral enolate, will be elucidated by using the new methodology.
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Ethnicity and arterial stiffness in Brazil.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2010
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The impact of increased central arterial stiffness as a predictor of morbidity and mortality, independently of other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, has been established. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the association of ethnicity on arterial stiffness in different ethnic groups from the Brazilian population.
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[Quality of maternal and child health care in different models of Primary Health Care].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2010
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This study evaluated the quality of the maternal and child health care in two different models of Primary Health Care. Interviews were carried out by trained personnel with 1200 families randomly selected. Processes of assistance for maternal and child health care were evaluated by Family Health Strategy Teams and traditional health centers. In the evaluation of child health care, the precocity of the first consultation, the regular assessment of growth and development, the recommendations for accident prevention and prophylactic use of iron supplementation and vitamin A had been statistically associated with the model of the health care. Regarding prenatal health care the results showed statistically significant differences between the two models for breastfeeding counseling, nutritional recommendations and cervical preventive screening using Papanicolaou smear. For women health care out of pregnancy period, the results revealed that counseling for breasts auto-examination, preventive screening using Papanicolaou smear in last year and participation in family planning programs were associated with health Primary Health Care model. All the pointed differences had shown better performance of the Family Health Strategy Teams.
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A comparative study of rabies virus isolates from hematophagous bats in Brazil.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2010
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The Brazilian chiropteran fauna consists of 167 species; of which, three are hematophagous: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi), and the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata). The aim of this study was to describe the isolation of Rabies virus from common and hairy-legged vampire bats and to report the first comparative antigenic and genetic studies of isolates from these bats. Antigenic and genetic typing of both isolates identified them as antigenic variant 3 (AgV3), the variant frequently isolated from common vampire bats. Phylogenetic analysis showed 99.3% identity between the isolates. This is the first time since 1934 that Rabies virus has been isolated from hairy-legged vampire bats in Brazil. Our analysis provides evidence that the existence of rabies-positive isolates from hairy-legged vampire bats may be the result of an interspecific rabies transmission event from common vampire bats and suggests that roost cohabitation may occur.
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Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in a white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) in the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil.
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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This is the first brief communication of clinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus occurring in a white-eared opossum (Didelphis albiventris) captured in a remnant of the Atlantic Forest in northeast Brazil. The bacterium was cultured from a milk sample by using sheep blood and Levine agars. Phenotyping of S aureus was performed with coagulase biochemical tests, DNase agar, mannitol agar, and anaerobic glucose and mannitol fermentation.
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A BALB/c mouse model shows that liver involvement in dengue disease is immune-mediated.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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In the present study, BALB/c mice were used to develop a model for the hepatic injury associated to dengue infection. Histological analysis after subcutaneous inoculation with a low viral dose of dengue-2 virus showed Kupffer cell hyperplasia and an increased inflammatory cellular infiltrate next to the bile ducts on days 5, 7 and 14 post-inoculation, mainly characterized by the presence of mononuclear cells. The liver mRNA transcription level of IL-1? was highest on the 5th day post-infection (p.i.) and decreased by the 21st day, TNF-? showed a peak of mRNA transcription after 14 days p.i. coinciding with the regression of cellular infiltrates and elevated expression of TGF-? mRNA. Serum AST and ALT levels were slightly elevated at 7 and 14 days post-infection. Dengue-2 RNA levels were undetectable in the liver on any of the days following inoculation. Our observations suggest that, as it is true for humans, the animals undergo a transient and slight liver inflammation, probably due to local cytokine production and cellular infiltration in the liver.
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Stationary shapes of confined rotating magnetic liquid droplets.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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We study the family of steady shapes which arise when a magnetic liquid droplet is confined in a rotating Hele-Shaw cell and subjected to an azimuthal magnetic field. Two different scenarios are considered: first, the magnetic fluid is assumed to be a Newtonian ferrofluid, and then it is taken as a viscoelastic magnetorheological fluid. The influence of the distinct material properties of the fluids on the ultimate morphology of the emerging stationary patterns is investigated by using a vortex-sheet formalism. Some of these exact steady structures are similar to the advanced time patterns obtained by existing time-evolving numerical simulations of the problem. A weakly nonlinear approach is employed to examine this fact and to gain analytical insight about relevant aspects related to the stability of such exact stationary solutions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.