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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A gender gap in primary and secondary heart dysfunctions in systemic sclerosis: a EUSTAR prospective study.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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In agreement with other autoimmune diseases, systemic sclerosis (SSc) is associated with a strong sex bias. However, unlike lupus, the effects of sex on disease phenotype and prognosis are poorly known. Therefore, we aimed to determine sex effects on outcomes.
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A systemic sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus pan-meta-GWAS reveals new shared susceptibility loci.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are two archetypal systemic autoimmune diseases which have been shown to share multiple genetic susceptibility loci. In order to gain insight into the genetic basis of these diseases, we performed a pan-meta-analysis of two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) together with a replication stage including additional SSc and SLE cohorts. This increased the sample size to a total of 21,109 (6835 cases and 14,274 controls). We selected for replication 19 SNPs from the GWAS data. We were able to validate KIAA0319L (P = 3.31 × 10(-11), OR = 1.49) as novel susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE. Furthermore, we also determined that the previously described SLE susceptibility loci PXK (P = 3.27 × 10(-11), OR = 1.20) and JAZF1 (P = 1.11 × 10(-8), OR = 1.13) are shared with SSc. Supporting these new discoveries, we observed that KIAA0319L was overexpressed in peripheral blood cells of SSc and SLE patients compared with healthy controls. With these, we add three (KIAA0319L, PXK and JAZF1) and one (KIAA0319L) new susceptibility loci for SSc and SLE, respectively, increasing significantly the knowledge of the genetic basis of autoimmunity.
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In vivo confocal evaluation of the ocular surface morpho-functional unit in dry eye.
Optom Vis Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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To study, by a new, integrated, laser scanning confocal microscopy approach, the ocular surface morpho-functional unit in patients with primary Sjogren syndrome (SSI), non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye (non-SSDE), and meibomian gland disease (MGD).
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Rare variants in the TREX1 gene and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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TREX1 (DNase III) is an exonuclease involved in response to oxidative stress and apoptosis. Heterozygous mutations in TREX1 were previously observed in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögrens syndrome (SS). We performed a mutational analysis of the TREX1 gene on three autoimmune diseases: SLE (210 patients) and SS (58 patients), to confirm a TREX1 involvement in the Italian population, and systemic sclerosis (SSc, 150 patients) because it shares similarities with SLE (presence of antinuclear antibodies and connective tissue damage). We observed 7 variations; two of these are novel nonsynonymous variants (p.Glu198Lys and p.Met232Val). They were detected in one SS and in one SSc patient, respectively, and in none of the 200 healthy controls typed in this study and of the 1712 published controls. In silico analysis predicts a possibly damaging role on protein function for both variants. The other 5 variations are synonymous and only one of them is novel (p.Pro48Pro). This study contributes to the demonstration that TREX1 is involved in autoimmune diseases and proposes that the spectrum of involved autoimmune diseases can be broader and includes SSc. We do not confirm a role of TREX1 variants in SLE.
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Carbohydrate antigen 15.3 as a serum biomarker of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis patients.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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To determine the usefulness of Ca 15.3 as a candidate biomarker in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD).
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Genetic polymorphisms of FOXP3 in Italian patients with systemic sclerosis.
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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A case control study to evaluate the possible influence of FOXP3 polymorphisms (rs3761548 and rs2280883) in the susceptibility of systemic sclerosis in an Italian Caucasian population. Subgroup analysis was also performed to test association between these SNPs and specific disease phenotypes. The study groups consisted of 467 individuals: 228 patients (194 with limited cutaneous form and 34 with diffuse cutaneous form of the disease) and 239 healthy control subjects. Genotyping was performed by high resolution melting analysis. Genotype distribution and allele frequency of the FOXP3 polymorphisms were analyzed statistically, using ?(2) or Fisher exact test. Single-marker analysis of allelic and genotype frequencies revealed that SNP rs3761548 was not associated with systemic sclerosis susceptibility. Analysis of genotype and allele distributions of the rs2280883 genetic variant was associated, only in female subjects with systemic sclerosis, its limited subtype, and anti-centromere autoantibodies. Although these findings require replication in a larger set and other populations, FOXP3 rs2280883 may represent a novel susceptibility locus for systemic sclerosis in female subjects.
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Increased expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a common complication of limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc), is associated with alterations of markers of inflammation and vascular damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) have been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to assess whether markers of ER stress and the UPR are present in PBMCs from lcSSc patients with PAH.
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The systemic lupus erythematosus IRF5 risk haplotype is associated with systemic sclerosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a fibrotic autoimmune disease in which the genetic component plays an important role. One of the strongest SSc association signals outside the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region corresponds to interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a major regulator of the type I IFN pathway. In this study we aimed to evaluate whether three different haplotypic blocks within this locus, which have been shown to alter the protein function influencing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) susceptibility, are involved in SSc susceptibility and clinical phenotypes. For that purpose, we genotyped one representative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of each block (rs10488631, rs2004640, and rs4728142) in a total of 3,361 SSc patients and 4,012 unaffected controls of Caucasian origin from Spain, Germany, The Netherlands, Italy and United Kingdom. A meta-analysis of the allele frequencies was performed to analyse the overall effect of these IRF5 genetic variants on SSc. Allelic combination and dependency tests were also carried out. The three SNPs showed strong associations with the global disease (rs4728142: P ?=?1.34×10(-8), OR ?=?1.22, CI 95% ?=?1.14-1.30; rs2004640: P ?=?4.60×10(-7), OR ?=?0.84, CI 95% ?=?0.78-0.90; rs10488631: P ?=?7.53×10(-20), OR ?=?1.63, CI 95% ?=?1.47-1.81). However, the association of rs2004640 with SSc was not independent of rs4728142 (conditioned P ?=?0.598). The haplotype containing the risk alleles (rs4728142*A-rs2004640*T-rs10488631*C: P ?=?9.04×10(-22), OR ?=?1.75, CI 95% ?=?1.56-1.97) better explained the observed association (likelihood P-value ?=?1.48×10(-4)), suggesting an additive effect of the three haplotypic blocks. No statistical significance was observed in the comparisons amongst SSc patients with and without the main clinical characteristics. Our data clearly indicate that the SLE risk haplotype also influences SSc predisposition, and that this association is not sub-phenotype-specific.
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HLA-B35 and dsRNA induce endothelin-1 via activation of ATF4 in human microvascular endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is a key regulator of vascular homeostasis. We have recently reported that the presence of Human antigen class I, HLA-B35, contributes to human dermal microvascular endothelial cell (HDMEC) dysfunction by upregulating ET-1 and proinflammatory genes. Likewise, a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand, Poly(I:C), was shown to induce ET-1 expression in HDMECs. The goal of this study was to determine the molecular mechanism of ET-1 induction by these two agonists. Because HLA-B35 expression correlated with induction of Binding Immunoglobulin Protein (BiP/GRP78) and several heat shock proteins, we first focused on ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) as possible mediators of this response. ER stress inducer, Thapsigargin (TG), HLA-B35, and Poly(I:C) induced ET-1 expression with similar potency in HDMECs. TG and HLA-B35 activated the PERK/eIF2?/ATF4 branch of the UPR and modestly increased the spliced variant of XBP1, but did not affect the ATF6 pathway. Poly(I:C) also activated eIF2?/ATF4 in a protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent manner. Depletion of ATF4 decreased basal expression levels of ET-1 mRNA and protein, and completely prevented upregulation of ET-1 by all three agonists. Additional experiments have demonstrated that the JNK and NF-?B pathways are also required for ET-1 upregulation by these agonists. Formation of the ATF4/c-JUN complex, but not the ATF4/NF-?B complex was increased in the agonist treated cells. The functional role of c-JUN in responses to HLA-B35 and Poly(I:C) was further confirmed in ET-1 promoter assays. This study identified ATF4 as a novel activator of the ET-1 gene. The ER stress/UPR and TLR3 pathways converge on eIF2?/ATF4 during activation of endothelial cells.
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A GWAS follow-up study reveals the association of the IL12RB2 gene with systemic sclerosis in Caucasian populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
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A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the IL12RB2 locus showed a suggestive association signal in a previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Aiming to reveal the possible implication of the IL12RB2 gene in SSc, we conducted a follow-up study of this locus in different Caucasian cohorts. We analyzed 10 GWAS-genotyped SNPs in the IL12RB2 region (2309 SSc patients and 5161 controls). We then selected three SNPs (rs3790567, rs3790566 and rs924080) based on their significance level in the GWAS, for follow-up in an independent European cohort comprising 3344 SSc and 3848 controls. The most-associated SNP (rs3790567) was further tested in an independent cohort comprising 597 SSc patients and 1139 controls from the USA. After conditional logistic regression analysis of the GWAS data, we selected rs3790567 [P(MH)= 1.92 × 10(-5) odds ratio (OR) = 1.19] as the genetic variant with the firmest independent association observed in the analyzed GWAS peak of association. After the first follow-up phase, only the association of rs3790567 was consistent (P(MH)= 4.84 × 10(-3) OR = 1.12). The second follow-up phase confirmed this finding (P(?2) = 2.82 × 10(-4) OR = 1.34). After performing overall pooled-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study, the association found for the rs3790567 SNP in the IL12RB2 gene region reached GWAS-level significant association (P(MH)= 2.82 × 10(-9) OR = 1.17). Our data clearly support the IL12RB2 genetic association with SSc, and suggest a relevant role of the interleukin 12 signaling pathway in SSc pathogenesis.
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Association of osteopontin regulatory polymorphisms with systemic sclerosis.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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To test the involvement of osteopontin gene (OPN) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) susceptibility, two OPN single nucleotide polymorphisms previously reported to be associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, namely -156G/GG (proximal promoter) and +1239A/C (3 untranslated region (UTR)), were tested in 357 Italian patients and 864 matched control subjects. OPN serum levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 32 patients and 116 controls. Compared with the controls, in SSc patients there was a significantly increased frequency of the alleles -156G (p = 0.0086), and +1239C (p = 0.00064), paralleling the association reported for systemic lupus erythematosus. According to logistic regression analysis, this association is primarily due to the effect of +1239 single nucleotide polymorphism. OPN serum levels were significantly higher in SSc patients than in controls (p = 0.00025). These data suggest that OPN genetic variations have a role in SSc susceptibility, reporting for the first time an involvement of this molecule in SSc pathogenesis and emphasizing that SSc shares pathogenetic mechanisms with other autoimmune diseases.
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Identification of novel genetic markers associated with clinical phenotypes of systemic sclerosis through a genome-wide association strategy.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine, through a genome-wide association study (GWAS), the genetic components contributing to different clinical sub-phenotypes of systemic sclerosis (SSc). We considered limited (lcSSc) and diffuse (dcSSc) cutaneous involvement, and the relationships with presence of the SSc-specific auto-antibodies, anti-centromere (ACA), and anti-topoisomerase I (ATA). Four GWAS cohorts, comprising 2,296 SSc patients and 5,171 healthy controls, were meta-analyzed looking for associations in the selected subgroups. Eighteen polymorphisms were further tested in nine independent cohorts comprising an additional 3,175 SSc patients and 4,971 controls. Conditional analysis for associated SNPs in the HLA region was performed to explore their independent association in antibody subgroups. Overall analysis showed that non-HLA polymorphism rs11642873 in IRF8 gene to be associated at GWAS level with lcSSc (P?=?2.32×10(-12), OR?=?0.75). Also, rs12540874 in GRB10 gene (P?=?1.27 × 10(-6), OR?=?1.15) and rs11047102 in SOX5 gene (P?=?1.39×10(-7), OR?=?1.36) showed a suggestive association with lcSSc and ACA subgroups respectively. In the HLA region, we observed highly associated allelic combinations in the HLA-DQB1 locus with ACA (P?=?1.79×10(-61), OR?=?2.48), in the HLA-DPA1/B1 loci with ATA (P?=?4.57×10(-76), OR?=?8.84), and in NOTCH4 with ACA P?=?8.84×10(-21), OR?=?0.55) and ATA (P?=?1.14×10(-8), OR?=?0.54). We have identified three new non-HLA genes (IRF8, GRB10, and SOX5) associated with SSc clinical and auto-antibody subgroups. Within the HLA region, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DPA1/B1, and NOTCH4 associations with SSc are likely confined to specific auto-antibodies. These data emphasize the differential genetic components of subphenotypes of SSc.
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Efficacy of aminaftone in a rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Pulmonary hypertension is characterized by increased vascular resistances, that could lead to right heart failure and death. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a peptide with strong vasoconstrictive and pro-fibrotic properties and is one of the main mediators of pulmonary hypertension. Aminaftone, a synthetic molecule derivative of 4-amynobenzoic acid, down-regulates ET-1 production in vitro by interfering with the transcription of the pre-pro-ET-1 gene. The aim of this study was to test whether the inhibition of ET-1 production by aminaftone attenuates the effects of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension was induced through s.c. injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline. The rats were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups: Control; Monocrotaline; Aminaftone 30 mg/kg/day; Aminaftone 150 mg/kg/day. After 5 weeks, mortality was significantly lower in the animals treated with aminaftone at both doses compared to monocrotaline alone. Aminaftone reduced plasma concentration of ET-1 and seemed to reduce right heart hypertrophy and the wall thickness of the pulmonary arteries at the highest dose. Aminaftone may represent a novel treatment strategy of pulmonary hypertension.
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Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene polymorphism -1562 C/T in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis with and without ulcers.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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The objective of this study was to determine whether the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) rs3918242 single nucleotide polymorphism may confer susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) with and without ulcers in an Italian Caucasian population. The MMP-9 rs3918242 functional polymorphism was genotyped in 461 subjects of Italian Caucasian origin: 228 patients with SSc (92 with and 136 without ulcers) and 233 unrelated healthy individuals. The SNP under study was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the control population. Genotype and allele distributions between SSc patients, with or without ulcers, were not statistically significant (p>0.05). A significant increase of the genotype C/T was observed in male SSc patients without ulcers when compared to patients with ulcers (P=0.04). The MMP-9 rs3918242 functional polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to SSc. However, the presence of the polymorphism may have a protective effect on the development of ulcers in SSc male patients.
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Development of a five-year mortality model in systemic sclerosis patients by different analytical approaches.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multiorgan disease with high mortality rates. Several clinical features have been associated with poor survival in different populations of SSc patients, but no clear and reproducible prognostic model to assess individual survival prediction in scleroderma patients has ever been developed.
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Survival dimensionality reduction (SDR): development and clinical application of an innovative approach to detect epistasis in presence of right-censored data.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Epistasis is recognized as a fundamental part of the genetic architecture of individuals. Several computational approaches have been developed to model gene-gene interactions in case-control studies, however, none of them is suitable for time-dependent analysis. Herein we introduce the Survival Dimensionality Reduction (SDR) algorithm, a non-parametric method specifically designed to detect epistasis in lifetime datasets.
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HLA-B35 upregulates endothelin-1 and downregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via endoplasmic reticulum stress response in endothelial cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The presence of the HLA-B35 allele has emerged as an important risk factor for the development of isolated pulmonary hypertension in patients with scleroderma, however the mechanisms underlying this association have not been fully elucidated. The goal of our study was to determine the molecular mechanisms that mediate the biological effects of HLA-B35 in endothelial cells (ECs). Our data demonstrate that HLA-B35 expression at physiological levels via adenoviral vector resulted in significantly increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) and a significantly decreased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), mRNA, and protein levels. Furthermore, HLA-B35 greatly upregulated expression of chaperones, including heat shock proteins (HSPs) HSP70 (HSPA1A and HSPA1B) and HSP40 (DNAJB1 and DNAJB9), suggesting that HLA-B35 induces the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response in ECs. Examination of selected mediators of the unfolded protein response, including H chain binding protein (BiP; GRP78), C/Ebp homologous protein (CHOP; GADD153), endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, and protein disulfide isomerase has revealed a consistent increase of BiP expression levels. Accordingly, thapsigargin, a known ER stress inducer, stimulated ET-1 mRNA and protein levels in ECs. This study suggests that HLA-B35 could contribute to EC dysfunction via ER stress-mediated induction of ET-1 in patients with pulmonary hypertension.
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A 3-factor epistatic model predicts digital ulcers in Italian scleroderma patients.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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The genetic background may predispose systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients to the development of digital ulcers (DUs).
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Effect of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and glucocorticoids on the prevention and development of scleroderma renal crisis in an Italian case series.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
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Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a relative rare yet dramatic event in the history of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Several factors that may precipitate or protect from the development of SRC have been described in previous case-control studies. To date, no attempt has been made to evaluate these factors in an observational fashion.
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Association of TIMP-1 +372 SNP with digital ulcer manifestation in female systemic sclerosis patients.
Hum. Immunol.
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A candidate gene for TIMP-1 gene located on the X-chromosome (rs4898) was selected for a control case study to investigate a possible association of this SNP with the susceptibility to systemic sclerosis and its digit ulcer manifestation. A total of 461 individuals of Italian Caucasian origin (228 SSc patients and 233 healthy control subjects) were genotyped for TIMP-1 +372 T/C single nucleotide polymorphism rs4898. Subgroups were analyzed according to the presence or absence of digital ulcers. The CC genotype and C allele frequencies were significantly lower in female SSc patients than in controls (OR 0.53, CI 0.29-0.96, p=0.03 and OR 0.72, CI 0.53-0.98 p=0.04, respectively). CC genotypes frequency was lower also in female patients with ulcers than those without ulcers (OR 0.37, CI 0.14-1.00, p=0.03). Furthermore, CC genotype and C allele frequencies were lower also in female patients with ulcers in comparison to female healthy control subjects (OR 0.27, CI 0.10-0.70, p=0.004; OR 0.60, CI 0.40-0.89, p=0.01, respectively). The TIMP-1 rs4898 polymorphism may play a protective role in the susceptibility to SSC in females, and in particular to digital ulcer formation.
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Identification of CSK as a systemic sclerosis genetic risk factor through Genome Wide Association Study follow-up.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is complex autoimmune disease affecting the connective tissue; influenced by genetic and environmental components. Recently, we performed the first successful genome-wide association study (GWAS) of SSc. Here, we perform a large replication study to better dissect the genetic component of SSc. We selected 768 polymorphisms from the previous GWAS and genotyped them in seven replication cohorts from Europe. Overall significance was calculated for replicated significant SNPs by meta-analysis of the replication cohorts and replication-GWAS cohorts (3237 cases and 6097 controls). Six SNPs in regions not previously associated with SSc were selected for validation in another five independent cohorts, up to a total of 5270 SSc patients and 8326 controls. We found evidence for replication and overall genome-wide significance for one novel SSc genetic risk locus: CSK [P-value = 5.04 × 10(-12), odds ratio (OR) = 1.20]. Additionally, we found suggestive association in the loci PSD3 (P-value = 3.18 × 10(-7), OR = 1.36) and NFKB1 (P-value = 1.03 × 10(-6), OR = 1.14). Additionally, we strengthened the evidence for previously confirmed associations. This study significantly increases the number of known putative genetic risk factors for SSc, including the genes CSK, PSD3 and NFKB1, and further confirms six previously described ones.
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Polymorphisms of the IgH enhancer HS1.2 and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
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To determine whether the allelic frequency variation of the HS1.2 enhancer of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) 3 regulatory region (3RR-1) locus represents a risk factor for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to identify a possible functional difference in the two most frequent alleles (*1 and *2) in binding nuclear factor- ?B (NF-?B) and Sp1.
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