Employing a rational design of thioaryl naphthylmethanone oxime ether analogs containing functional properties of various anticancer drugs, a series of compounds were identified that displayed potent cytotoxicity toward various cancer cells, out of which 4-(methylthio)phenyl)(naphthalen-1-yl)methanone O-2-(diethylamino)ethyl oxime (MND) exhibited the best safety profile. MND induced apoptosis, inhibited migration and invasion, strongly inhibited cancer stem cell population on a par with salinomycin, and demonstrated orally potent tumor regression in mouse MCF-7 xenografts. Mechanistic studies revealed that MND strongly abrogated EGF-induced proliferation, migration, and tyrosine kinase (TK) signaling in breast cancer cells. However, MND failed to directly inhibit EGFR or other related receptor TKs in a cell-free system. Systematic investigation of a putative target upstream of EGFR revealed that the biological effects of MND could be abrogated by pertussis toxin. Together, MND represents a new nonquinazoline potential drug candidate having promising antiproliferative activity with good safety index.
Beta-catenin (?-catenin) is a multifunction protein with a central role in physiological homeostasis. Its abnormal expression leads to various diseases including cancer. In normal physiology, ?-catenin either maintains integrity of epithelial tissues or controls transcription of various genes on extracellular instigations. In epithelial tissues, ?-catenin functions as a component of the cadherin protein complex and regulates epithelial cell growth and intracellular adhesion. In Wnt signalling, ?-catenin is a major transcriptional modulator and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, stem cell renewal and organ regeneration. Aberrant expression of ?-catenin can induce malignant pathways in normal cells and its abnormal activity is also exploited by existing malignant programmes. It acts as an oncogene and modulates transcription of genes to drive cancer initiation, progression, survival and relapse. Abnormal expression and function of ?-catenin in cancer makes it a putative drug target. In the past decade, various attempts have been made to identify and characterize various pharmacological inhibitors of ?-catenin. Many of these inhibitors are currently being investigated for their anticancer activities in a variety of cancers. The first half of this review will focus on the role of ?-catenin in cancer initiation, maintenance, progression and relapse whereas the second half will briefly summarize the recent progress in development of agents for the pharmacological modulation of ?-catenin activity in cancer therapeutics.
To compare the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with that of contrast material-enhanced (CE) MR imaging and to assess the performance of these examinations combined for the characterization of renal lesions, with MR follow-up and histopathologic analysis as the reference standards.
BRCA1 mutations have been associated with hereditary breast cancer only. Recent studies indicate that a subgroup of sporadic breast cancer might also be associated with reduction in BRCA1 mRNA levels and protein expression. However, the mechanism of reduced mRNA and protein expression is yet not fully elucidated. This study aims to assess BRCA1 protein expression and the role of BRCA1 promoter methylation in sporadic breast cancer in North Indian population and to correlate these with known prognostic factors and molecular profiles of breast cancer. BRCA1 protein expression was normal (>50 % tumour cells) in 41 (43 %) cases, reduced (20-50 % tumour cells) in 33 (35 %) cases and absent/markedly reduced (<20 % tumour cells) in 21 (22.1 %) cases. Cases which were negative for BRCA1 protein were more frequently positive for basal markers (29 versus 5 %) and were more often ER-negative (62 versus 39 %) than BRCA1-positive tumours. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was seen in 11/45 cases (24 %). All 11 cases showing BRCA1 methylation had absent (eight cases) or reduced (three cases) BRCA1 protein expression. BRCA1 protein-negative tumours were more frequently basal marker-positive and ER-negative, highlighting the BRCAness of sporadic breast cancer with loss of BRCA1 protein expression through promoter hypermethylation similar to hereditary breast cancer with BRCA1 mutations. Loss of BRCA1 in sporadic breast cancer suggests that therapeutics targeting BRCA1 pathway in hereditary breast cancer like PARP inhibitors might be used as therapeutic targets for sporadic breast tumours.
This study examines the IL-11 mediated activation of downstream signaling and expression of effector molecules to resolve the controversies associated with the IL-11 mediated regulation of the invasiveness of two commonly used trophoblastic cell models viz. JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells. It has been reported that IL-11 increases the invasiveness of JEG-3 cells while, reduces the invasiveness of HTR-8/SVneo cells. Invasion assay performed simultaneously for both the cell lines confirmed the above findings. In addition, HTR-8/SVneo cells showed a higher basal invasiveness than JEG-3 cells. Western blot showed the IL-11 mediated activation of STAT3(tyr705) and STAT1(tyr701) in both the cell lines. However, IL-11 activated the ERK1/2 phosphorylation in JEG-3 cells but, inhibited it in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Within 10 min of IL-11 treatment, p-STAT3(tyr705) was localized inside the nucleus of both the cell lines but, there was enhanced co-localization of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1/3 (PIAS1/3) and p-STAT3(tyr705) in HTR-8/SVneo cells and not in JEG-3 cells. This could be reason for the poor responsiveness of STAT3 responsive genes like mucin 1 (MUC1) in HTR-8/SVneo cells and not in JEG-3 cells. Further, microarray analysis of the IL-11 treated cells revealed differential responsiveness of JEG-3 as compared to HTR-8/SVneo cells. Several family of genes like activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors (Jun and Fos), mucin-type molecules, MMP23B etc showed enhanced expression in IL-11 treated JEG-3 cells while, there was no response or decrease in their expression in IL-11 treated HTR-8/SVneo cells. Expression of these molecules was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, HTR-8/SVneo cells also showed a significant decrease in the expression of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 upon IL-11 treatment. Hence, IL-11 mediated differential activation of signaling and expression of effector molecules is responsible for the differential invasive response of JEG-3 and HTR-8/SVneo cells.
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