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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Association of Urine ?1-Microglobulin with Kidney Function Decline and Mortality in HIV-Infected Women.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Despite advances in therapy, HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk for kidney dysfunction than uninfected individuals. It was hypothesized that urine levels of ?1-microglobulin, a biomarker of proximal tubular dysfunction, would predict kidney function decline and mortality risk in HIV-infected and uninfected women.
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Depletion of B-cells with rituximab improves endothelial function and reduces inflammation among individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, partly due to systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. B-cells play an important pathogenic role in the inflammatory process that drives RA disease activity. Rituximab, a chimeric murine/human monoclonal antibody that depletes B-cells, is an effective therapy for RA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether B-cell depletion with rituximab reduces systemic inflammation and improves macrovascular (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and microvascular (reactive hyperemia) endothelial function in RA patients.
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Race and other risk factors for incident proteinuria in a national cohort of HIV-infected veterans.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Proteinuria in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals has been associated with poorer outcomes. We examined risk factors associated with the development of proteinuria in a national registry of HIV-infected veterans.
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A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a widely used antiretroviral for HIV infection that has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our objective was to derive a scoring system to predict 5-year risk of developing CKD in HIV-infected individuals and to estimate difference in risk associated with tenofovir use.
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Serum albumin and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Serum albumin concentrations are a strong predictor of mortality and cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. We studied the longitudinal associations between serum albumin levels and kidney function decline in a population of HIV-infected women.
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Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension in HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To examine the relationship between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
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Association of glucocorticoid receptor haplotypes with body composition and metabolic parameters in HIV-infected patients from the FRAM study.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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HIV infection has been associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and changes in body composition, including loss of subcutaneous fat and skeletal muscle, with relative sparing of upper trunk and visceral fat. Because of its resemblance to Cushing's syndrome, caused by glucocorticoid excess, we hypothesized that variations in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, associated with changes in sensitivity to glucocorticoids, may be associated with such abnormalities in HIV-infected patients.
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Increase in 2-long terminal repeat circles and decrease in D-dimer after raltegravir intensification in patients with treated HIV infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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The degree to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is controversial. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess whether raltegravir intensification reduces low-level viral replication, as defined by an increase in the level of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles.
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Does HIV infection promote early kidney injury in women?
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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In HIV-infected women, urine concentrations of novel tubulointerstitial injury markers, interleukin-18 (IL-18) and kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1) are associated with kidney function decline and all-cause mortality. We hypothesized that HIV-infected individuals with preserved kidney filtration function would have more extensive kidney injury, as determined by urine injury markers, compared to the uninfected controls, and that risk factors for tubulointerstitial injury would differ from risk factors for albuminuria.
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Association of HIV infection, hepatitis C virus infection, and metabolic factors with liver stiffness measured by transient elastography.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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BaCKGROUND: Few studies have examined the relationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection and its associated perturbations with liver fibrosis.
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Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with lower CD4+ count and higher viral load in HIV-infected individuals.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To compare asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to evaluate predictors of ADMA in HIV infection.
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Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons: incidence, risk factors, and association with markers of HIV disease severity.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of traditional risk factors and longitudinal measures of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease severity with risk of incident atrial fibrillation (AF) in a contemporary cohort of HIV-infected individuals.
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Serum albumin and short-term risk for mortality and cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected veterans.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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We examined the short-term and long-term associations of serum albumin with mortality and cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected veterans.
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Targeting protein-trafficking pathways alters melanoma treatment sensitivity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Protein-trafficking pathways are targeted here in human melanoma cells using methods independent of oncogene mutational status, and the ability to up-regulate and down-regulate tumor treatment sensitivity is demonstrated. Sensitivity of melanoma cells to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cDDP, cis-platin), carboplatin, dacarbazine, or temozolomide together with velaparib, an inhibitor of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1, is increased by up to 10-fold by targeting genes that regulate both protein trafficking and the formation of melanosomes, intracellular organelles unique to melanocytes and melanoma cells. Melanoma cells depleted of either of the protein-trafficking regulators vacuolar protein sorting 33A protein (VPS33A) or cappuccino protein (CNO) have increased nuclear localization of cDDP, increased nuclear DNA damage by platination, and increased apoptosis, resulting in increased treatment sensitivity. Depleted cells also exhibit a decreased proportion of intracellular, mature melanosomes compared with undepleted cells. Modulation of protein trafficking via cell-surface signaling by binding the melanocortin 1 receptor with the antagonist agouti-signaling protein decreased the proportion of mature melanosomes formed and increased cDDP sensitivity, whereas receptor binding with the agonist melanocyte-stimulating hormone resulted in an increased proportion of mature melanosomes formed and in decreased sensitivity (i.e., increased resistance) to cDDP. Mutation of the protein-trafficking gene Hps6, known to impair the formation of mature melanosomes, also increased cDDP sensitivity. Together, these results indicate that targeting protein-trafficking molecules markedly increases melanoma treatment sensitivity and influences the degree of melanosomes available for sequestration of therapeutic agents.
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Association of increased upper trunk and decreased leg fat with 2-h glucose in control and HIV-infected persons.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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Changes in body fat distribution and abnormal glucose metabolism are common in HIV-infected patients. We hypothesized that HIV-infected participants would have a higher prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with control subjects.
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Association of low level viremia with inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Whether HIV viremia, particularly at low levels is associated with inflammation, increased coagulation, and all-cause mortality is unclear.
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Regional fat deposition and cardiovascular risk in HIV infection: the FRAM study.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lipodystrophy, but the relationship between regional adipose tissue (AT) depots and CVD risk is not well described. We determined regional AT volumes and CVD risk in an analysis of 586 HIV-infected and 280 control FRAM study subjects using whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Median FRS and FRS >10% were higher in HIV than control men (4.7% vs. 3.7%, p=0.0002; 16% vs. 4%, p<0.0001). HIV and control women had similarly low FRS (1.1% vs. 1.2%, p=0.91). In controls, total AT and all regional AT depots showed strong positive correlations with FRS (p<0.001) in men and weaker positive correlations in women. Greater visceral AT (VAT) and lower leg subcutaneous AT (SAT) volumes were associated with elevated FRS in HIV subjects with a trend for upper trunk SAT. Controls in the lowest quartile of leg SAT had the lowest FRS (1.5%), whereas HIV with similarly low leg SAT had the highest FRS (4.0%, p<0.001 vs. controls). Increased VAT is associated with CVD risk, but the risk is higher in HIV-infected individuals relative to controls at every level of VAT. Peripheral lipoatrophy (as measured by leg SAT) is associated with striking increased CVD risk in HIV-infected patients even after controlling for VAT, whereas low leg SAT is associated with low CVD risk in controls.
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Utility of screening for chronic granulomatous disease in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), a genetically heterogeneous primary X-linked or autosomal recessive immunodeficiency, can manifest with gastrointestinal symptoms, including colitis or Crohns disease. The frequency of CGD carriers among those with chronic colitis/inflammatory bowel disease is unknown. We underwent a pilot study examining the value of prospectively screening patients with chronic colitis/inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for either CGD or the carrier state of CGD. No carriers of CGD or patients with CGD were detected among 120 patients. Three patients had inconclusive results and the assay was normal on repeat testing. We conclude that routine screening for CGD was not instructive in this cohort of chronic colitis or IBD patients.
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Decreased limb muscle and increased central adiposity are associated with 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Unintentional loss of weight and muscle due to aging and disease has been associated with increased mortality. Wasting and weight loss occur in HIV infection even in the modern era of effective antiretroviral therapy.
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Levels of plasma fibrinogen are elevated in well-controlled rheumatoid arthritis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Patients with RA have systemic inflammation and increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, including thrombosis. Levels of fibrinogen, a pro-thrombotic protein with predictive value for CV disease (CVD), are elevated during systemic inflammation. We compared circulating fibrinogen levels in patients with RA with healthy controls and evaluated the relationship with measures of disease activity.
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Reduced kidney function and preclinical atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals: the study of fat redistribution and metabolic change in HIV infection (FRAM).
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Reduced kidney function and albuminuria are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We investigated whether reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria are associated with subclinical vascular disease, as assessed by carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT).
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Regional anthropometry changes in antiretroviral-naïve persons initiating a Zidovudine-containing regimen in Mbarara, Uganda.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Lipodystrophy is commonly reported in Africa after antiretroviral therapy (ART) is initiated, but few studies have objectively measured changes in body composition. Body composition was determined in 76 HIV-infected participants from Mbarara, Uganda after starting a thymidine-analog regimen, and annual change was determined using repeated measures analysis. We measured skinfolds (tricep, thigh, subscapular, and abdomen), circumferences (arm, hip, thigh, waist), and total lean and fat mass (using bioelectric impedance analysis). A cross-sectional sample of 49 HIV-uninfected participants was studied for comparison. At baseline, most body composition measures were lower in HIV-infected than uninfected participants, but waist circumference was similar. After 12 months on ART, there was little difference in body composition measures between HIV-infected and uninfected participants; median waist circumference appeared higher in HIV-infected participants (79 vs. 75 cm; p = 0.090). Among HIV-infected participants, increases were observed in total lean and fat mass, circumference, and skinfold measures; only the increase in tricep skinfold did not reach statistical significance (+1.05 mm; 95% confidence interval: -0.24, 2.34; p = 0.11). Regional anthropometry in peripheral and central body sites increased over 12 months after ART initiation in HIV-infected persons from southwestern Uganda, suggesting a restoration to health. Gains in the tricep skinfold, a reliable marker of subcutaneous fat, appeared blunted, which could indicate an inhibitory effect of zidovudine on peripheral subcutaneous fat recovery.
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Age-related skeletal muscle decline is similar in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Skeletal muscle (SM) mass decreases with advanced age and with disease in HIV infection. It is unknown whether age-related muscle loss is accelerated in the current era of antiretroviral therapy and which factors might contribute to muscle loss among HIV-infected adults. We hypothesized that muscle mass would be lower and decline faster in HIV-infected adults than in similar-aged controls.
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Associations of antiretroviral drug use and HIV-specific risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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Previous research has demonstrated an increase in carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV-infected individuals compared to controls. However, the reason for this increased level of subclinical vascular disease is unknown.
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Inflammation and mortality in HIV-infected adults: analysis of the FRAM study cohort.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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To determine the association of inflammatory markers, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP), with 5-year mortality risk.
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Intermuscular adipose tissue and metabolic associations in HIV infection.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is associated with metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Increased IMAT has been found in obese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We hypothesized that IMAT, like VAT, would be similar or increased in HIV-infected persons compared with healthy controls, despite decreases in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) found in HIV infection. In the second FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) exam, we studied 425 HIV-infected subjects and 211 controls (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study) who had regional AT and skeletal muscle (SM) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear regression identified factors associated with IMAT and its association with metabolites. Total IMAT was 51% lower in HIV-infected participants compared with controls (P = 0.003). The HIV effect was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (to -28%, P < 0.0001 in men and -3.6%, P = 0.70 in women). Higher quantities of leg SAT, upper-trunk SAT, and VAT were associated with higher IMAT in HIV-infected participants, with weaker associations in controls. Stavudine use was associated with lower IMAT and SAT, but showed little relationship with VAT. In multivariable analyses, regional IMAT was associated with insulin resistance and triglycerides (TGs). Contrary to expectation, IMAT is not increased in HIV infection; after controlling for demographics, lifestyle, VAT, SAT, and SM, HIV(+) men have lower IMAT compared with controls, whereas values for women are similar. Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT.
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Adipose tissue and metabolic factors associated with steatosis in HIV/HCV coinfection: histology versus magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Hepatic steatosis is common in persons with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV); yet biopsy measurement of steatosis is prone to sampling error. We compared magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurement of steatosis to histology in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients and explored the associated adipose tissue and metabolic factors.
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Regional adipose tissue measured by MRI over 5 years in HIV-infected and control participants indicates persistence of HIV-associated lipoatrophy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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Peripheral fat loss and visceral fat gain have been reported in HIV infection. There are limited data on long-term change in adipose tissue in HIV-infected patients vs. controls. Therefore, we determined change in regional adipose tissue from baseline examination to 5 years later among participants in the study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection.
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Cystatin C, albuminuria, and 5-year all-cause mortality in HIV-infected persons.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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Compared with controls, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have a greater prevalence of kidney disease, assessed according to high cystatin C level and albuminuria, but not according to creatinine level. However, the clinical importance of increased cystatin C level and albuminuria in the HIV-infected population has not been studied.
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Effect of inter-reader variability on outcomes in studies using carotid intima media thickness quantified by carotid ultrasonography.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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Systematic differences between readers or equipment in imaging studies are not uncommon; failure to account for such differences when using Carotid Ultrasonography may introduce bias into associations between carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) and outcomes. We demonstrate the impact of this source of systematic measurement error (SME) using data on 5,521 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and 661 participants from the Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection (FRAM). Participants were between 37 and 78 years old. Two outcomes were considered: (1) the effect of HIV infection on cIMT (between study) and (2) the association of cIMT with cardiovascular events (within study). All estimates were adjusted for demographics (age, gender, and ethnicity) and for traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (smoking, blood pressure, diabetes and cholesterol). When comparing the FRAM and MESA cohorts to estimate the association of HIV infection on common cIMT, accounting for machine and reader variability (between study variability) reduced the difference associated with HIV infection from +0.080 mm (95% Confidence Interval (CI):0.065-0.095) to +0.037 mm (95% CI:0.003 to 0.072) while internal cIMT declined from +0.254 mm (95% CI:0.205-0.303) to +0.192 mm (95% CI:0.076-0.308). Attenuation of the association between cIMT and cardiovascular endpoints occurred when within study reader variability was not accounted for. The effect of SME due to use of multiple readers or machines is most important when comparisons are made between two different study populations. Within-cohort measurement error dilutes the association with events.
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Relation of coronary artery plaque location to extent of coronary artery disease studied by computed tomographic angiography.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Distal coronary artery disease (CAD) is less amenable to surgery or stenting compared with proximal disease. However, little is known about the epidemiology of distal versus proximal CAD.
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Hormonal contraception and metabolic outcomes in women with or at risk for HIV infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
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The use of hormonal contraception (HC) is increasing in HIV-infected women. Both HC and HIV infection have been associated with adverse metabolic outcomes. We investigated the association of progestin-only and combined (estrogen/progestin) HC with disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-infected and uninfected women.
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Preclinical atherosclerosis due to HIV infection: carotid intima-medial thickness measurements from the FRAM study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. However, it is controversial whether HIV infection contributes to accelerated atherosclerosis independent of traditional CVD risk factors.
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HIV viremia and changes in kidney function.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
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To evaluate the effect of HIV infection on longitudinal changes in kidney function and to identify independent predictors of kidney function changes in HIV-infected individuals.
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Levels of C-reactive protein associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk are prevalent in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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C-reactive protein (CRP) levels>3 mg/L and>10 mg/L are associated with high and very high cardiovascular risk, respectively, in the general population. Because rheumatoid arthritis (RA) confers excess cardiovascular mortality, we determined the prevalence of these CRP levels among RA patients stratified on the basis of their RA disease activity.
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Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Progression in HIV-Infected Adults Occurs Preferentially at the Carotid Bifurcation and Is Predicted by Inflammation.
J Am Heart Assoc
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Shear stress gradients and inflammation have been causally associated with atherosclerosis development in carotid bifurcation regions. The mechanism underlying higher levels of carotid intima-media thickness observed among HIV-infected individuals remains unknown.
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Urinary markers of kidney injury and kidney function decline in HIV-infected women.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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HIV-infected persons have substantially higher risk of kidney failure than persons without HIV, but serum creatinine levels are insensitive for detecting declining kidney function. We hypothesized that urine markers of kidney injury would be associated with declining kidney function among HIV-infected women.
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Use and interpretation of diagnostic vaccination in primary immunodeficiency: a working group report of the Basic and Clinical Immunology Interest Section of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
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A major diagnostic intervention in the consideration of many patients suspected to have primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) is the application and interpretation of vaccination. Specifically, the antibody response to antigenic challenge with vaccines can provide substantive insight into the status of human immune function. There are numerous vaccines that are commonly used in healthy individuals, as well as others that are available for specialized applications. Both can potentially be used to facilitate consideration of PIDD. However, the application of vaccines and interpretation of antibody responses in this context are complex. These rely on consideration of numerous existing specific studies, interpolation of data from healthy populations, current diagnostic guidelines, and expert subspecialist practice. This document represents an attempt of a working group of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology to provide further guidance and synthesis in this use of vaccination for diagnostic purposes in consideration of PIDD, as well as to identify key areas for further research.
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Weight change after globus pallidus internus or subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinsons disease and dystonia.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
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Weight gain has been described in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients after subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Objectives: We examined change in weight following DBS in both PD and dystonia patients to further investigate the role of disease and brain target (STN or globus pallidus internus, GPi) specificity.
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A randomized controlled trial assessing the effects of raltegravir intensification on endothelial function in treated HIV infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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To determine whether intensification with raltegravir improves endothelial function in antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected individuals.
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Doppler echocardiography does not accurately estimate pulmonary artery systolic pressure in HIV-infected patients.
AIDS
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Doppler echocardiography is used to screen for HIV-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (HRPAH). We studied patients with HIV infection to determine the accuracy of Doppler echocardiography-estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) compared with PASP measured during right heart catheterization. Doppler echocardiography-estimated PASP was inaccurate in 19.7% of cases. Using Doppler echocardiography-estimated PASP, one in three patients with HRPAH was missed. Doppler echocardiography estimates of PASP are not accurate in patients with HIV.
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HIV infection is associated with decreased thrombin generation.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Excess risk of cardiovascular disease occurs in effectively treated individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Although elevated plasma D-dimer levels are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, the impact of HIV infection on coagulation in vivo has not been well studied.
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The association of CD4+ T-cell counts and cardiovascular risk in treated HIV disease.
AIDS
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HIV-infected individuals are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Whether earlier initiation of HIV therapy at higher CD4 cell counts has any effect on cardiovascular risk as assessed by endothelial function is unknown.
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Relationship between MRI-measured bone marrow adipose tissue and hip and spine bone mineral density in African-American and Caucasian participants: the CARDIA study.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
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An increasing number of studies suggest that bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Our previous study of Caucasian women demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between BMAT and whole-body bone mineral density (BMD). It is unknown whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT), sc adipose tissue (SAT), and skeletal muscle had an effect on the relationship between BMAT and BMD.
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Association of tenofovir exposure with kidney disease risk in HIV infection.
AIDS
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Despite widespread HAART use, HIV disease remains associated with increased risk of kidney disease. Whether tenofovir use is associated with higher risk of kidney disease is controversial.
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HIV/HCV coinfection ameliorates the atherogenic lipoprotein abnormalities of HIV infection.
AIDS
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Higher levels of small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The extent to which HIV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection are associated with abnormalities of lipoprotein subclasses is unknown.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.