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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Proteomes of pathogenic Escherichia coli/Shigella group surveyed in their host environments.
Expert Rev Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Proteomic studies on Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are reviewed. UPEC causes infections in the urogenital tract, whereas the other species colonize and, to varying degrees, invade the intestinal tract. Type III secretion systems used to breach the mucosal barrier by the intestinal pathogens revealed distinct expression patterns in different host environments. Dynamic adaptations to changes in nutrient availability and oxygen were observed, including increased reliance on anaerobic respiration and mixed acid fermentation in vivo. Utilization of carbon and nitrogen resources by the bacteria varied considerably depending on the host model investigated. Shigellae and UPEC adapted to metal ion sequestration in the mammalian host by enhancing expression of various receptors and transporters for iron and zinc. This appears to reflect the preferred intracellular life stage of Shigella spp. and responses of UPEC to high levels of lipocalin and lactotransferrin in the urinary tract.
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Urine sample preparation in 96-well filter plates for quantitative clinical proteomics.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Urine is an important, noninvasively collected body fluid source for the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based shotgun proteomics has evolved as a sensitive and informative technique to discover candidate disease biomarkers from urine specimens. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) generates peptide samples from protein mixtures of cell lysate or body fluid origin. Here, we describe a FASP method adapted to 96-well filter plates, named 96FASP. Soluble urine concentrates containing ~10 ?g of total protein were processed by 96FASP and LC-MS resulting in 700-900 protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR). The experimental repeatability, as assessed by label-free quantification and Pearson correlation analysis for shared proteins among replicates, was high (R ? 0.97). Application to urinary pellet lysates which is of particular interest in the context of urinary tract infection analysis was also demonstrated. On average, 1700 proteins (±398) were identified in five experiments. In a pilot study using 96FASP for analysis of eight soluble urine samples, we demonstrated that protein profiles of technical replicates invariably clustered; the protein profiles for distinct urine donors were very different from each other. Robust, highly parallel methods to generate peptide mixtures from urine and other body fluids are critical to increase cost-effectiveness in clinical proteomics projects. This 96FASP method has potential to become a gold standard for high-throughput quantitative clinical proteomics.
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The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Efforts to map the Escherichia coli interactome have identified several hundred macromolecular complexes, but direct binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have not been surveyed on a large scale. Here we performed yeast two-hybrid screens of 3,305 baits against 3,606 preys (?70% of the E. coli proteome) in duplicate to generate a map of 2,234 interactions, which approximately doubles the number of known binary PPIs in E. coli. Integration of binary PPI and genetic-interaction data revealed functional dependencies among components involved in cellular processes, including envelope integrity, flagellum assembly and protein quality control. Many of the binary interactions that we could map in multiprotein complexes were informative regarding internal topology of complexes and indicated that interactions in complexes are substantially more conserved than those interactions connecting different complexes. This resource will be useful for inferring bacterial gene function and provides a draft reference of the basic physical wiring network of this evolutionarily important model microbe.
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Analysis of the proteome of intracellular Shigella flexneri reveals pathways important for intracellular growth.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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Global proteomic analysis was performed with Shigella flexneri strain 2457T in association with three distinct growth environments: S. flexneri growing in broth (in vitro), S. flexneri growing within epithelial cell cytoplasm (intracellular), and S. flexneri that were cultured with, but did not invade, Henle cells (extracellular). Compared to in vitro and extracellular bacteria, intracellular bacteria had increased levels of proteins required for invasion and cell-to-cell spread, including Ipa, Mxi, and Ics proteins. Changes in metabolic pathways in response to the intracellular environment also were evident. There was an increase in glycogen biosynthesis enzymes, altered expression of sugar transporters, and a reduced amount of the carbon storage regulator CsrA. Mixed acid fermentation enzymes were highly expressed intracellularly, while tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle oxidoreductive enzymes and most electron transport chain proteins, except CydAB, were markedly decreased. This suggested that fermentation and the CydAB system primarily sustain energy generation intracellularly. Elevated levels of PntAB, which is responsible for NADPH regeneration, suggested a shortage of reducing factors for ATP synthesis. These metabolic changes likely reflect changes in available carbon sources, oxygen levels, and iron availability. Intracellular bacteria showed strong evidence of iron starvation. Iron acquisition systems (Iut, Sit, FhuA, and Feo) and the iron starvation, stress-associated Fe-S cluster assembly (Suf) protein were markedly increased in abundance. Mutational analysis confirmed that the mixed-acid fermentation pathway was required for wild-type intracellular growth and spread of S. flexneri. Thus, iron stress and changes in carbon metabolism may be key factors in the S. flexneri transition from the extra- to the intracellular milieu.
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Novel Burkholderia mallei virulence factors linked to specific host-pathogen protein interactions.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Burkholderia mallei is an infectious intracellular pathogen whose virulence and resistance to antibiotics makes it a potential bioterrorism agent. Given its genetic origin as a commensal soil organism, it is equipped with an extensive and varied set of adapted mechanisms to cope with and modulate host-cell environments. One essential virulence mechanism constitutes the specialized secretion systems that are designed to penetrate host-cell membranes and insert pathogen proteins directly into the host cells cytosol. However, the secretion systems proteins and, in particular, their host targets are largely uncharacterized. Here, we used a combined in silico, in vitro, and in vivo approach to identify B. mallei proteins required for pathogenicity. We used bioinformatics tools, including orthology detection and ab initio predictions of secretion system proteins, as well as published experimental Burkholderia data to initially select a small number of proteins as putative virulence factors. We then used yeast two-hybrid assays against normalized whole human and whole murine proteome libraries to detect and identify interactions among each of these bacterial proteins and host proteins. Analysis of such interactions provided both verification of known virulence factors and identification of three new putative virulence proteins. We successfully created insertion mutants for each of these three proteins using the virulent B. mallei ATCC 23344 strain. We exposed BALB/c mice to mutant strains and the wild-type strain in an aerosol challenge model using lethal B. mallei doses. In each set of experiments, mice exposed to mutant strains survived for the 21-day duration of the experiment, whereas mice exposed to the wild-type strain rapidly died. Given their in vivo role in pathogenicity, and based on the yeast two-hybrid interaction data, these results point to the importance of these pathogen proteins in modulating host ubiquitination pathways, phagosomal escape, and actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement processes.
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Proteomic View of Interactions of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli with the Intestinal Environment in Gnotobiotic Piglets.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli cause severe intestinal infections involving colonization of epithelial Peyers patches and formation of attachment/effacement (A/E) lesions. These lesions trigger leukocyte infiltration followed by inflammation and intestinal hemorrhage. Systems biology, which explores the crosstalk of Stx-producing Escherichia coli with the in vivo host environment, may elucidate novel molecular pathogenesis aspects.
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Characterizing the Escherichia coli O157:H7 proteome including protein associations with higher order assemblies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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The recent outbreak of severe infections with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serotype O104:H4 highlights the need to understand horizontal gene transfer among E. coli strains, identify novel virulence factors and elucidate their pathogenesis. Quantitative shotgun proteomics can contribute to such objectives, allowing insights into the part of the genome translated into proteins and the connectivity of biochemical pathways and higher order assemblies of proteins at the subcellular level.
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In vivo versus in vitro protein abundance analysis of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 reveals changes in the expression of proteins involved in virulence, stress and energy metabolism.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. Quantitative proteome profiling of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) in vitro (derived from LB cell cultures) and in vivo (derived from gnotobiotic piglets) was performed by 2D-LC-MS/MS and APEX, a label-free computationally modified spectral counting methodology.
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Recombinant expression and functional analysis of proteases from Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus anthracis, and Yersinia pestis.
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Uncharacterized proteases naturally expressed by bacterial pathogens represents important topic in infectious disease research, because these enzymes may have critical roles in pathogenicity and cell physiology. It has been observed that cloning, expression and purification of proteases often fail due to their catalytic functions which, in turn, cause toxicity in the E. coli heterologous host.
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A proteogenomic update to Yersinia: enhancing genome annotation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Modern biomedical research depends on a complete and accurate proteome. With the widespread adoption of new sequencing technologies, genome sequences are generated at a near exponential rate, diminishing the time and effort that can be invested in genome annotation. The resulting gene set contains numerous errors in even the most basic form of annotation: the primary structure of the proteins.
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Using chemical derivatization and mass spectrometric analysis to characterize the post-translationally modified Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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The Staphylococcus aureus surface protein G (SasG) is an important mediator of biofilm formation in virulent S. aureus strains. A detailed analysis of its primary sequence has not been reported to date. SasG is highly abundant in the cell wall of the vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus strain HIP5827, and was purified and subjected to sequence analysis by MS. Data from MALDI-TOF and LC-MS/MS experiments confirmed the predicted N-terminal signal peptide cleavage site at residue A(51) and the C-terminal cell wall anchor site at residue T(1086). The protein was also derivatized with N-succinimidyloxycarbonyl-methyl-tris(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium bromide (TMPP-Ac-OSu) to assess the presence of additional N-terminal sites of mature SasG. TMPP-derivatized SasG peptides featured m/z peaks with a 572 Da mass increase over the equivalent underivatized peptides. Multiple N-terminal peptides, all of which were observed in the 150 amino acid segment following the signal peptide cleavage at the residue A(51), were characterized from MS and MS/MS data, suggesting a series of successive N-terminal truncations of SasG. A strategy combining TMPP derivatization, multiple enzyme digestions to generate overlapping peptides and detailed MS analysis will be useful to determine and understand functional implications of PTMs in bacterial cell wall-anchored proteins, which are frequently involved in the modulation of virulence-associated bacterial surface properties.
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Proteomic analysis of iron acquisition, metabolic and regulatory responses of Yersinia pestis to iron starvation.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the bubonic plague. Efficient iron acquisition systems are critical to the ability of Y. pestis to infect, spread and grow in mammalian hosts, because iron is sequestered and is considered part of the innate host immune defence against invading pathogens. We used a proteomic approach to determine expression changes of iron uptake systems and intracellular consequences of iron deficiency in the Y. pestis strain KIM6+ at two physiologically relevant temperatures (26 degrees C and 37 degrees C).
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The Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 proteome, profiled in the host intestinal environment, reveals major metabolic modifications and increased expression of invasive proteins.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery. We present the first comprehensive proteome analysis of this pathogen, profiling proteins from bacteria cultured in vitro and bacterial isolates from the large bowel of infected gnotobiotic piglets (in vivo). Overall, 1061 distinct gene products were identified. Differential display analysis revealed that SD1 cells switched to an anaerobic energy metabolism in vivo. High in vivo abundances of amino acid decarboxylases (GadB and AdiA) which enhance pH homeostasis in the cytoplasm and protein disaggregation chaperones (HdeA, HdeB and ClpB) were indicative of a coordinated bacterial survival response to acid stress. Several type III secretion system effectors were increased in abundance in vivo, including OspF, IpaC and IpaD. These proteins are implicated in invasion of colonocytes and subversion of the host immune response in S. flexneri. These observations likely reflect an adaptive response of SD1 to the hostile host environment. Seven proteins, among them the type III secretion system effectors OspC2 and IpaB, were detected as antigens in Western blots using piglet antisera. The outer membrane protein OmpA, the heat shock protein HtpG and OspC2 represent novel SD1 subunit vaccine candidates and drug targets.
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Comparison of two label-free global quantitation methods, APEX and 2D gel electrophoresis, applied to the Shigella dysenteriae proteome.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
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The in vitro stationary phase proteome of the human pathogen Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) was quantitatively analyzed in Coomassie Blue G250 (CBB)-stained 2D gels. More than four hundred and fifty proteins, of which 271 were associated with distinct gel spots, were identified. In parallel, we employed 2D-LC-MS/MS followed by the label-free computationally modified spectral counting method APEX for absolute protein expression measurements. Of the 4502 genome-predicted SD1 proteins, 1148 proteins were identified with a false positive discovery rate of 5% and quantitated using 2D-LC-MS/MS and APEX. The dynamic range of the APEX method was approximately one order of magnitude higher than that of CBB-stained spot intensity quantitation. A squared Pearson correlation analysis revealed a reasonably good correlation (R2 = 0.67) for protein quantities surveyed by both methods. The correlation was decreased for protein subsets with specific physicochemical properties, such as low Mr values and high hydropathy scores. Stoichiometric ratios of subunits of protein complexes characterized in E. coli were compared with APEX quantitative ratios of orthologous SD1 protein complexes. A high correlation was observed for subunits of soluble cellular protein complexes in several cases, demonstrating versatile applications of the APEX method in quantitative proteomics.
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High quality protein microarray using in situ protein purification.
BMC Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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In the postgenomic era, high throughput protein expression and protein microarray technologies have progressed markedly permitting screening of therapeutic reagents and discovery of novel protein functions. Hexa-histidine is one of the most commonly used fusion tags for protein expression due to its small size and convenient purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). This purification process has been adapted to the protein microarray format, but the quality of in situ His-tagged protein purification on slides has not been systematically evaluated. We established methods to determine the level of purification of such proteins on metal chelate-modified slide surfaces. Optimized in situ purification of His-tagged recombinant proteins has the potential to become the new gold standard for cost-effective generation of high-quality and high-density protein microarrays.
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Integral and peripheral association of proteins and protein complexes with Yersinia pestis inner and outer membranes.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2009
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Yersinia pestis proteins were sequentially extracted from crude membranes with a high salt buffer (2.5 M NaBr), an alkaline solution (180 mM Na2CO3, pH 11.3) and membrane denaturants (8 M urea, 2 M thiourea and 1% amidosulfobetaine-14). Separation of proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis was followed by identification of more than 600 gene products by MS. Data from differential 2D gel display experiments, comparing protein abundances in cytoplasmic, periplasmic and all three membrane fractions, were used to assign proteins found in the membrane fractions to three protein categories: (i) integral membrane proteins and peripheral membrane proteins with low solubility in aqueous solutions (220 entries); (ii) peripheral membrane proteins with moderate to high solubility in aqueous solutions (127 entries); (iii) cytoplasmic or ribosomal membrane-contaminating proteins (80 entries). Thirty-one proteins were experimentally associated with the outer membrane (OM). Circa 50 proteins thought to be part of membrane-localized, multi-subunit complexes were identified in high Mr fractions of membrane extracts via size exclusion chromatography. This data supported biologically meaningful assignments of many proteins to the membrane periphery. Since only 32 inner membrane (IM) proteins with two or more predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs) were profiled in 2D gels, we resorted to a proteomic analysis by 2D-LC-MS/MS. Ninety-four additional IM proteins with two or more TMDs were identified. The total number of proteins associated with Y. pestis membranes increased to 456 and included representatives of all six beta-barrel OM protein families and 25 distinct IM transporter families.
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Temperature and growth phase influence the outer-membrane proteome and the expression of a type VI secretion system in Yersinia pestis.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Yersinia pestis cells were grown in vitro at 26 and 37 degrees C, the ambient temperatures of its flea vector and its mammalian hosts, respectively, and subjected to subcellular fractionation. Abundance changes at 26 vs 37 degrees C were observed for many outer-membrane (OM) proteins. The cell adhesion protein Ail (y1324) and three putative small beta-barrel OM proteins (y1795, y2167 and y4083) were strongly increased at 37 degrees C. The Ail/Lom family protein y1682 (OmpX) was strongly increased at 26 degrees C. Several porins and TonB-dependent receptors, which control small molecule transport through the OM, were also altered in abundance in a temperature-dependent manner. These marked differences in the composition of the OM proteome are probably important for the adaptation of Y. pestis to its in vivo life stages. Thirteen proteins that appear to be part of an intact type VI secretion system (T6SS) were identified in membrane fractions of stationary-phase cells grown at 26 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. The corresponding genes are clustered in the Y. pestis KIM gene locus y3658-y3677. The proteins y3674 and y3675 were particularly abundant and co-fractionated in a Mr range indicative of participation in a multi-subunit complex. The soluble haemolysin-coregulated protein y3673 was even more abundant. Its release into the extracellular medium was triggered by treatment of Y. pestis cells with trypsin. Proteases and other stress-response-inducing factors may constitute environmental cues resulting in the activation of the T6SS in Y. pestis.
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Integrated next-generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and metaproteomics differentiate the healthy urine microbiome from asymptomatic bacteriuria in neuropathic bladder associated with spinal cord injury.
J Transl Med
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Clinical dogma is that healthy urine is sterile and the presence of bacteria with an inflammatory response is indicative of urinary tract infection (UTI). Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) represents the state in which bacteria are present but the inflammatory response is negligible. Differentiating ABU from UTI is diagnostically challenging, but critical because overtreatment of ABU can perpetuate antimicrobial resistance while undertreatment of UTI can result in increased morbidity and mortality. In this study, we describe key characteristics of the healthy and ABU urine microbiomes utilizing 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA) sequencing and metaproteomics, with the future goal of utilizing this information to personalize the treatment of UTI based on key individual characteristics.
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Development stage-specific proteomic profiling uncovers small, lineage specific proteins most abundant in the Aspergillus Fumigatus conidial proteome.
Proteome Sci
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The pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent infectious cause of death in severely immunocompromised individuals such as leukemia and bone marrow transplant patients. Germination of inhaled conidia (asexual spores) in the host is critical for the initiation of infection, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this process.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.